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Delay in construction project is a vital issue that keeps everybody on track in respective of position in life the fact is despite amount of money voted for a giving project delay will still occur meaning delay in construction project is inevitable ,though many researchers have done are lot to reduce delay from our construction industries but the applications of their search results is the problem .giving attention to the meaning of construction and project. Construction project management is a means of creating change or organising project activities to meet its objective in any of field of operation, the Association of project managers (APM) defined project in two (2) key features uniqueness and trans science looking at this definition uniqueness are separate to business as usual activities that require people to pay a specific attention temporally in project objectives which result to effective team work towards a successful project delivery to reduce delay in construction sites ,our concerned here is delay in project which is common in projects due to one reason or the other ,so delay can been seen as late or slowing down or something made late, Lowsley and Linnett (2007) says delay due happen to most construction sites despite the size or complexity delay happen in activity from industries . owning to the fact that Nigeria is a developing country we are faced with delay in construction as a result financial problem and stakeholders which need to be addressed to avoid further occurrence .
OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
The main objective of this review is stated thus.
1.To compare the causes of delay in Niger Delta region of Nigeria to other develop countries
2. To examine the effect of delay in Niger Delta region of Nigeria
Following previous research study conducted on delay in construction project or industry Lowsley and linnett (2007) define delay in construction project to be unforeseen ground condition, interruption by others and variation during the works and they further describe the factors that are linked to cause delay in construction no matter the size of the project as material shortage, labour weather problems are seen , all definition of delay varies to understanding but the causes seems similar in nature according to Sweis et.al (2007) delay in construction projects is an integral part of project life while Sambasevan and Soon (2007) in their own underlying essential ideas concluded that delay in construction industries is a global phenomenon . then Hamzah Abdul et.al.(2010) referenced to Ahmed et.al (2003) who defined delay in construction as due to overrun as a result of either time beyond stipulated completion schedule as agreed by both client and contractor.
Assaf and Al-Hejji 2006; Aibinu and Jagbora 2002;( PMBOK 2004) in their wisdom defined delay as time overrun either beyond completion date as specified in a contract or beyond date parties agreed upon for the delivery in other words a bridge of contract between client and contractor that cause the project to exceed the stipulated time or date of completion. Long le-Hoai et.al (2008) also referred to Bramble and Callahan (1987) with their understanding defined delay to be extension of some part of the project due to unforeseen circumstance Stumpf (2000) also view it and defined delay in construction as an art or event that extend the time necessary to finish activities under a contractthey are classified in several ways and the classification can be based on compensability and timing, according to Bordoli and Bacdwin (1998) the team "date delay" occurs when a stipulated activity could not start nor finish until a specific date irrespective of when the proceeding activities were carried out or planned to be carried out.
Shen (1997) suggest that delay in construction completion time could also be one cause for extra cost during project to the client and contractor as they both share the risk caused by delay because it means potential loss of income to client then increase of cost in over head for contractor .hence the time difference will not only make client to lose money consider the purpose of project Hamzeh Abdul 2010 also referred to research conducted by Mansfied et al 1994;Assaf and Al-Hejji 2006; Chan and Kumaraswamy ; 1998; Al-Khalil and Ghafly 1999 .to identify and examine the causes of delay in some of the common local construction i Al-Khalil and Ghafly 1999 ;Frimpong and Oluwoye (2003) .details show that finance was the major cause of delay Songul Dayi (2010) in her study referenced Dlakwa and Culpin (1990) who analysed financial problem as a major issue in Nigeria System of project execution that leads to delay and abandonment of some of the projects due to payment delay caused by concerned agencies to the contractor Mansfield et .al (1994 ) in their research conducted a survey in Nigeria case and financial constrain was the cause of delay in project because of improper schedule for fund disbursement to contractors Arditi et.al (1985 ) has similar view in Turkey projects and described it to be financial inefficiency of the public agencies and shortage of resources Ahmed et.al (2003) stated the difficulties faced in Malaysian construction industries as financial related issue on client late payment to contractors Bromilow (1980) in a research in building construction in Australia identifies finance and interference of client and consultant and lack of skill planning as the major sources of project delay , Chan and Kumaraswamy carried out a research survey and examined comparatively
the importance of 83 factors that was challenging Hong Kong construction industries and five among others were discovered to be site condition, slow decision making poor risk management etc Kaming et.al (1997) also considered 31 factors on high rise in Indonesian construction industries and they discovered cost overrun as a frequent problem with other stern issues that influences the increase of cost of materials being inflated and increased in labour cost and their productivity. Noulmanee et.al studied causes of project delay in Thailand construction establishments they discovered and concluded that the cause of delay in project are caused by both parties which are as follows drawing not clear, incomplete and sub-contractors inability to supply manpower, equipment and resources needed for execution of project, they further recommend frequent discussions between both parties to enhance a good working relationship as well as understanding Al-Momani carried out survey in Jordan for 130 construction projects which are said to be public projects to identify causes of project delay in Jordan and weather ,economic
site, late delivery conditions with design related and client change as the cause of delay in Jordan ,then following their investigations they recommend that attention should be giving to factors in construction project to help practitioners minimize contract disputes to enhance project delivery .
