Current Situation Of The Mep Industry Construction Essay

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The main purpose of this research is to analyse and find out the most cost effective and MEP materials for difference kind of building in Qatar. MEP materials amount to a prominent part of the budget of most building construction projects. This dissertation is categorized into six main chapters. Namely,

Introduction includes background of the whole research. It is divided into sub categories which describe and discuss the construction industry as a whole, the availability, durability and costs of MEP materials. It also talks about the construction industry in Qatar. But primarily, the introduction identifies the aims and objectives of this research.

Chapter two discusses Literature related to Materials which are generally used in the industry. It starts with giving a brief history of MEP materials. Then it goes on to discuss about MEP materials qualities and characteristics such as Strength, Stability, and Resistance to ground moisture, heat conductivity. Then Floor finishes are shown in categories which are namely Hard floor finishes, Timber finishes, Resilient finishes and Joint-less finishes. Then these main types are further divided into sub categories. Then Literature published on most using MEP Martials in the Qatar concerned and their costs over a period of six years is discussed.

Then, in the third chapter, the research method used for this particular research is discussed. It includes the data collection methods as well.

The next chapter is on the data analysis. It shows floor rates gathered in a period of seven years on the above mentioned MEP materials. The costs, durability and such other factors of the MEP materials are compared and an average rate is given at the end of the chapter. Then using the data collected and analysed in the past five years, rate forecasts are made on the concerned MEP materials. Then using all that data, the most cost effective and a practical MEP material for Qatar is determined. Then another analysis is done to find out the floor finish with the highest quality for the budget spent.

Finally, conclusions and recommendations from the findings of the research are pointed out.

The Research project topic is "Most cost effective MEP materials using in Qatar construction Industry". The purpose of this research is to obtain the prizes of MEP Materials to identify the cost effective MEP materials and to compare and analyse the construction of MEP material using in Qatar. In order to achieve the desire target it is to be expected to go into details of cost in construction industry including mechanical, electrical & plumbing aspects.

In the modern construction industry, executing high technology materials use for Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing works, as well as Electro Mechanical works are carrying out for Official, Residential, Hotels, Commercial, Substation, Warehouse & etc. It will have both design and execution. When considering the cost above mentioned aspects it is estimating by individually.

Construction Industry in Qatar

In the Construction Industry and any part of the world occupies a significant place in terms of the development of the particular country. The contribution of the construction industry to a country's Gross Domestic Production (GDP), which measures the level of development of that country. It's a major item and that affects directly to the Gross Development Value. Due to the fact that the construction plays a major role in the country's government influences to this sector, and its quality and output. In order to achieve these set of rules and regulations applicable to this industry have been introduced and enforced.

Now in Qatar newly starting and developing several kind of project in every aspect due to the FIFA (2022). Therefore in the Qatar construction industry they have decided to look over each facilities for own population. After the FIFA, they're going to be developed impact of the commercial and tourism.

While selecting Qatar as a country for my research, I have considered several sectors. It means, following so many factors through my present situation such as engaging with professional human bodies who are dealing with MEP construction and relevant materials, supervising of purchase the materials to the company and evaluate the price every MEP materials among several suppliers.

Dealing with MEP sub contractors, International suppliers, Engineers and Project Managers etc. and also this topic has selected due to the engaged with actual situation of MEP construction in Qatar.

Availability and Durability MEP materials

The availability of MEP materials in the market is important for the control of the cost and the time of the project. The availability is dependent of the availability of raw materials and delivery times etc. the availability of materials help to control the price and when there is a scarcity, the prices tend to increase.

The durability is in the hands of the producer of such material. The correct mix of the raw materials, the standards of manufacture, quality of raw materials used are affecting the durability. When the materials used are not durable, the replacement cost and repairer cost increases. Due to that fact the cost of construction climbs up.

Current situation of the MEP Industry

Globally the way people look at MEP Construction Industry has changed long time ago. Three main aspects of any Construction activity (encompassing varied sectorial pockets like Building Construction, Infrastructure, Industrial Units) - Mechanical (HVAC), Electrical and Plumbing, have always witnessed peace of approach in Qatar primarily due to lack of experience & expertise in an integrated services domain. But the recent times have seen a flow in accepting the Global Integrated approach of MEP due to the development of very large projects across the country and thus indicating towards a huge stockpile of demand for MEP Services in the near future. This development of the construction industry portends well for the mechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP) services market, since it is considered an integral service within the construction industry and forms a second largest component after civil works. The rising construction industry has brought in huge expectations in terms of specialized services that provide execution of electro-mechanical projects. This new trend is bringing in huge opportunity for MEP Services contractors as well as the individual service providers to allocate necessary skills, technological advancements & resources to build up the required demands of the last users. The strong construction industry with an increase in demand for a scalable & comprehensive contracting service solutions at one-stop as well as the upward trend in MEP Contract size, the MEP Services industry is expected to gain over the next few years provide enough multinational contractors and suppliers ability to service such large contracts.

