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The purpose of this office manual is to describe the required drawings and documents that you, our building designers, will be required to produce, for the purposes of submitting a Building Permit Application to the delegated Private or Municipal Building Surveyor. The Building Surveyor will assess our application to the full extent, and will only issue a Building Permit if the application and the designs contained within, meet all regulatory and legislative requirements.
This Office Manual will assist you in ensuring that all necessary requirements are not only understood, but also incorporated into the design of the building at hand. The more thorough your understanding of the requirements can become, will in turn facilitate a more efficient design and permit application process, and increase your productivity as designers.
1.2 How to use the Office Manual
This office manual will be provided, in hard copy, to all members of our design team, and will also be available on each computer station in our network. This will enable you to always have a copy on-hand, for reference to throughout the drawing and documentation process.
2.0 Drawing Section
This section of the Office Manual focuses on the specifics of drawing preparation and related procedures. Frontier Design and Construction has implemented this policy, in order to facilitate the most efficient and practical methods for the creation of required drawings, for the submission of Building Permit Applications to both Private and Municipal Building Surveyors, and necessary regulatory bodies.
2.1b Referenced Documentation
For the purposes of this manual, the following documentation must be referred to in order to assist in obtaining a more comprehensive understanding of the requirements set within:
Australian Standards: Series 1100 (Technical Drawing)
AS 1100.101 - General Principles
AS 1100.201 - Mechanical Engineering Drawing
AS 1100.301 - Architectural Drawing
AS 1100.401 - Engineering Survey and Engineering Survey Design Drawing
AS 1100.501 - Structural Engineering Drawing
These Australian Standards are developed to provide architects, builders, drafting officers and building designers like yourselves, with a universal method for the representation of buildings and their components, for both the preparation and interpretation of architectural drawings.
Australian Building Act 1993; and
Australian Building Regulations 2006 - with specific reference to the following sections:
Part Three: Building Permits; and
Part Four: Siting.
2.2 Standard Drawing Requirements
There are number of fundamental drawing requirements, established within AS1100.101 and particularly AS1100.301, the Architectural drawing standard, that must be observed throughout the production of drawings, whether drawing by hand, or utilising our Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) facilities. It must be noted that although these two methods of drawing production seem distant, the basic principles of drawing and organising are consistent for both.
2.2a Paper Sizing
Paper sizes used for the preparation and presentation of drawings for which you design must be chosen appropriately. You must take into a number of factors when considering the specific size of paper to use, including, but not limited to the size of the structure or land envelope being drawn, and the required or recommended specified scale in which specific drawings must adhere to.
For our design drawing purposes, we would like you to ensure you use paper sizing in accordance with the ISO-A series, as stated in AS1100.101, as these are industry standard sizes, readily available, and able to be printed and reproduced in-house. See table 2.1.
2.2b Dimension of Lines
All line work within drawings must be produced in accordance with AS 1100.101, Section 3: Lines, to ensure uniformity and legibility of what it is being drawn. The standard describes attributes of line work, including thickness of line, broken or dashed lines, and line spacing, which represent different building and allotment properties within drawings.
The scale must be shown on all drawings, with exception to drawings not-to-scale (this must be clearly stated on the drawings). It will be located within the title block, in the lower right of the drawing. In the case of a page featuring two or more differently scaled views or components, these scales will not only be located within the tile block, but also underneath the individual drawings.
AS 1100.101, section 5.3, states that two types of scale can be used, a ratio prefixed by the word "SCALE", or a block scale, which utilises a line with measurements marked at increments. For the majority our drawings, we will be utilising the first method. If, however, a drawing is not to scale, this must be stated as "NOT TO SCALE" in the title block.
As a general rule, the specific scaling ratios detailed in Table 2.6 of AS 1100.301 should be utilised, which are as follows:
Allotment Plans/Site Plans: 1:500 ; 1:200 ;
General Location Drawings (Floor plans, elevations, sections, ceiling plans, services plans): 1:200 ; 1:100 ; 1:50 ;
Larger ratio scales are used to show specifically detailed drawings of certain technical structural features and components, like footing detail, window framing, or individual rooms: 1:50 ; 1:20 ; 1:10 ; 1:5 ; 1:2 ; 1:1.
