Examining Project Risk Management Construction Essay

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Project risk management has been intensively discussed in recent years. Construction industry is a good example of an area, where the project outcome is delivered in an extremely complex actor network. This study's objective is to identify the health and safety risks that are caused. The handling of risk in construction varies considerably. This document aims to identify the risks involved in terms of health and safety, so as to minimise it.

The human suffering caused by accidents and ill health is distressing to all concerned, the extent of which is impossible to calculate. Accidents and ill health also have a huge financial cost, which makes for a compelling business case for improving safety and health

Considering an example of highway construction that includes an activity of tunnel construction. In this scenario, it is logical to assume that there will be some kind of risk or threat of substitution of site-based infrastructure construction activities.

Risk Management

Definition: (in this study's context) an uncertain event or condition that results from the network form of work, having an impact that contradicts expectations. An event is at least partially related to other actors in a network. It includes maximizing the results of positive events and minimising the consequences of adverse events.

Risk Identification

The risk identification process begins with the team compiling the project's risk events. The identification process will vary, depending on the nature of the project and the risk management skills of the team members.

In highway tunnel construction work, high possible risk is examined due to blasting of rocks. The causes of accidents and ill health in this kind of work are well known. Workers in construction are twice as likely as the average worker in other sectors to suffer from a non-fatal illness and accident.

The identification of Health hazards is aided through the application of a prompt list which are among many occupational diseases that continue to cause long term suffering for many workers in this industry:


Arm Vibration,

occupational deafness,

Lung disease due to dust,

vapours and fumes exposure and


Risk assessment

A comprehensive risk assessment combines both qualitative and quantitative assessments. Risk analysis can be quantitative or qualitative depending on the nature and/or amount of information available. Managers tend toward qualitative assessment of risks. They also tend to focus on strategies and tactics for avoiding risks or reducing a risk's negative impacts. Analysts, on the other hand, tend toward quantitative assessment of risks. They evaluate risk impacts in terms of a range of tangible results and they evaluate risk of occurrence in terms of probabilities. The analyst's focus is on the combined tangible effect of all of the risks on project scope, cost, and schedule.

Potential incident scenarios during the Project were identified through consideration of:

The range of activities carried out and facilities present during the construction and operation phases. These included construction activities (including the CHPP and water supply pipeline), energy supply, coal excavation and transport, and waste water management; and

the range of potentially hazardous incidents that might be associated with each of the activities/facilities identified at the Project Site.

Having identified the range of hazards likely to occur at the Project Site, the following matters were considered for each hazard:

Appropriate controls and mitigation factors expected to be put in place for the management of each hazard. These may include prevention and response measures;

Possible causes and the probability of these causes occurring and leading to the hazardous incident. The probability of each hazardous incident occurring takes into consideration the proposed controls. This information was then tabled to prioritise the risks and evaluate these levels against the concept of 'As Low As Reasonably Practical'; and

Where an extreme or high risk was identified, appropriate controls and mitigation measures were identified and the hazardous incident reassessed with these controls in place.

The probability rankings and consequence classes used in the risk assessment are presented in Table below, respectively

Qualitative Risk Analysis Criteria

Quality risk assessment deals with assigning a relative rank to each risk by analyzing the impact and probability of risk occurrence. It is a cost-effective and time saving mechanism for assessing risks. The key requirements for performing a qualitative risk analysis are the project scope document, historical information and lessons learned from previous projects, risk management plan, and the risk.

The consequences assessed include both threats to the natural environment and to health and safety of the public based on definitions shown in Table 19-6. Where a hazardous incident may have several outcomes, each potential outcome was assessed in turn.

Likelihood rank





The event may occur only in exceptional circumstances



The event could possibly occur at some time but is unlikely



The event could possibly occur at some time



The event will probably occur in most circumstances


Near certainty

The event is expected to occur in most circumstances

Table 19-5 Likelihood of Occurrence for Hazardous Incidents

Consequence rank


Public health and safety

Environmental severity



0 %

First aid

On site release - no damage to natural resource.




Medical treatment

Minor detrimental effect to on or off-site natural resource and promptly contained/cleaned.




Hospital treatment

Short term detrimental effect to off-site natural resource with full recovery.




Permanent disability

Prolonged but reversible detrimental effect to off-site natural resource.





Irreversible detrimental effect to off-site natural resource.

Consequence Classes for Public Safety and Environmental Losses

The shading and numerical coding in the risk matrix at Table 19-7 refers to qualitative bands of risk level







1 2 3 4 5


Risk Assessment Matrix

In the following table, 'C' is consequence, 'L' is likelihood and 'R' is the risk ranking.


Health and Safety




1. Dust from road and earthworks




2. Blasting




3. Excessive noise (e.g. mine equipment, blasting)




Risk Assessment Table - Construction Phase

Risk Responses/ Mitigation and Planning




Response Actions


Interval or Milestone Check

1. Dust from road and earthworks


Respirators that are designed to remove most of the contaminant should be provided by the team

Whilst Respirators are available to protect against combination of dust and gases

Controlled by using Water truck for watering the place

Supervisor and Contractor

After Every 15 days

2. Blasting


Explosive materials handled and used in compliance

Licensed contract personnel will only make explosive materials when required.

Explosives will only be handled and used by competent Contractor personnel.

Sources of ignition will be strictly controlled.

Blasting procedures including separation from the blast zone.

Storage of detonators shall be in accordance with the Explosives Act,

Blasting team, supervisor and contractor

Before every Blast

3. Excessive noise (e.g. mine equipment, blasting)


use of hearing protection devices

Design and operate all equipment to comply with the Environmental Protection (Noise) Policy 1997

Noise emission requirements included in vendor information for the evaluation process.

Personal Protective Equipment provided.

evacuation warnings before blasting

Supervisor and Contractor

After Every 15 days

Quantitative Risk Analysis

The Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA) is focused on the combined effect of likelihood (probability) or frequency, exposure to the hazard, consequences (loss criticality) of a possible accident, and safety level. The frequency or likelihood is usually derived using event tree techniques sometimes combined with fault tree analysis. For each branch in the event tree, denoted a sub scenario, the consequences will be determined. The consequence or loss criticality expresses the value of the unwanted event. The likelihood or frequency, exposure, consequences or loss criticality, and safety level are formally combined in the Quantitative Risk Analysis.

Risk is defined as a combination of several parameters such exposure, likelihood or probability, severity or loss criticality (include the injury severity to human health or personnel target), and safety level, varying with time. The analysis method presented in this thesis uses the decision criterion that human beings shall be prevented from being exposed to harmful conditions.



1. Dust from road and earthworks

Due to exposure to crystalline silica, it can cause


Lung Cancer

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease(COPD)

Leading to asthma

2. Excessive noise (e.g. mine equipment, blasting)

Hearing loss is primarily leading into inability to hear sound at upper level of speech appreciation

Over time hearing reduces an individual's ability to distinguish speech

Tinnitus i.e. constant ringing in the ears

In the above comparison shows that dust related risk has more adverse effect on that than to noisy environment

Consider two criteria to be of concern to on site workers, about air pollution and noise pollution: public health and safety, and cost of an air and noise pollution abatement program. Here, public health and safety can be defined as the annual number of otherwise, healthy adults diagnosed as having 20% impairment in lung function and deafness, and cost can be defined as the total annual cost.

Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA) is a scientific methodology that was developed to quantitatively demonstrate the potential risk associated with any given consumer product. QRA is based on the Risk Equation which is Risk = Hazard X Exposure. Key factors affecting Risk were studied. Factors impacting Hazard include Design Defects, Manufacturing Defects, and Foreseeable Use.