Aibinu and Jagboro (2002) in their subsequent research identified the effect of construction delay in Nigeria to be cost overrun ,dispute ,time overrun and arbitration some time project abandonment .while Koushki et.al (2005) in their own experience in Kuwait identified time delay and cost increase as their causes therefore changing orders owners finance deficiency and client inexperience with other contractor related issues as the causes of delay in construction. Ricchard and Glemm (1974) in their study found out that delay in construction project as a result of time and cost has serious effect on project time, therefore stated thus that delay in construction is an insignificant problem in construction industry.
Kraiem and Diekmann (1987) considered the occurrence of delay as difficult situation By their understanding and they state thus, there are more than one circumstance where delay may be encountered it could be at the early stage of the construction then how will an arbitrator settle a complex claim involving both parties .but Stephen and Christopher (2007) defined arbitrator as means or procedure of resolving disputes involving two and they agreed to refer it for decision by third party who is a respected senior figure but don't also forget that arbitrator has been in practice since 1698. Shen et.al (2001) according to their investigation which says that majority of building
projects undertaking in Australia could not be accomplished as contained in the contract agreement they further declare that delay in construction is worldwide quoting one-eighth of building contracts that was accomplished within the stipulated time of completion while 40% of it exceeded average overrun. On that same perspective.
Bromilow (1974) also disclosed investigation carried out in Malaysia a fast developing
country in south east of Asia should not an exception quoting approximately 17.3% out
of 417 government contracts in 2005 were considered sick because the projects were
delayed for more than three months or abandoned.
Don't also forget that the theory of delay analysis was derived because delay was seen to
be a paramount issue discussed in construction sites globally measures were put in place to resolve problems or disputes arising from any delay in construction projects and Kraiem and Diekmann (1998) came up with their classification of delay so that clients and contractors will begin to understand the way how when a claim should be made as a result of delay, the first was compensatory delay (CD) non excusable delay (NED) and excusable delay (ED) and CD type of delay was referred to delay caused by project owner or their representatives then NED according to them referred to contractor and their representatives kind fault or cause to delay projects while ED according to them was adopted all through their presentation .but Lowsley and Linnett (2007) said assessment of delay to completion of a project is not by any means straight forward and Alkass et.al (1996) also make their presentations that to determine the delay type in construction industry is a difficult situation due to problems surrounding assigning a particular responsibility of delay to either party so they concluded that delay are mostly interdependent or auto correlated.
Ssmarakoon (2009) carried out an investigation as referenced by Perera and Aruruddha (2011) to identify the effects and impart caused by delay in construction industries with respect to small or medium size building projects in a city called Sri-Lanka he was able to discover the major causes and its effect to the industries ,he ranked them according to their occurrence ,and recommend a proven formula for clients, consultants and contractor to reduce delays in construction industries.
Penditha (2001) also conducted a research to identify factors affecting delays in building industries been that his aim was to discover the factors that affects building projects in their pre- construction stage, his study was interesting hence its geared towards grouping the factors that causes delay and positioned them thereafter make his recommendations on how to reduce delay in construction industry though his report could not capture his aim properly.
Arditi and Pattanakitchamroon (2006) was able to identify some delay that is likely to erupt during construction stage which might affect the completion date from either parties and may not have caused any damage to another party, they further demonstrated that delay could be caused by more than one party or neither but weather or unpredicted conditions that cannot been seen physical to apportion blame. Since we are faced with challenges in our construction industries on how to simply reduce or minimize delay Lo et.al (2006) came up with a suggestion that client should also endeavour to test or check contractors ability experience and competency through their previous records of past projects performance and same should be applicable to consultant so that they will be required to prove or demonstrate their own ability to achieve or satisfy their clients. And they had earlier in (2004b) suggested that solutions to reduce delay in construction has to do with competency and commitment of clients and any party involved for a proper planning and survey before projects commencement hence there are issues that are likely to come much later which are difficult to predict in most cases.
HYPOTHESIS OR RESEARCH STATEMENT.