2.2d Title Block Information
The use of a title block is essential for all drawings produced for submission purposes. The title block will be place in the bottom right-hand corner of each page, and must contain the following information:
Our Company name;
The Title or Name of the drawing;
The drawing number;
Signatures or Initials and dates (of both the designer and the client);
Paper sheet size (in case of size reduction, the original size is noted)
The layout of title block will be a standardised form, applicable to all drawings produced. This will allow a simpler, more streamlined process of establishing the title block
2.2e Drawing Numbering
Each drawing, whether part of a set, as required for submission of a Building Permit Application, or otherwise, must be numbered accordingly. The numbering system will be used to keep drawings organised within the set submitted, by workers when on-site, and also aid both filing and archival storage.
The number specified on each drawing will be positioned, in accordance with AS 1100.101, in the lower right-hand corner of the page, within the title block.
2.2f Revision Number
In order to ensure everybody who will view and use the drawings produced is using the approved and most up-to-date version, each drawing must contain a revision number, to avoid problems occurring and assist in filing purposes. This revision number must be displayed in the space provided to the left of the title block, within the supplementary information section.
2.2g Supplementary Information
Free space on each drawing page should be provided, usually to the left of the title block, for the inclusion of any other necessary information specific to the drawing, such as true north and materials specifications.
Due to the size restrictions one faces with drawing documents, in regards to the representation and notation of various building elements, materials and components, the use of abbreviations has become standardised. This allows shorthand representations to be placed within each drawing page. AS 1100.101 and AS 1100.103 provide both the encoding and decoding of a variety of accepted general abbreviations.
Much like abbreviations, conventions are utilised within the drawings to show details that are more simply shown by pictorial and symbolic representation. Conventions have been established for not only particular features and appliances within a building, but also for particular materials, finishes, structural members and cross referencing requirements. These conventions are contained within both AS1100.101 and AS 1100.301, and should be utilised when producing a drawing.
2.3 Required Drawings and Details: prepared by Frontier's design team
There are a number of drawings and related documents contained within the drawing set that must be prepared by our designers for submission with a Building Permit application. The following sub sections describe the types of specific drawings required, as set out in Part 3 - Building Permits, of the Building Regulations 2006.
Three copies of the following must be provided to the chosen Building Surveyor, whether Private or Municipal, however the Building Surveyor should be consulted prior to submission of the Building Permit application to ensure all necessary copies are included.
2.3a Site Plan/Allotment Plan
The allotment plan, commonly referred to a the site plan, must be prepared in accordance with 302.2 of Building Regulations 2006. It must be of a scale no smaller than 1:500, and must include the following information:
The boundaries and dimensions of the allotment;
The location of relative easements, within and outside of the allotment;
The distance to the nearest intersecting street;
The position and dimensions of the proposed building , showing its relation to boundaries, existing buildings on-site, and buildings or features of adjoining allotments;
The levels of the allotment, the floors of the building, street drainage and stormwater drain;
The layout of drains and point of discharge;
The areas of impermeable surfaces on-site;
The proposed car parking spaces on-site; and
The layout of private open space on the allotment.
See Appendix 1, Sheet 2, for an example of an allotment plan, prepared for submission of a Building Permit application, prepared in scales of both 1:500 and 1:200.
2.3b Floor Plan of each level
With every Building Permit application, designers must ensure they have prepared and produced three copies of a floor plan, for each level of the building. The floor plan can be easily thought of as a bird's eye view of a building, with its roof removed. A floor plan will need to show the following:
Overall dimensions of the building and its envelope;
Doors and the direction of opening;
Locations of fittings and fixtures
Dimensions of openings, both external and internal;
Dimensions of both internal and external walls;
Title of each room;
Floor plans and other plan views are often called "general arrangement plans", and as designers you may be required to produce plan views of a variety of levels of the building being designed. Other types of drawings in this group may include Services Plans (specific to plumbing or electrical work), Roof Plans, Ceiling Plans, and Floor Finishing Plans.
