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Health and safety is a very important and necessary matter in the organization to protect the employees from any risk or danger that may happen at the workplace. The health and safety of employees at a workplace is a major concern for employers and employees. Complete employment laws and legislation have been created covering this area. All organizations that hire more than five workers must have a written safety policy, which sets out who is responsible for workplace health and safety and arrangements that have been made for health and safety.
There are enormous of cost of accidents at work is; both in human suffering and in lost production. All the management in the companies should provide special attention to improve the health and safety at the workplace. As the concept of accident proneness is now largely discredited, safety programs focus as much as possible on ensuring that the employee is suitable for job and that work is conducted in a safe environment. (Graham and Bennett, 1998).
Occupational health and safety is a cross-disciplinary area concerned with protecting the safety, health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment. Occupational health and safety is a very important for the organizations. Therefore, there are several reasons that explain the importance of all occupational health and safety programs. The first reason is to provide a safe workplace and establish management structures to control the risks by applying company policies. The second reason is to teach workers how to work in a safe environment and to keep employees feel safe and happy. The third reason is to teach the workers to pay attention to their surroundings and to prevent companies from law suits. It may also protect co-workers, family members, employers, customers, suppliers, nearby communities, and other members of the public who are impacted by an organization's activities from risk like death or injury. The last reason is to promote and maintain the mental, physical and social well-being of employees.
All employers have some various duties and responsibilities in health and safety at workplace. Firstly, employers should provide all necessary information, instruction, training and supervision to enable individuals to be safe. Secondly, they should provide and maintain working environments that is safe and without risk to health and provide and maintain systems of work that are safe. Thirdly, the employers must display a health and safety law poster for their employees.
On the other side, there are some responsibilities of employee in the organization. Employees must take reasonable care for their own and other people's health and safety at work. They must cooperate with the employers to avoid the risk at workplace and the employee should make sure they get proper training. They should understand and follow all employer health and safety rules, including the use of protective equipment and the right to refuse unsafe work. Moreover; should report any injuries, strains or illnesses their suffer as a result of doing their job.
Clearly, it is very difficult to remove all risks and dangers from any working environment. However, every organizations attempt to reduce the issues and accidents at workplace by providing the safe and health environment for the employees. It tries to keep the workplace and equipments clean and in a good order. Also, the employees should tell the employer if something happens that might affect their ability to work because their employer has a legal responsibility for their health and safety.
Literature review on employment relation issue related to safety and health
According to Paul H Jones, (2010), it is common when the employees are working in any organization to face some problem regarding their health and safety, and they might even get injured in some cases, depending on the nature of the place where the employees are employed or working. The important thing here is that the employers have the duty to take a suitable way to reduce the accidents and ensure the safety and health of the employees working for them. The state has devised some laws that govern the health and safety issues at the work place. These laws are aimed at protecting the rights of the employees of health and safety at work place. The health and safety legislation ensures that the employees are provided with proper equipment and material for their protection at the workplace, such as masks to avoid hazardous fumes getting into their lungs and all other such things. It also asks for the placement of proper safety signs in the business establishment to ensure that everyone knows what precaution they have to take at which place. Similarly, it is very important that the employer conveys the health and safety issues properly to the employees so that the employees are well aware of the measures that they have to adopt. Therefore, the health and safety laws are very helpful. They help in eliminating the extra costs they will have to bear in case an employee gets injured or sick at work and the loss of work they will have to bear in case of his absence because of injury. So, for both the parties, it is equally beneficial. Every country has its own health and safety laws for the protection of the employees. The employees must be fully aware of these laws and should demand to be provided with their right to safe and healthy establishment.
According to Philo, JC. (2007), safety and health is a basic human need and when not met, exacts costs that prevent societies from realizing development goals. Injury is increasing as a leading cause of death and disability. As the result of advances in public health knowledge and safety engineering technology, accidents and other injury events are often preventable. Injuries result from identifiable determinants and conditions that create exposure to identifiable hazards. By controlling hazards, the toll of injury can be reduced.
Chichilnisky, G. (1978), studied the problems of labor market adjustments to occupational health and safety hazards. It provides models for the eventual measurement and empirical analysis of factors affecting the levels of occupational health and safety hazards in the workplace. From a public policy viewpoint the research reviews the conditions under which market forces could bring about a sufficient level of health and safety information and under what conditions it is necessary to have a government policy which would increase the level of information on occupationally related health and safety hazards. In addition to conditions under which it is a legitimate government function to provide health and safety information beyond that normally available in the labor market, the study explores the conditions and types of Occupational health and safety hazards for which it is a sensible government policy to set standards and fines for non-compliance with the standards as well as taxation and other incentive policies.