Incompetence or experience
Incompetence as defined by Long Le- Hoai (2008) 'is poor site management and supervision', 'slow information flow from parties' Loet.al (2006) had their view for competence and suggest that selection of contractors by client should be base on their past (contractors) experience of projects executed . so incompetency should not seeing having advantages in construction project but disadvantage hence some of the reasons why projects are delivered late not abiding to design specifications are as a result of incompetence.
The word incompetence could be seen as inability to perform a given task or deliver a set goal or targets at a stipulated time, and the selection of contractors should not only base on past experience but similar to proposed or anticipated project , competence should not be seen as what is only applicable to the contractors alone selection of work force (labour) is another area were attention should paid to labour substitution .
According to Kaming et.al (1997) whom in their research states that one of the important factor causing delay of high-rise in Indonesian project is shortage of resources Ubaid (1991) also concluded that contractors resources is one the major problem which measures were taking to confirm that finance , human and material resources are the causes of delay in project , Ahmed et.al (2003) in line with Abdul-Rahman et.al (2006) comment on factors influencing project delivery in various sites are funds, currency and inflation rate, the resultant effect will be delay in project.
This is the engine house of any construction project, so finance is an art of managing monetary resources of organization as defined in oxford dictionary so cash flow in any giving project will not only expedite action but keep the site lively hence there are lots of financial appreciation or rewards to workers.
Time as it is referred in this text should not only be seen as schedule to finish a giving task as referenced here by Stumpf (2000) was in concerned with time to finish activity and Shen et .al (2001) focus on time schedule for project completion Glemm (1974) considered cost as an effect to the project time while Aibinu and Jagboro (2000) discussed time as cause of delay in construction project in Nigeria Hamzah Abdul et.al (2010 )and Ahmed et.al (2003) concentrate on time beyond stipulated time of completion of the project.
Above all time giving to workers or labour who are directly involve in this construction project is nothing comparing other develop countries across European union there is a standard regulation for trade union which is not followed 35 working hours per week and 40 working hours per week with 20 days minimum annual leave and 28 days minimum annual leave were a standard for organization with more than 20 work force but reverse is the case in some conditions of service hence they (workers) are mandated to put in 70 hours in a week without annual leave so compare the health of this two sets of workers who will likely have a greater input than the other
Research is a method of using scientific search for ideas or development of knowledge or it could also be a systematic way to establish a long story and its either to solve new problems or profound solutions to the existing by proving ideas theories. And we are faced with two type of research method namely QUATITATIVE or QUALITATIVE research method but for the purpose of this review we will adopt the method that best explain what the problems are by definition.
This research deals with things in their natural settings with an attempt to interpret ,or a systematic process in which numerical data are used to obtain information about a word ,and this type of research method is used to describe variables , and more likely examine the relationship among variables which leads to determination cause and effect interactions between them Burns and Grove( 2005) .
This will be the advantages of this kind of research if adopted for use , it will allow the researcher to have a broader knowledge that involves a greater number of topic and enhance his or her ability to generalise issues at the same it will also give room for a greater goal to be achieved with accuracy.
Remember that quantitative method of analysis are specifically design to provide summaries of data collected ,also researchers personal bias will be avoided because of his or her distance .
The following are the disadvantage will likely be data collection will look much narrower than especially having dataset superficial problem and his or her findings will be limited because it only provide numerical details instead of been narrative in nature.
The formation of questions by interviewer can also lead to bias with negative representation because data will show his or her view instead of that of the participating subject.
CONCLUSION and SUMMRY
From finding through the existing literatures delay in construction project are similar in nature according to investigations carried out or conducted by researchers in the past and present time the term delay is a general problem faced all over the world today, and no matter how organized a country tend to be or rich with natural resources delay is inevitable so long construction exists.
Because there factors that contributes to delay which are not men made but nature has it all, for instance some European countries experiences winter and others experience rainy season ,there for in this wonderful natural and free gift of nature construction must face delay.
The financial houses contributes in their own capacity shipping of materials labour stakeholders council ,all of this contributes in one way or the other to cause delay in our construction industries today.
The purpose of our research to me is to reduce and minimize the rate of delay to a minimum acceptable level and that is only when researchers recommendations are giving attention by the citizens .
Selection of contractor also have a bigger role to play ,client should always look out for the best and do away with lower bidder wins the job ,because some contractor just need to be engaged by all means despite the consequence and this type end up abandoning work site, also client should consider contractor with financial background and the required expertise .
Labour selection shouldn't base on 'who know who' rather than looking out for experience qualify and train labour (employee) to occupy key positions .
Time is also another problem that needs attention by clients and contractors they should not only consider time to finish the project but also think of the executors time which need to marry with start time and finish time, is only when employees are healthy that you can except great output.