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Every building needs maintenance management to maintain physical condition of a building. With the maintenance expenses can be reduced if there is damage to the building because the building will be regularly maintained to prevent defects in future. To ensure efficiency in the management of the building must ensure buildings are safeguarded and controlled. When a building is well maintained, the condition of the building will look like a new building. The value of the building can be increased based on the condition of that building. Each maintenance buildings are important to minimize disruptions operating in a building. In carrying out the maintenance work of building facilities involves coordination of the resources and related factors. It need to be managed systematically and effectively as any activity referred to as maintenance management. The success or failure of facility maintenance highly dependent on the effectiveness of physical management. Maintenance process aims to ensure that the facilities in the building always work well to provide the comfort and safety of building occupants while protecting assets. The main objective of building maintenance is to ensure the damage is in the restored building effective and reduce as much as possible failures and defects of components and equipment in an effective and systematic. The other objective is to ensure that the buildings and their associated services are in a safe condition. It also to ensure that the buildings are fit for use, to ensure that the condition of the building meets all statutory requirements, to carry out the maintenance work necessary to maintain the value of the physical assets of the building stock, and to carry out the work necessary to maintain the quality of the building (R.M.W. Horner, M.A. El-Haram and A.K. Munns, 1997).
The definition of maintenance is "work undertaken in order to keep or restore every facility, for example every part of a site, building and contents to an acceptable standard". This was recognized as being too narrow, in that once restoration or replacement occurs, it often results in an improvement and therefore the Committee on Building Maintenance recommended the following addition: "improve any facility, for example every part of a building, its services and surrounds to a currently acceptable standard and to sustain the utility and value of the facility" (David Allen, 1993). Maintenance of the building is very important for a company known for the construction to ensure projects and plans are implemented properly done, as in the objectives were agreed before the project is implemented. Efficiency and quality of a project depends on the outcome of the company's management efficiency. Planning a project must take into account the question of maintenance of early stage such as planning and should be on guard until ready. Maintenance is necessary if there is damage or any signs can be detected which will cause damage or defects in the construction of the structure. Most cases where maintenance steps should be done, not done so will result in undesirable effects such as accidents, damage, and other expenses in the long run whether or vice versa. Step maintenance performed on the building can also affect the quality of the construction, apart from affecting the confidence of users' means clients. Problems that arise as a result of damage to the building must be dealt with as soon as possible. Maintenance is one of the best actions to solve the damage. Maintenance is a process that is carried out to prevent damage and repairing damage to buildings. Damage occurs when the original condition of a part is no longer functioning properly as required. Damages in areas such as roofs, floors, and walls of the piping system is part of the examples result in the occurrence of an uncomfortable situation for consumers and this is the main reason why the process of building maintenance is sought.
Definition of facilities management is provided by Barrett and Baldry (2003) who see it as 'an integrated approach to operating, maintaining, improving and adapting the buildings and infrastructure of an organization in order to create an environment that strongly supports the primary objectives of that organization'. They continue by reminding us that 'the breadth and scope of facilities management are not constrained by the physical characteristics of buildings. For many organizations the effectiveness and behavior patterns of the workforce and the effectiveness of their information technology and communication systems are of considerable importance and the profession of facilities management continues to evolve to reflect this' (Brooks, 2009).
Facilities management is a very wide field and consequently a continually changing one. To ensuring efficiency in building maintenance practices is the facilities manager should utilize the expertise which already exists within the department. The facilities manager's role is that of co-coordinator, therefore, each of the functional units should ideally ensure that it is fully aware of developments within its own area of expertise and report any significant changes to the facilities manager. This should apply to both in-house personnel and contractors. The facilities manager will often have to take positive action to enable the functional units to acquire this knowledge. For example, one of the case study organizations sends its maintenance technicians on regular courses to guarantee that they are fully aware of the latest techniques and legislation (Baldry, 2003).
