In landscaping contract, a contractor has to performed many task in order to fulfill the costumer's satisfaction. Their job is to design, plant, develop and maintain a client's landscaped area and their job range can be from local businesses to big urban companies. Some of the contractors work with residential clients in designing the gardens and parks on residential land while others work with governments and businesses to maintain current grassed areas and develop new areas.
First, the contractor will have to find and meet up with the client. During the meeting they will discuss what type of garden that the client wants by discussing and sharing ideas of trees, flowers and also types of grass that would be suitable for the area. Some contractors will use computer-generated models, pictures and landscape blueprints to help the customers to examine and choose according to their desire. But the most important things during the meeting up with the client is to help the client easily understand on what type of plants that are suitable and are appropriate for the area and what type of plants that they should be avoided or not suitable to plant for the area. This is because sometimes the clients have unrealistic and impossible desires for certain plants that usually will not grow in that particular area, so it is responsible for the contractor to consult the clients and solve these issues. When the final plans of the landscape had been achieved by agreement from the contractor and client, the contractor then will start their construction work by coordinating the purchase of the plants as well as oversees the work.
After the designing of landscape has been done, the contractor will start purchasing the required plants for the growing area. They will be contracting with lots of suppliers and outside vendors to make sure that the project run smoothly and stay on schedule. Then, the contractors will transport the required plants from nursery to the site. The conditions of the plants need to be check and analyse during the delivering of the plants. Contractors also have to find suitable area placement for storing the soil fertilizers, plants and drainage material that will be used in the future. Before the installation of the specific plants, the planting area needs to be check for any discrepancies by removing any unwanted plants that cover the area. The construction of the area and gardens will be constructing by the contractors that will install the plants and tender the flowers, shrubs, trees, foliage and turf according to the requirement.
When the installation of plants is finished, the new plants need to be take care by watering and tending the plants for a certain amount of time. The plants need enough of water in order to adapt to the new environment. The contractors also have to build retaining walls to prevent land slide, provide paved area and installed the irrigation systems which can control the spread out of water in the area so that it is even. By installing an irrigation system, all of the plants and trees will get enough of water. If the clients asked to install the fountains, rockery and the water features such as sprinklers in their garden, the contractors will then installed the water features.
Usually the repairing and restoring the landscape that has been affected by the local conditions and subsidence or that requires new management due to neglect in taking care of the previous landscape is all done by the contractors. The contractors will be responsible for all renovation and remediation processes including the digging up existing plants, trees and flowers and re-installing back all the landscape materials with a new one. They also have to build up new additions to the landscape area to make an interesting view of landscape and installing new and fresh soil that contain high minerals to replace the old existing soil.
To maintain a landscape contractors use the same sorts of skill and tasks like remediation and repair. Contractors have to do lots of job such as terracing, turfing the area, prune trees, garden maintenance, lawn mowing, remove weeds, waste removal, maintaining sprinkler and drip systems, concreting, maintaining grass and deal with any damage from disturbances such as flood and storms. Certain contractors had to remove hazards depend on their contracts. To maintain a landscape, the contractors usually construct a drainage system, construct landscape features such as garden beds and hardscape such as patios, walkways, driveways and pool decks to maintain the area. On top of that, contractors also have to set up the lighting for the external area which the lighting can provide a safe especially at night and be the source of light for outdoor areas. Maintaining the landscape is one part of work that needs to be performed by the contractors.
The design of a road is influenced by the sub-grade support that is depending on the soil type, material density, temperature and moisture content. Sub-grade is the natural occurring ground at formation level which its homogeneity is important. Before a sub-grade is prepared, it is important to avoid hard and soft spots in sub-grade. When the sub-grade is suitable, it then can be compacted. It is important to recognize where the moisture may enter the sub-grade in order to control the moisture movement. This is because moisture tends to affect the sub-grade properties including load bearing capacity, shrinkage and swelling. Drainage, groundwater table and infiltration also can affect the moisture content in sub-grade which will result in excessively under load.
The temperature of environment on sub-grade also affects the performance of road. Example: Asphalt becomes stiff and brittle at low temperatures while it is soft at higher temperatures. If the temperature is too high, permanent deformation in asphalt may occur. Sub-grade also must be able to support the loads that been transmitted from the pavement structure. The load bearing capacity is influenced by the degree of compaction, moisture content and type of soil. A good sub-grade is the one that can support a high amount of loading without excessive deformation.
The second factor that influenced the road design is the maintenance cost of road such as cost of improvements, effects of controlling or limiting right-of-way on abutting residential or commercial properties where channelization restricts or prohibits vehicular movements. At the end of a certain period, the road will deteriorated to its failure condition which will then have to maintain back to restore its structural integrity and serviceability. The maintenance cost and life cycle cost depends on the type of pavement used. For rigid type of pavement such as concrete, the maintenance cost is low as it is can withstand huge amounts of loads while for flexible type of pavement such as tar macadam, the maintenance cost is high because it needs to resurfacing the layer every five years. But to install the rigid pavements require more labour, more time to harden and more complex compared to flexible pavements. The maintenance of road is necessarily because it can cause road accidents to users. Cleaning and emptying of gully pots, silt traps and manholes, jetting and cleaning sewers, road sweeping, litter removal and road verge landscape management have to consider also as it is under the maintenance cost.
The third factor that influenced the road design is the numbers of traffic that used the road. The traffic consideration that must be considered is the design and actual capacities that the road can hold, the design-hour turning movements especially during peak hour or office hour, the size and operating characteristics of vehicle (the load of the vehicle), vehicle speeds, transit involvement and accident experience. If the road used is very frequent, the design of the road must be strong enough to hold large capacities of load. The size of the road also based on the numbers of traffic. If the road is usually used the size of the road have to be bigger to avoid jam.
The most important requirement of joint is it needs to resistance to wind pressure, rain and other nature elements such as heat, moisture, sound such as airborne and vandalism. It must sufficiently well to exhibit the persistent resistance to the elements. If we neglect the need for properly sealing the joint, there will be a water leakage in the building. Once the seal has lost its weather-proofing, the building will suffer water penetration into the building and the thermal insulation performance will decrease. Requirement of joints of cladding also must allowed movement of moisture so that the air in the building contains moisture and not too dry. High frequency thermal movement can affect the jointing of cladding system because the building materials can expand and contract due to the changing of temperature and humidity. It is best to use flexible joints in the cladding system where the joints will not be effected when the building materials expand and contract. It will control of the internal environment and the temperatures of the building. Example: Using gasket joints can prevent thermal heat from getting into the building, resistance to environmental attack, prevent fire from spread within the voids and insulate sound against airborne from external of the building and prevent it from transmitting to other parts of the building.
The other requirement of joints for cladding system is strength, stability and durability. Strength of joint means that it able to support its own self weight between the building materials and to the structural frame. It does not require additional support from others. Stability of joint means that it can against and undergoes strong wind pressures and other environmental attack. It also can cater for frame movements which it allows differential movements between itself, the structural frame and other building elements. The integration between vertical and horizontal frame elements is compatible. Durability of joints for cladding system means that it is maintenance free and has the ability to weather well.
Joints for cladding system must be easily made or assembled so that it can be easily obtained and it is not limited. Meaning the manufacturers easily and constantly produced the jointing and easily obtained in the market. The installation of the jointing also must simple so that the workers can easily install and can minimise the construction time. Example: Filled joint is the simplest of jointing compared to drained joint. Unlike gasket joint, it is more complex to install because it has difficulty in ensuring dimensional accuracy and control during manufacture and installation.