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The construction industry is one of the biggest industries in the whole world. The contribution of this industry towards the global GDP is enormous. In recent years due to globalization and advancement in technologies there has been a tremendous development in the construction industry. However despite of the boom in construction activities the scenario on the housing front remains far from satisfactory. In the countries like India and China the situation on the housing front is even worst. Due to ever increasing population in these countries there is an overgrowing demand for housing. Now keeping in view the gigantic task of providing affordable shelter to masses, adoption of modern and cost effective technology assumes greater significance.
The modern methods of construction are broad range of processes and products that aims to improve business efficiency, quality, customer satisfaction, environmental performance, sustainability and the predictability of delivery timescales (Baker 33 Cross industry Group, 2006).
Today there is a growing realization that the speed of construction needs to be given greater importance especially for large housing projects. "For undertaking mass housing works, it is necessary to have innovative technologies which are capable of fast rate construction and are able to deliver good quality and durable structure in cost effective manner" (Anon, 2010) Several systems are adopted all over the world but Mivan system has proved to be reasonably economical and capable of fast rate construction of mass housing. In this system traditional column and beam construction is eliminated and instead walls and slabs are cast in one operation at site by use of specially designed, easy to handle (with minimum labour and without use of any equipment) light weight pre-engineered aluminium forms (Anon, 2010).
Mivan is basically an aluminium formwork system developed by one of the construction company from Europe. In 1990, the Mivan Company Ltd from Malaysia started the manufacturing of such formwork systems. Now a day more than 30,000 sq m of formwork used in the world are under their operation (Anon, 2010)
The technology has been used extensively in other countries such as Europe, Gulf Countries, Asia and all other parts of the world. MIVAN technology is suitable for constructing large number of houses within short time using room size forms to construct walls and slabs in one continuous pour on concrete. All the activities are planned in assembly line manner and hence result into more accurate, well - controlled and high quality production at optimum cost and in shortest possible time.
In this system of formwork construction, cast - in - situ concrete wall and floor slabs cast monolithic provides the structural system in one continuous pour. Large room sized forms for walls and floors slabs are erected at site as shown in the figure1 below. These forms are strong, easy to handle and are fabricated with accuracy. They can be used repetitively around 250 times.
Green roofs are mainly of three types; 'Intensive', 'Semi-Intensive' and 'Extensive' roofs, depending upon the selection of plants (Green Roofs Today, 2010). Intensive green roofs are those that accommodate large plants, trees, full lawns etc. This type of green roofing requires a significant depth of soil and also requires heavy maintenance. Semi Intensive green roofs are those that accommodate moderate size of plants and require less maintenance. Extensive green roofs is the most convenient of all types of green roof systems and involves roof covering with a thin layer of growing medium and vegetation that requires minimal care and maintenance (Green Roofs Today, 2010).
The factors which are taken into consideration while designing green roofs are orientation of roofs, preferred planting, level of maintenance and performance expected from the plant layer (Green roofs, 2006). As the intensive roofs consist of deep layer of growing medium, it needs special consideration at the time of designing as they require specific support from the building. Conversely, extensive green roofs require negligible structural support from the building, hence no special consideration is given at the time of designing them (The green roof centre, 2010).
Due to globalization and competition there is a tremendous pressure on the construction industry regarding the time, quality and cost of the work. With the implementation of the modern construction methods such as 'Mivan Formwork System' and smart materials like 'Green Roofs' the issues related to the time, cost and quality can be overcome. Although the initial cost of implementing such methods and smart materials are quite high the total amount saved at the end of the project life cycle is substantially more than the increase in the initial cost.
The construction firms all over the world have been slow to adopt new innovation and changes. It is the need of time to analyse the depth of problems and find effective solution. Mivan system serves as an efficient tool to solve the problems of mass housing fronts all over the world. The system has a great potential to provide high quality construction at unbelievable speed and at reasonable cost which was justified in the report with the help of a case study. Hence it is recommended to use Mivan formwork system over the traditional formwork system
Amid fears of global warming, deforestation, melting of ice on both the poles, increase in average temperature in next few decades, green roofs can be looked up to as a potential solution which can help in optimising use of rain water, conserving energy, improving aesthetical view of buildings and improving living conditions inside the building. Hence implementation of green roof is recommended as it will save large amount of resources.