See Appendix1, Sheets 3, 6 and 7, for examples of a floor plan, electrical services plan and a floor finishing layout plan, prepared in a scale of 1:100. As noted earlier, scales used for these types of drawings can be 1:200, 1:100, and 1:50, however as the designer you will be required to choose the scale based on not only the size of the building you are drawing, but also the size of paper sheet chosen.
The elevation drawings are basically square views of the faces of a building , viewed from the sides, the front and the rear. Their purpose is to represent what the finished building would look like to the observer, when viewed from these positions. The Building Surveyer will require three copies of the prepared elevations to be produced with the permit application. Usually, elevation drawings will include limited detail, apart from certain finishes or service runs and a number of essential dimensions, and should include, but not limited to, the following:
Elevation views of all faces of the building, clearly noting the direction of each face;
The finished floor height and ceiling heights; and
The shape and sizes of windows, doors and other openings.
See Appendix 1, Sheet 4, for an example of a proposed elevations drawing, prepared in a scale of 1:100. Elevations, like plan views, are generally presented in a scale of 1:200, 1:100 or 1:50, depending of course on building dimensions and paper size.
Section views, for our purposes, are primarily cross-cut views of a building, its features, and its specific structural and elements and sub-systems, however careful planning will ensure only the necessary sections views are prepared for the drawing set. According to AS 1100.101, a section is essentially a view of an object, at the cutting plane, and may include detail necessary that is beyond the cutting plane itself.
The section view of the building itself should include detail from the foundations up to the roof finishing, and include dimensions and detail of footing systems, flooring systems, room dimensions and roofing systems, however more specific details of a structure should be drawn in specialised sections in a larger scale, as detailed in the next section.
See Appendix 1, Sheet 5, for an example of section drawings, prepared in scales of 1:100, 1:50, and 1:10.
2.3e Detailed Construction Drawings
Detailed construction drawings will also be required to be prepared, to show the more intricate detail of specific components of the building. These must be prepared in accordance with the relating Standards, regulations and building codes, and be provided so as the Building Surveyor can assess the adequacy of the buildings particular elements for compliance. These can be of both plan or section views, and are generally presented in a scale not less than 1:20. These must be prepared in accordance with AS 1100.301, and often make reference to the consulting engineers drawings.
See Appendix 1, Sheet 9, for examples of detailed slab drawings, showing rebate details.
Three copies the specifications of the building proposal will be required for the application. The specifications of the project will contain important information regarding the quality of both the materials to be used, and the workmanship expected, for the construction process. The specifications will be used to establish whether or not the proposed building will meet all quality standards legally required for the construction of a building in Australia.
The specifications will often be presented as general notes within the drawing set, an example of which can be seen in Appendix 1, Sheet 1.
There are a variety of schedules that can be produced, to provide more specific details regarding materials and products to be used within the construction, than can be included within each drawing set. Schedules are tables of information that can show itemised descriptions of these numbered items within the drawings, including doors and windows, and their framing specifications, and finishing methods and products for both external and internal surfaces, such as walls, floorings, paints, rendering, tiling, and cornice work, and fixtures and appliances within the building itself.
Schedules provide us with more efficient way of determining what goes where, and assists both materials and products ordering and costing, the organisation of sub-contractors materials needs, and the delivery and checking of orders upon delivery to the site.
2.4 Additional Drawings
There are a number of additional drawings, prepared by external consultants, that will also be required to accompany our Building Permit application. These will be determined, through consultation with the Building Surveyor, to ensure that necessary regulations, building codes and standards are met.
2.4a Structural Engineering Drawings
The drawings which a consulting structural engineer will produce, will usually be incorporated in the drawing set, as a detailed construction drawing, however, there may be specific circumstances where separate drawings may be required. These may include detail of footing and slab systems, whether on-ground or elevated, and solutions to variety of structural design issues for which specialised consideration required. Engineers drawings may be of plan or section view, or of specific projections, and are usually scaled not less than 1:20, to ensure the representation of required detail.
