Both projects have also encountered problems since there completion with Heathrow Terminal 5 experiencing problems with baggage for the first few weeks after it opened which took the gloss off what a fascinating piece of construction that it is even though these problems were not construction related. The Central China Television (CCTV) Headquarters actually caught fire on February 9th 2009 after fireworks which were thought to be illegal firecrackers were set off too close to the building and it evidently caught fire. Remarkably there was no long term damage to the structure of the building however one fire fighter was tragically killed during the incident.
There are many different professions in the construction industry, starting from the people at the top such as the Clients, Architects and Engineers right down to labourers on site. Even though there is a hierarchy in the construction industry no one should be thought of more highly than anyone else, everyone should considered an equal. Usually the people considered to be at the bottom of the 'food chain' are the ones more likely to get hurt on sites and therefore should not be less thought of than an architect.
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Obviously as with every project a Client is required otherwise the project would not be thought of and there would be no backing financially; in terms of the 'food chain' they are at the very top. The idea of the client is then passed on to the Architect who will then come up with a design suitable for the needs and requirements of the project within an agreed budget. Once a design has been made Consulting Engineers and Contractors will submit their tenders for the right to carry out the work on the project. The Engineers will then be responsible for carrying out any Structural and Civil Engineering works required to ensure the project is competent in those areas. Building Services and Environmental Engineers may also be required to carry out M&E works and Environmental issues such as BREEAM. The Contractor will then carry out the construction works on the project and may need to appoint Sub-Contractors also. The most important part of any construction project is Health and Safety. Consultancy firms and also Contractors will appoint H&S Managers/Officers to ensure the safe well being of everyone involved on a construction site and will follow strict guidelines to ensure that this is so. As mentioned above there are many other professions in the construction industry and without everyone involved on a project working together as one, the project will not be a success.
A 4D planning tool was successfully used at the terminals interchange plaza. £2.5 million was saved during the first 9 months of the project due to this 4D design tool by linking CAD data to schedules that evidently prevented contractual works from clashing with each other. The schedules of works for the years ahead, were available for all to see within a matter of minutes due to the nature of how 4D works.
According to contractor Mott Macdonald's who were responsible for the development, co-ordination and design of the project, "20 facts about Heathrow Terminal 5", "The main Terminal 5 building has a footprint equivalent to 60 football pitches, measuring 396m by 176m. At 22m, its basement is deep enough to swallow an eight storey building, and is believed to be the largest ever excavated in the UK". The main building is a quarter of a mile long and also has 1100 piles. The need for concrete piling was reduced from 450 to 45 due to pile testing which saved time and money on the project. 6000 staff were working on and off site during the construction of the project and they put in 37million hours worth of work during that time.
YMR Architects say that the structure is 40 metres high, 396 meters long and 176 metres wide which makes it the biggest free standing building in the UK. 22 teel leges and nodes hold up the wave shaped roof which helps lets in a lot of light which is also architecturaly pleasing. 30,000 sq meters of glass were used on the facades which lean out at an angle of 6.5 degrees that give the building it's distivctive look. The amount of sunlight allowed into the building is controlled by a film that has been coated to the glass facades. Brise soleil panels attached to aluminium louvres on the exterior of the building act like sun deflectors to contol the buildings temperature. All together YMR were responsible for the design and co-ordination of 30 structures which include lounges and necessary office spaces, the lounges will hold around 2,500 people which is a considerable amount more than the Terminal's 1 and 4.
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An irregular gird on the surface of the building is what supports the structure. This is also visable and the support will be greater the stronger that the load is. Due to the likeliness of seismic activity in the area, the structure has a braced tube structure to give in an extra level of safety. The design issues when constructing the building were crucial because the two towers were constructed seperately and before the were joined together direct sunlight and wind made the two towers suseptable to movement.
Due to the nature and the complexity of the structure, the challenges that the design engineers faced were massive. The extreme hot and cold weather the occurs in Beijing causes the contaction and expansion of of the structure which needed to be looked at during the design stage to see how both towers would react invidually and when they were joined together. After these issues were looked at the two towers were joined together early in the morning at 8.00am on a cold winters morning with the final fix needing to be made within a few minutes.
Arup's Structural Engineers were crucial to the design and construction of this building. Without them it would not have been possible to carry out such a complex stucture. Each and every beam had to be calculated entirely accurately or else to structure would not stand. As mentioned above it was not just the calculations that were imperative to the structure being a success. It had to be planned in such a way the weather conditions had to be taken carefully into consideration and connections had to be made at certain times of the year when the weather was cool enough to connect the two towers together without the metal expanding during that process and Beijing has extreme weather condiotns to deal with as the temperatures will sore in the summer and will be feezing in the winter. The shear size of the structure on its own would be a challenge for any structural engineer to come up with a suitable safe design but as it is constructed on angles the challenge was even greater. Every Structural Engineer that worked on the project can take great satisfaction from the fact that the structure is aesthically pleasing and at the same time is safe and also the first of it's kind.
Both of these projects were very demanding in different senses. The Heathrow Terminal 5 building was designed to give passengers a pleasant, satisfying and hassle free travelling experience and after the blips of the first few weeks that it opened it is now one of the top terminal buildings in the world with thousands and thousands of people passing through the gates each day. As for the China Central Television (CCTV) Headquarters the demand was possibly even greater. The Chinese demand high quality service and product and they got exactly that. They like to break the mould and they have also achieved that. They wanted the structure ready in time for the 2008 Olympic games and they also got that. It has already shown its robustness after it caught fire and escaped with very minimal damage.