Yacuzzi, Enrique and MinguillÃ³n, Roberto F., (2009) did a survey on occupational health and safety governance. It is a branch of Corporate Governance by which the board directs and controls labor risks created by their own enterprise. Occupational health and safety is the conditions and factors that affect the well-being of employees, temporary workers, contractor personnel, visitors and any other person in the workplace. The study aims is to create an Occupational Health and Safety Governance Indicator. The occupational and safety governance concept is relatively new; unlike occupational health and safety Management, which is mostly related to the work of managerial ranks, occupational health and safety governance deals with principles, the interests of stakeholders, and the work of directors. The study defines the new concept, occupational health and safety governance, develops an original health and safety indicator, and presents possible applications for it; as far as they are aware of, the indicator is the first proactive tool in existence to measure occupational health and safety governance. Their work is part of an ongoing research project aimed at improving health and safety standards in industry.
The various safety and health issues in Zubair Oil and Gas Company:
Zubair Oil and Gas (ZOGAS) was established to introduce and undertake specialized oil and gas projects in 1990 and originally started its operations in Abu Dhabi in 1991 before shifting its base to Oman in 1993.
Zubair Oil and Gas Company has some health and safe issues that employees face and the company always attempts to reduce these issues. Therefore, these are:
- Stress at workplace. Most of employees are stressful at the work and they have jobs that require them to work shifts. Sometime, the employees have too many responsibilities which must be completed in a specific time. This usually puts a lot of pressure on the employeesâ€™ health. The long working hours required by many jobs appear to take a toll on employee health. Stress also has a big effect on how their internal organs work. For example, the heart beats faster and the blood pressure increases during a stressful period. The long-term effect is that this can result in strokes and some types of heart diseases. Zubair Oil and Gas Company attempt to reduce the stress at the work by reducing the work hours provide break between working hours and divide the work between the employees.
- The leakage of gases. Sometimes, there are some holes in the gas pipeline that may mix with the oxygen and other gases. This will lead to increase the gas impact on the employees by causing mild eye and respiratory-tract irritation after several hours. The company takes preventive action to reduce leakage of oil by including a program to inspect the pipeline on an ongoing basis. Also it provides the sensors to monitor the level of emission of toxic gases on each oil well.
- Dangerous machines. The company has some dangerous machines that are used for drilling and cutting pipelines. These machines are very dangerous for the employees and lead to amputation or injury of some parts of their body. Also, the high sound of machines has an impact on the employeesâ€™ health because the noise determines its ability to damage their hearing and cause headache. Zubair Oil and Gas Company hire people who have experiences and the ability to work and have knowledge how to deal with the dangerous machines. It is always make maintenance of machinery to avoid the risk at the workplace.
- Misunderstand the risk at workplace. Some employees do not have enough knowledge about the risk at the company. They face some difficulties to understand the nature of the work. Zubair Oil and Gas Company provide some courses for the employees to explain and understand them about extent of the dangers of working.
- There are some human mistakes in Zubair Oil and Gas Company is which damage the health of the employees such as getting distracted or not being attentive while working. Therefore, the company provide break between the working hours to relax and rest their workers from the work and to retune fresher to do the work more efficiency.
-Also, the company has work in the desert and they have some employees there. The employees are suffering from the varying of weather especially in the summer. Because the weather became hot and dry and the employees suffer form the high temporary of sun. The company make shift work between the employees and provide the employees needs to protect them the changing of the weather.
There are some recommendations to Zubair Oil and Gas Company in order to reduce the health and safety issues at their workplace. Zubair Oil and Gas Company should provide stress management training for its employees to improve workersâ€™ ability to cope with difficult work situations. It tries to reduce job stress by bringing in a consultant to recommend ways to improve working conditions. This way is the most direct way to reduce stress at work. The employees should have rest breaks during the working day and to have time off from work during the working week. Zubair Oil and Gas Company should check the oil and gas pipeline periodically to ensure there is no leakage of any oil or gas. Also, it must provide safety tools for their employees to avoid risks and accidents at the workplace such as mask, goggles, helmet and gloves etc. Zubair Oil and Gas Company should provide some training and courses to teach employees how to use the dangerous machines. Also, it should provide some structures that explain the different steps and safe ways to use these machines. Zubair Oil and Gas Company should provide a healthier and safer environment to the employees and make some awareness campaigns to teach employees how to deal with the risks and dangers at the workplace. The employees must cooperate with their employer to reduce the accidents in the organization by applying health and safety laws. The employees should tell the employer if something happens that might affect their ability to work. This will help to avoid any mistakes or risks that might affect them and other people.
Health and safety is a very important and necessary matter in the organization to protect the employees from any risk or danger that may happen at the workplace. Any organization has some health and safety issues at the work environment that may impact on workers' health. Zubair Oil and Gas Company has chosen to apply in the assignment because Zubair Oil and Gas Company has many health and safety issues at the workplace. These issues are stress at workplace, the leakage of gases, dangerous machines, misunderstand the risk at the workplace and human mistakes. However, Zubair Oil and Gas Company work hardly to handle these issues and attempt to reduce the risk and danger at the work environment. There are some recommendations that suggest for Zubair Oil and Gas Company to reduce the issues of health and safety in the work and maintain working environments that is safe and without risk to health.