2.4b Survey Plan
The survey plan, prepared by the consulting licensed Land Surveyor, may also be required. The survey plan must show existing site conditions and details, including, but not limited to, boundaries, easements, services and drainage locations, existing buildings, position and size of established vegetation, and related detail of adjoining allotments.
2.5 Specific Requirements as per Building Regulations, Part 4 - Siting
If the local Council and the Relevant Building Surveyor decides a Planning Permit is not applicable for a future development, usually one dwelling on a single allotment or associated works, residential Siting needs to be in accordance with Part 4 of the Building Regulations 2006 or the ResCode. The Relevant Building Surveyor must make certain that the design documentation submitted for the Building Permit application conforms with these Regulations.
'ResCode' applies to all residential Building Permit applications. 'ResCode' gathers all the objectives and standards for housing together into two regulatory documents: local Council Planning Scheme's and Part 4 of the Building Regulations 2006.
2.5a Site Setbacks
Site setbacks can be located in Part 4 of the Building Regulations, for more information refer to:
Maximum street setback: Regulation 408
For a new Class 1 building, except for an alteration, set back from the street cannot be more than one third of the depth of the land
This regulation is not applicable if an allotment is more than 0.40469ha.
Any design that does not meet these requirements needs consent from the relevant council and the report is to be added to the building permit application
Minimum street setback: Regulation 409
If the allotment falls within a zone in a planning scheme mentioned in Schedule 5; and
If the Schedule of the zone in the planning scheme states there is a setback from the street alignment-
A building on an allotment in a planning scheme must be setback from the street no less than the specified setback, in relation to the Schedule of the zone within that planning scheme.
According to the Building Commission, 2006 consent to alter Regulation 409 may be given under the following circumstances:
"The reporting authority may give its consent where a single dwelling, other than a fence, does not comply with regulation 409 of the Building Regulations 2006, if -
(a) the setback will be more appropriate taking into account the prevailing setback within the street; or
(b) the setback will be more appropriate taking into account the preferred character of the area, where it has been identified in the relevant planning scheme; or
(c) the siting of the building is constrained by the shape and or dimensions of the allotment; or
(d) the siting of the building is constrained by the slope of the allotment or other conditions on the allotment; or
(e) there is a need to decrease the setback to maximise solar access to habitable room windows and or private open space; or
(f) the setback will be more appropriate taking into account the desire or need to retain vegetation on the allotment; and
(g) the setback is consistent with a building envelope that has been approved under a planning scheme or planning permit and or included in an agreement under section 173 of the Planning and Environment Act 1987; and
(h) the setback will not result in a disruption of the streetscape; and
(i) the setback is consistent with any relevant neighbourhood character objective, policy or statement set out in the relevant planning scheme" (Building Commission Victoria, Ministers Guidelines, 2006, p.2).
Side and Rear setbacks: Regulation 414
A dwelling can be built up to the side or rear boundary in the following circumstances;
The dwelling must be either within 150mm off the boundary or 1m off the boundary
If a dwelling is to constructed on the side or rear boundary and the adjoining property has a habitable room with a window facing the proposed dwelling. Then there must be a light court to the window that has a minimum area of 3m² and a minimum dimension of 1m clear to the sky
The following may infringe into the setback distance by not more than 500mm; porches and verandahs, sunblinds, screens (refer to regulation 419(5)(d) or 419(6)),water tanks and heating and cooling equipment
Refer to Regulation 414 for more information.
2.5b Building Height
The height of a building must not exceed;
10m if the slope of the natural ground level at any cross section of the site of the building that is wider than 8m is 2.5°; and
9m in any other case
2.5c Site Coverage
(1) Buildings are not to cover more of an allotment than the coverage specified in the Schedule, relevant to the zone in the planning scheme.
(2) If sub-regulation (1) is not relevant, Buildings are not to cover more than 60% of an allotment.
