Environmental Concerns Associated With Proposed Shah International Airport Construction Essay

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The purpose of this Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report is to investigate and assess the principal environmental concerns associated with the proposed Shah International Airport (SIA). The scope of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) covers implies the determination of the environmental consequences, or impact, of proposed projects or activities. In this context, impact means change- any change, positive or negative from a desirability standpoint. An environmental assessment is, therefore, a study of the probable changes in the various socioeconomic and biophysical characteristic of the environment which may result from a proposed or impending action. The project is referred to as the "Shah International Airport" in Shah Alam. Henceforward, this new airport project will be known as "The Project". The planning and development of the new airport of Malaysia (Shah International Airport) at Selangor, Malaysia, began in early 2009 when it became evident that the presented Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah International Airport (Subang International Airport) had limited expansion capability to meet the long-term increase in passenger and cargo demand. So for overcome this problem, the government therefore decided to build a new airport at an alternative site to accommodate not only the rapid increase in air transport, but also to meet the growing demand of the tourism and services sector.


This Project will consist of the design, financing, construction, and operation of a new international airport. The Government of Malaysia has decided new project will be located on an around 1124 acres and the new airport will be designed to handle a maximum of 4.5 million of passengers annually.

The project type : Public

Owner of the new airport : Government of Malaysia

Operator : Malaysia Airport (Shah Alam) sdn.bhd

Location of the new airport : Shah Alam, Selangor, west Malaysia

2.1: Location and estimated cost of new airport

Shah Alam is a city in Petaling and Klang Districts in Selangor, Malaysia, about 25 kilometres (15 mi) west of the country's capital, Kuala Lumpur. In 1978, it replaced Kuala Lumpur as the capital city of the state of Selangor due to Kuala Lumpur's incorporation into a Federal Territory in 1974. Shah Alam was the first planned city in Malaysia after independence in 1957. The new International Airport is estimated to build at a cost of about RM8.5 billion or US$3.5 billion.

2.2 Activity Timetable

The proposed schedule for performance of new airport is as follows:

Start of Construction March 2011

Completion of Construction April 2011

Start of Testing and Commissioning May 2011

Completion of Testing and Commissioning August 2011

Start of Commercial Operation October 2011


3.1: Positive impacts

Based on particular project on new airport, potential impacts have been identified that are likely to result from the proposed new airport project. The positive impacts on this project are:

Traffic congestion reduction

Beneficial impact on economy

Quick service and safety

Less fuel consumption

Better roads

Employment opportunities

3.2: Negative impacts

Secondly, based on particular project on new airport, the negative environmental impacts also are identified according to three main heading: firstly impacts due to project location, secondly impacts due to construction and lastly impacts due to project operation.

3.2.1: Impacts due to project location


No relocation is required. The nearest residents live outside of the site about 2 km from the operational areas of the airport.

Loss of trees

A tree is a perennial woody plant and defined an important component of the natural resources because the trees can help to prevent the soil erosion problem and also producing oxygen and reducing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, as well as moderating ground temperatures. Due to the project, it is approximately more than 30 tree are likely to be loss. If average cost of a tree is RM500, it means the total cost of 30 trees is RM15000.

Loss of historical and cultural monuments

There is no loss of historical and cultural monument will be affected due to the new project.

3.2.2: Impacts due to projects construction

soil erosion

Soil erosion and sedimentation will probably be the most serious environmental effects arising from the project development. Soil erosion is the process of detachment and transportation of soil particles from its original mass by actions of raindrop impact and flowing water.

Workers safety and health risk at construction site

Worker safety will be protected by contractual undertakings to implement safe site practices. Because this is a new airport there are no hazards from operating aircraft. Sanitary practices in regard to providing clean water and the disposal of human waste will be enforced to safeguard worker health as part of the construction contract.

Traffic diversion and risk to existing building

During construction, minimum traffic diversions on roads will be required. At the grade and elevated section is mostly on barren land. In underground portion, the building line is considerably away from the proposed cut and cover and tunnels. Hence, no risk is foreseen to adjacent buildings.

Impact on air quality

Air pollution is the presence of one or more contaminants in the atmosphere in such quantities, characteristic and duration as to make them actually or potentially injurious to human, plant or animal life or to property, or which unreasonably interferes with the comfort, enjoyment of life and property. Air pollution can be caused by the presence of one or more contaminants. Examples of traditional contaminants include sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, ozone, oxidants, hydrogen sulfide, particulate matter, smoke and haze. There is a lower air quality on an around the construction site due to the absence of industry and the relatively low level of vehicular traffic on the north-south highway. Gaseous emissions from aircraft will not significantly alter this. The operation of the new project will not result in an increase in highway or air traffic sufficient to have any significant impact on air quality.