Secondly, another way for the facilities manager to keep abreast of changes is to make use of existing external contacts. Facilities managers have to deal constantly with many different specialists as part of their work, such as insurance firms, fire officers, building control etc. therefore; it makes sense to maintain good communications with these people so that they can advise on new developments in their areas. In the case study of school, example the facilities manager has established a strong working relationship with the local fire service, which carries out frequent fire inspections to check that current standards and advises on potential changes. In this way the school can plan refurbishment work with the new changes in mind (Baldry, 2003).
Thirdly, facilities managers may also find it helpful to make contact with other local businesses and exchanges ideas. One of the case study organizations, for example, is located in a business park and so the facilities manager attends residents' meetings to discuss mutual concerns. As a result of these meeting, the facilities managers have established a local benchmarking group, whereby they visit each other's buildings to study at first-hand how different organizations operate. With benchmarking the number of possibilities for gaining information is almost limitless and depends purely on the nature of the relationship between the participants. Benchmarking could be used to compare processes, services, performance of plant and etc. Finally, the facilities manager can take advantages of the growing number of specialist information sources dedicated to facilities management (Baldry, 2003).
Maintenance management may be viewed either from the viewpoint of the property owner who needs to employ a manager to maintain his estates in good working order. Other than that, from the viewpoint of the contractor who is carrying out work, who may be part of the property owner's organization or independent firm (White, 1979). The importance of building maintenance is retention and performance of the building's original function facilities such as electricity, water supply systems, lighting, etc. will decrease in value over time and will affect the functionality and performance of the building. To avoid this kind of problem occurs immediate action should be taken. Function and performance of a building should be in a good level as it affects the productivity of the dealings that run in the building.
Other than that to maintaining the value of building assets is to keep building asset values â€‹â€‹from falling and affect the lease rate and the current market price. But can also be enhanced by the influence of the current economic situation and this development of the market. This can avoid a lot of losses in a time, if let the damage on the building progresses. It also cans maintaining the image and appearance of the building are the special features that distinguish building each other and recognize and guide the public in the image symbolizes the agency and the company that scrubs with it. These factors can influence the public actually playing the good impressions of the buildings involved in turn helps in certain transaction that occur there.
To ensuring efficiency in building maintenance practice is maintaining safety aspects and comfortable of incidents such as fire, failure of load-bearing components etc. in buildings is often caused by serious malfunctions and failures that occur. This brings negative effect on all parties, particularly involving loss of life and property loss. In maintaining all aspects of the safety and comfort of all the efficient management of maintenance and frequency of maintenance can help avoid such problems occur for comfortable and secure. The next is to care arrangements for users and owners is to the interests of consumers and owners need to run maintenance action and immediate steps should be taken so as to maintain the trust of our customers and owners as well as to ensure every aspect of safety and comfort.
The next of efficiency in building maintenance is strategy. The efficient design of a structure requires an understanding of how it is to be used and maintained, therefore its pattern of use and maintenance policy should be known. It is essential that there is long-term planning and a long-term maintenance strategy on which forecasts are based. Another approach to maintenance policy involves the assessment of conditions of buildings and devising an economic means of keeping them in an appropriate condition for as long as the use of the building demands. Maintenance management can have an effect on emergencies, as computerized effective maintenance and monitoring can reduce breakdowns and failures, and save money. Such measures should not be viewed as one-off applications; there needs to be an ongoing commitment. Also to be effective there are certain key principles as identified by the Audit Commission that a client must follow, which are to clear policy for the repairs service, consultation over proposed changes to policy, easy access to responsive repairs, clear definition of landlord and tenant repairing responsibilities. Other than that, the efficiency of building maintenance is strategic position. Property is increasingly being seen as a key resource by organizations which are not primarily in the property industry. Due to the inflexibility of buildings, owners and occupiers need to create clear strategies for short-, medium- and long-term use, if maximum value is to be obtained. The essential reason for persons or an organization occupying a building is to house a business in order to manage, control and develop it profitably. A building cannot be regarded as part of an overhead. It must be seen as part of the organization's assets and be proactively managed. In a business policy context, there needs to be some form of evaluation and control of a function, such as maintenance management (David Allen, 1993).