When calculating site coverage, eaves, fascia and gutters not exceeding 600mm in total width, unroofed swimming pools, unroofed terraces, unroofed patios, unroofed decks and pergolas can be ignored.
Building Regulation 412
(1) Where a building is to be erected on an allotment, not more than 80% of the area of the lot can be concealed by impermeable surfaces
2.5e Car Parking
Building Regulation 413
(1) Where a Class 1 building is to be constructed on a lot, space must be made for 2 car parking areas that can be accessed from the street. Of the 2 parking spaces;
One space must be at least 6m long and 3.5m wide; and
The second space must be at least 4.9m long and 2.6m wide.
A building can impede into a car parking space if it is at least 2.1m above that space.
Despite the first two points if the 2 car parking spaces join each other in a garage or carport or in a space constricted by walls, the double space can be 5.5m in width.
A Change to a building on a allotment cannot decrease the number of parking spaces, unless there are already more than 2 in which case the number of spaces can be reduced to 2.
Additional reference should be made to Building Regulations, Part 4 - Siting, for relevant building regulations from Regulation 401 through 431.
3.0 Documentation Section
Section 3 provides detailed information on the documents required for a Building Permit.
3.1 Application for Building Permit
Building Regulation 301, Schedule 2, Form 1(refer appendix 2)
(1) An application for a Building Permit can be made in accordance with Form1.
(2) The relevant information included in the application will be the information described in Form 1.
(3) An application for a building permit needs to have sufficient information to show all building work carried out will comply with the Act and these Regulations.
3.1a Additional Information required to accompany the Application
Full details of the application process can be located in Building Regulations Part 3- Building Permits.
(1) Building Permit applications must be accompanied by;
(a) 3 copies of drawings illustrating the plan at each floor level, elevations, sections, dimensions, and size and location of any structural members, drawn to a scale not less than 1:100, plus any other details that may be necessary to show compliance to a scale of not less than 1:20 (refer to appendix 1)
(b) 3 copies of specifications, describing the materials and methods that are to be used in construction. Specifications can be site notes or general notes written directly on drawing plans (refer to appendix 1)
(c) 3 copies of allotment plans shown in a scale not less than 1:500, showing the matters set out in sub-regulation (2)
(2) The matters to be demonstrated on the allotment plan are;
(a) the boundaries and dimensions of the allotment and if there are any easements
(b) the distance to the closest intersecting street
(c) the location and dimension of the proposed dwelling and its relationship to: the boundaries of the allotment, any existing building
(d) the levels of the allotment, the floors of the building, street drainage and stormwater drain
(e) the layout of the drains to the point of discharge
(f) the location, dimensions and total area of impermeable surfaces for the purposes of regulation 412
(g) the location and dimensions of car parking spaces for the purpose of regulation 413
(h) the location, dimension and area of private open spaces for the purpose of regulation 421
(3) Additional copies of the documents set out in sub-regulation (1) can be requested by the building surveyor as required
3.2 Certificate of Title
The certificate of title is a legal document accompanied by its own unique volume and folio number which is used to identify land, and provide records of ownership. All building applications lodged through council are required to have a recently searched, fully legible copy of the title (less than 3 months old). A full copy of the title must include a diagram of the property. A certificate of title shows land ownership and any encumbrances that may be affecting the land. These encumbrances could include easements, mortgages, covenants, section 173 agreements and caveats (refer to appendix 2).
3.2a Restrictive Covenants
Restrictive covenants limit land owners from certain uses or development of their land. Any covenants are registered on the Title and full details of the covenant can be found on a separate document called the Instrument of Transfer. Covenants apply to present and future owners of the land. Restrictive covenants may include restrictions on; building one or more houses on an allotment, the use of the land, or the building materials that are to be used.
3.2b Section 173 Agreements
Section 173 Agreements are legal agreements between the owners of the land and the responsible authority (Council). The agreement is made under the Planning and Environment Act 1987. A Section 173 Agreement lays out any conditions or restrictions on the use or development of the land. This agreement combines the present land owners and any future owner of that land. A section 173 Agreement is a separate document to the Title but is registered on the Title by a reference number. A search of the Agreement may produce associated documents such as; Urban Design Guidelines or Building Envelope Plans especially in new housing estates.