Disposal of soil during construction

Soil collection should be move out with the containers from the dredging sites/ places. The use of containers for move the soil from construction site to avoid that the soil not spill during movement to disposal site. The excavated soil will be first collected at dumping ground and then transferred to disposal sites. Dumping areas are essential to store the excavated earth temporarily for back filling at later date and final disposal. It is desirable to first clean the disposal area site of vegetation biomass that exists over it. The surface of these sites needs to be treated so that leached water does not contaminate soil and ground water. The faces and top should be treated/ vegetated to avoid erosion.

Impacts on water quality

Wastes generate during the construction phase, especially oil and grease from machinery, can cause pollution in the streams. The pollution of the river cause resulting from the development of the project is also of concern. During the construction phase, the pollution will mostly be in the form of high sediment loads if no mitigation sedimentation is taken. The escape of sanitary wastes, and pollution of the surface water and groundwater systems, would occur unless the wastewater generated by the operation of the airport, particularly from the terminal area, is treated. This will be mitigated by the construction of a wastewater treatment plant and sewage distribution lines as part of the Project. The sewage treatment process is recommended for new airport construction. Clean water for airport operations will be provided from a drilled well, or wells, with treatment to meet World Health Organization standards as part of the project.

3.2.3: Impacts due to project operation

Oil pollution

In view of the hazards potential involved due to failure of system and accident the onsite and offsite emergency measures have been formulated and will be implemented.


Noise defined as unwanted sound implies that is as an adverse effect on human beings and their environment, including land, structures, and domestic animals. Noise can also disturb natural wildlife and ecological systems. The main sources of noise from the operation of trains include: engine noise, cooling fan noise, wheel rail interaction, electric generator and miscellaneous noises like passenger's chatting. Maybe during the construction, the noise levels of using the machines have to decrease. The effects of aircraft noise and vibration will be lower in the residential areas closest to the site.

Water supply

Public Health facilities like water supply, sanitation and toilets are classifies as important and needed at the construction site. CPHEEO has recommended 45 liters per day, water supply to persons working at construction site. The people working on construction site will be approximately over than 200. The water demands on construction site will be for personal use of workers or staff, fire demands and wastage.

Removal of refuse

The refuse from construction site includes; garbage, rubbish, and floor sweepings. The collection and removal of refuse in a sanitary approach from the construction site is of importance for effective vector control, visual improvement, and nuisance and pollution abatement. So, the removal or collection of the refuse should be mannerly plan to maintain the cleanness of the airport and to attract the tourists.

Visual perception

The construction of the above corridor will bring about a change in visual look of the streets through which it will operate. An architecturally well designed structure, which could be aesthetically pleasing and able to reduce impact due to visual disfiguration have been incorporated in present corridor. Since a low profile would cause least intrusion, the basic elevated section should be optimized at the design stage itself.

Tourism impact

According to the new project, there is no tourism impact.


TABLE 1: Checklist of Impacts


Negative Impact

Positive Impact

No Impact

a) Positive Impact




i) Traffic congestion reduction




ii) Quick service and safety




iii) Less fuel consumption




iv) Reduction in air pollution




v) Better roads




vi) Employment Opportunity




v) Beneficial Impact on Economy




b) Impacts due to project location




i) Relocation




ii) Loss of trees




iii) Loss of historical and cultural moments




c) Impacts due to project construction




i) soil erosion




ii) workers safety and health risk at construction site




iii) Traffic diversion and risk to existing building




iv) Impact on air quality




vi) Impact on water quality




d) Impacts due to project operation




i) Oil Pollution




ii) Noise




iii) Water supply




iv) Removal of refuse




v) Visual impact




vi) Tourism impact





Cost benefit analysis is often used in the evaluation of viable alternative project options and thus provides a useful tool for decision-making. When environmental consideration is included, it becomes and environmental cost benefit.

5.1: Internal rate of return

The economic internal rate of return for the new airport project was estimated at 25 percent because of the large initial investment required in the airside portion of the Project, the Project as a whole has been estimated to have a financial internal rate of return of 25 percent based on an increase in airport rates and charges that occurred after the end of conclusion of the TA study.

5.2: Economic benefit

The main economic analysis benefits from new proposed project are:

Incremental of net visitor expenditures

The value of predetermined passenger and cargo traffic

Time saving of passengers

Direct or indirect generation additional

5.3: Project cost

Project costs include civil works, other construction, equipment and its installation, and consulting engineering design and supervision. These project costs also include the cost of justifying all negative environmental impacts during construction and into the operating phase, approximately which amounts to $400,000, or about 0.5 percent of the total project base cost.


The proposed of the new Shah International Airport (SIA) development will have no significantly adverse impacts on the surrounding environment. The construction, while involving soil improvement and considerable earthwork will, use proven construction techniques and conventional earthwork methods. Potentially minor adverse impacts can readily be avoided by good site management and construction practices, particularly related to drainage system design.

A simple monitoring program is needed to cover the construction phase and the first three years of operation. This will be prepared during the design phase of the Project by the engineering consultants. It will then be implemented during Project construction by the Project administration assisted by the engineering consultants, and by the staff operating the airport (Airport Authority) during airport operation. The monitoring program will be supervised by the Directorate of Engineering.