The other strategy to efficiency the building maintenance is corrective maintenance, it can be simplest the type of maintenance strategy, where an element in a building is used until it breaks down. It covers all activities, including replacement or repair of an element that has failed to a point at which it cannot perform its required function. Corrective maintenance is sometimes referred to as failure-based or unplanned maintenance. Corrective maintenance tasks often take places in an ad hoc manner in response to breakdowns or user requests (David and Arthur, 1989). Thus, corrective maintenance can be extremely expensive for two reasons; first the failure of an item can cause a large amount of consequential damage to other elements in the building. For example, failure of the roof could cause damage to the ceiling and the interior of the building. The second is failure of an item can occur at a time which is inconvenient to both the user and the maintaining authority. This can make manpower and spare parts planning extremely difficult. Preventive maintenance was introduced to overcome the disadvantages of corrective maintenance, by reducing the probability of occurrence of failure and avoiding sudden failure. This strategy is referred to as time-based maintenance, planned maintenance or cyclic maintenance. Preventive maintenance tasks are performed in accordance with a predetermined plan at regular, fixed intervals, which may be based for example on operating time. Such as strategy is frequently applied to external or internal paint work. The following are the advantages of preventive over corrective maintenance (Raymond and Joan, 1991) is maintenance can be planned ahead and performed when it is convenient to the building's user, maintenance costs can be reduced by avoiding the cost of consequential damage, downtime, the time that an element of the building or the whole building is out of service, can be minimized so the habitability of the building can be increased; and the health and safety of the user can be improved. But preventive maintenance has some disadvantages which must be minimized. The planned maintenance is performed irrespective of the condition of the building elements. Consequently, a large number of unnecessary tasks will be carried out on elements that could have remained in a safe and acceptable operating condition for a much longer time. Other than that the condition of an element may end up worse than it was before, as a result of human error during the execution of the maintenance task. Planned maintenance tasks are usually very demanding in terms of spare parts and labor. The next strategy of building maintenance is condition based maintenance is defined as: "Maintenance carried out in response to a significant deterioration in a unit as indicated by a change in monitored parameter of the unit condition or performance" (Kelly and Harris, 1978). The condition-based maintenance concept recognizes that a change in condition and/or performance of an item is the principal reason for carrying out maintenance. Thus, the optimal time to perform maintenance is determined from a condition survey used to determine the actual state of each constituent item in a building. In this strategy, maintenance tasks are determined and planned by efficiently monitoring the building's elements such as walls, floors, roof and service equipment such as boilers, pumps, and heating system, to identify which element or piece of equipment requires maintenance before a major failure occurs. To gain the full advantage of applying condition based maintenance, the condition of an item must be monitored to identify whether there is any evidence of change from a normal to an abnormal condition. This can be done by selecting the parameter which best describes the condition of the item and monitoring changes using suitable condition monitoring tools. Condition assessments can vary from simple visual inspections to more advanced inspections using a variety of condition monitoring tools and techniques (R.M.W. Horner, M.A. El-Haram and A.K. Munns, 1997).
In conclusion, the effects of which will be obtained through the work of the maintenance process is dependent on the planning and in-depth understanding on the various aspects and methods of maintenance before the activity commences. Then the importance of knowledge and understanding of the concept of maintenance in order to achieve a good quality of work performed to carry out any maintenance actions on buildings. Consequently, maintenance has been divided into classes, specific maintenance for the purpose of facilitating the maintenance management system better.
The success of maintenance operations can be determined the extent of its success through maintenance activities approach taken in meeting all of the interests listed previously. Maintenance is essential to the construction industry today and in the future. Effectiveness of maintenance is paramount to do this maintenance work regardless what method is carried out. Various methods can arise and the selection of the best is just to facilitate the maintenance work is carried exclusively and benefits to the parties involved. Therefore priority should be emphasized is to meet this maintenance concept and understanding of, and knowledge about the maintenance of the organizing agency is necessary to get a good product.
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