The proposed Randell Well development would benefit from sustainable design and the addition of sustainable energy saving solutions. The following is an outline of a few practical solutions which could be applied to this site:
Steel is a versatile material and using it for the frame of this structure has many advantages. Steel's underlying strength-to-weight ratio can be made use of to produce a resource-economical building. The use of long-span steel produces an open, column-free space that is adaptable to the subsequent shifts in the building's use. Services can be incorporated inside the structural depth of the steel frame which not only brings down the cladding prices and the total loss of heat through the building's envelope, but can also enable extra floors to be assembled in multi-storey buildings. The production of steel yields very little waste and the by-products of steel construction are widely utilised in the construction industry. Any waste rendered during the production can be reused and there is almost zero waste from steel products in situ. Steel is a hundred per cent recyclable and can be recycled, time and time again, with no degradation of its properties or performance.
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The steel production supply chain is very effective. Each building product is fabricated off-site under factory-controlled stipulations that ascertain their high quality and the carefully planned delivery of the steel will improve the site's logistics. In situ, steel construction is rapid and of high quality reducing the affect on the residential areas neighbouring the Randell Well site. Steel Construction on the site will be dust-free, comparatively quiet and will necessitate fewer deliveries to the site.
Steel cladding creates thermally effective building envelopes. The twin skin and composite steel systems are hard-wearing and they attain high levels of thermal insulation and air tightness.
Worldwide need for Modern steel surpasses the provision of scrap steel and hence it is not presently achievable for all new steel to be made completely from scrap. However there is zero environmental benefit in specifying recycled steel over primary steel with a reduced recycled percentage because steel products are 100 per cent recyclable so they will provide a large resource in the future.
The main structure of the proposed building would contain a stabilised structural steel frame, with supporting hollow core concrete floors. The orientation and shape of the proposed building can be optimised for the highest quantity of natural ventilation and daylight achievable. The southern elevation will have a glazed frontage that could expand out to a light barrel vault roof over the building, similar to the recently constructed Devonshire Building in the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, which achieved a BREEAM rating of "excellent".
Fabric energy storage (FES) could be supplied by the steel frame and concrete hollow core floors. FES is more and more adopted by construction clients and architects. The hollow concrete floors and exposed steel frame stores and discharges heat to regulate the internal temperature of the proposed building, thereby shrinking the demand on the heating and air cooling system.
The energy needed for heating, ventilating and cooling a building of this size is considerable. The tendency in the UK has been to increase the function of air conditioning merely to sustain a comfortable temperature. This places a substantial increase in energy usage for the refrigeration plant, pumps and fans needed to conserve this "comfortable" environment.
As an alternative to mechanical heating and cooling, FES can be applied as a low energy way for attaining thermal comfort. There have been various illustrious developments constructed employing this design technique in the UK, and they have been acknowledged in Industry Awards. For instance there is the Canon HQ building in Reigate, the Lloyd's Register of Shipping building in London and the Toyota GB Headquarters at Epsom.
FES can be separated into two types: passive and active. With passive FES, exposed soffits employ natural or aided ventilation collectively with nocturnal purging to air-cool the building. Active FES features manageable arrangements of air ducted directly through plenums or floors.
FES can bring down the peak interior temperature by five degrees Centigrade, moving the peaks to later on in the day frequently after the occupiers have headed home. A passive FES system can impart a temperature reduction result of 15-20W/m2, which is enough to counterbalance the heat emitted by computers and printers for a common office. A larger temperature reduction outcome of 25-35 W/m2 can be accomplished with an active system.
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The practise of FES will significantly increase the proposed building's sustainability as over fifty per cent of the United Kingdom's carbon emissions come from the operating usage of buildings. Therefore cutting a building's operating heating and air conditioning demands reduces its tangible environmental impact.
In order to reduce solar gain during the summer months shading to the glazed frontage can be supplied by mechanically operated banks of louvers, which are secured to the primary steelwork supports in prefabricated panels. This climate sensitive façade arrangement optimises the amount of daylight and solar incursion, depending upon the time of day and time of year.
Active chilled beams (ACBs) are seemly favourable with building designers as a way of dealing with significant cooling demands with superior enÂergy performance and high noise reduction. Designers frequently discover that active chilled beam systems are the perfect "green" solution for a lot of buildings. There is also a convincing general comfort level and economical argument for the employment of active chilled beam arrangements over the rest of the more established systems.
The purpose of an active chilled beams system is for the primal air handling system to distribute only the quantity of air required for ventilation and potential load purposes, with the active chilled beams supplying the extra air movement and cooling and/or heating needed through the room air and water coil. This cuts down the amount of primary air circulated by the main system (often seventy five per cent to eighty five per cent less than traditional "all air" systems).
Active chilled beams reassign a great percentage of the work that heats and cools the development from the lower effective "all air" system which comprises mainly of large fans and ductwork to a more competent water distribution system (pumps and piping). The final effects of these changes of loads with an active chilled beam system are reduced energy use and cheaper operating costs.
In the proposed Randell Well development the beams could provide free cooling from a constructed thermal water tank situated underground. The heat from the office space could be rejected into the cooling water circuit and then stored in a large geothermal water tank. Whenever called for, the left over heat could then be recovered and used in the domestic hot water circuit as a pre-heat to the water heaters. The water can then pass over a dry air cooler where the heat can be rejected again with marginal energy consumption.
No regular maintenance of the active chilled beams is required as there are no moving parts. The coils merely need cleaning when necessary (once every 1-5 years). Active chilled beams have been employed in many sustainable buildings in the UK such as the City Exchange Building in Leeds, the James C Maxwell Building in the University of Edinburgh and the Cheshire Police HQ in Chester.
The roof of the proposed development could combine a structure consisting of stucco embossed Kalzip, triple glazed domed linear curved roof lights and 200 square metres of photovoltaic panels with the capability to yield 30kW of electricity. This construction would attain an unchanging U value of 0.25 W/mÂ²K over the full roof element.