3.3 Geotechnical Engineer Soil Reports
Soil Tests (site classification) for residential dwellings or allotments are required to assess the subsurface conditions and provide correct information to design appropriate foundations. Geotechnical Engineer reports undertake soil investigations in accordance with the Australian Standards;
AS2870-1996: "Residential Slabs and Footings - Construction" and
AS1726-1993: "Geotechnical site investigations".
The building site is classified based upon the expected movement of the foundation soils. This is directly related to the capacity of the soil to shrink and swell.
The following classifications may be typically given:
CLASS 'A' - Little or no ground movement
CLASS 'S' - Slightly reactive sites
CLASS 'M' - Moderately reactive sites
CLASS 'H' - Highly reactive sites
CLASS 'E' - Extremely reactive sites
CLASS 'P' - Problem site
Soil reports should be attached to the building permit application forms.
3.4 Five Star Energy Report
The Building Codes of Australia (BCA) gives a number of options to show compliance with 5 Star Performance Requirements. The factors that are to be considered are;
Types of building materials used- wall fabric, floor types, window frames and glass types
Increased thickness for wall and floor insulation
Improved house orientation in regards to the sun
Better quality window products, including double glazing
Increased window protection to stop heat getting in or out
Size of windows in relation to floor area
Using 5Star rated heating and hot water systems
Utilising energy efficient cooling
Compliance with the performance requirements can only be achieved by complying with the Deemed to Satisfy provisions or otherwise by formulating an Alternative Solution. When assessing an Alternative Solution by use of the Verification Method (refer BCA), new Class 1 buildings are required to achieve a House Energy Rating of 5 stars using relevant software, that is compliant with the Australian Building Codes Board. Both the Deemed to satisfy and Verification Method require that a new Class 1 building have either:
A rainwater tank connected to all sanitary flushing systems
A solar hot water system
When the Verification Method is used an accredited residential thermal performance assessor must stamp the plans, record the energy rating and accreditation number These plans must then be submitted with the building permit application. A new Class 1 building must provide details separately of any rainwater tank or solar hot water system, including the size and location of the rainwater tank and the type and size of the solar hot water system to be installed.
3.5 Timber Framing Schedule
AS 1684 Residential Timber Framed Construction is the Australian Standard document referenced within the Building Codes of Australia. The timber Framing Schedule may be nominated on building plans within the drawing section.
Specifications in regards to the building plans can be nominated in the drawing section or produced on a separate document to be added to the building application.
3.7 Property Information
Property information may be required by the Building surveyor and will include details such as; Land subject to flooding, termite, bush prone land and alpine areas. This application form can be obtained from the relevant Council for a fee and attached to the building application form.
3.8 Legal point of Discharge
A request for a legal point of discharge can be made verbally by phone or over the counter, or in writing through a property information request. The proposed development must be identified, to gain the appropriate legal point of discharge. The assets identified on the legal point of discharge will include Council drain, kerb and channel and easements.
3.9 Bushfire Attack Level
New building permit applications are subject to new construction requirements under the building standards for bushfire prone areas, AS 3959. Determining the building's construction requirements are:
Determine if the building is in a designated bushfire attack level (all of Victoria)
Using the site classification procedure, determine the bushfire attack level
Select the appropriate construction solutions
Office Manual Overview
Frontier Design & Construction has developed this Office Manual to enable you, members of our design team, to implement the most efficient and productive methods of procuring all necessary materials for submission of a Building Permit Application. This manual should be read in conjunction with all relevant legislation, regulations and standards, referenced within.
This Office Manual, and its referenced material, aims to serve as a comprehensive guide for the development and production of design drawings and documentation, with the view of achieving a more streamlined Building Permit application process, in turn, ensuring our projects remain economically feasible, and our reputation for the highest quality housing design and construction is maintained.