In a highly development Qatar construction market with huge projects planned and in the pipeline the demand for MEP services is expected. MEP contracting industry in Qatar is at an inflection point and the fast emerging concept of integrated MEP tenders is clearly segmenting the market in favour of larger players. While significant association in the industry is seen imminent, it is however important to bring together the various stakeholders of the MEP industry in a common platform to converge and address the current major issues & devise a causal plan to bring in the technological advancements to deliver world class services in a highly challenging environment. (Ltd., 2012)

For this Industry should have specific human resources to carry out the construction such as Mechanical Engineers, Electrical Engineers, MEP Quantity Surveyors, Specialist MEP Draftsman, MEP Supervisors and MEP skilled Labours.

MEP Materials

In the construction industry for Electrical, Mechanical and Plumbing usage whatever the materials are using those materials are specialists when engaged with building service engineering Qatar and around the world. And also they are using upturn the efficiency of the work shall introduce high technological tools.

In the Mechanical design those materials are affects to control the heating ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC), plumbing, and rain gutter systems. Then Plumbing Materials often include design specifications for simple work active and fire protection systems, but for more complicated projects, fire protection materials are often separately considered. Electrical Materials are important for the building's power distribution, signalization, fire alarm, telecommunication, lightning protection and control systems, as well as lighting systems. There are several materials have mention below as per the general materials information.

Mechanical

Electrical

Plumbing

Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning System(HVAC)

Duct work

Power Materials

Multicore cables

Drainage works

Package Childers & Central A/Cs

Outlet boxes

Insulations

Cable tray and Trunking

Refrigerant pipes

Wiring devises and conduits

Water Supply works

Air Handling & Distribution Products (Package units) etc.

Generators, Transformers

Air grilles, Etc.

Distribution boards

Fire Fighting

Sprinklers

Lighting fittings

Water Treatment Systems

Fire Fighting control units & Accessories

Lightning Fittings etc.

 

Galvanized pipes

Fire Alarm Materials

FA control panels

 

Fire hose reel

Duct detectors

 

Fire pumps, Tanks etc.

Smoke and heat detectors etc.

 

Isolating Valves

Telephone, Data and Video call system

Data cables

 

Fire Dampers

Data Switches, Modems etc.

 

Fire Protection Fire Hose Reel

Television and CCTV systems

CCTV Cameras

 

Alarm Valves, Etc.

Monitors etc.

 

When the comparing with MEP construction industry with civil industry, it is somewhat difficult to achieve the target on time, because of this industry is very complex than this considering with every aspects. So each professional officer follows only the civil works. Therefore, in the MEP construction industry have lack of professional human resources according to the industry requirements. Then it is automatically increasing demand of the above MEP services as well as Qatar companies regularly finding suitable officers with reasonable experience, so this sector has been selected due to the high necessity of the cost effective materials in the construction industry.

1.4 Main Issue

If the client wants high quality of the MEP materials, the contractor is evaluating high quality material based on reasonable rates. But if the contractor selecting cost effective materials to particular project it may be somewhat low quality. So this is the major issue which has been faced during the preliminary investigation.

The contractor has to provide relevant materials as comprising in the client's specification. It means, especially there consultant has given origin of the country for the MEP materials.

Ex: - Certain lighting fitting is producing by Italy and China. This light fitting is same appearance and same productivity. And cost is high Italy origin light fitting than china. But clients of Qatar requirement is only Italy origin light fitting. So contractor finding what are the issues of the country wise evaluate the cost effective materials and give best proposal to client.

Scope of work (Limitations)

This research carried on limited scope to be followed by the writer. Because of there are so many materials in MEP construction industry and difficult to be carried out that all types of MEP materials.

The following MEP materials are finding out for this research.

Mechanical -

Fire Pumps

Air Handling Units.

FCU

Fire Pumps

Electrical -

Package Engine Generators

BMS Systems

Transformer

Fire Alarm Panel

Plumbing

Water pumps

Water heater

2.1 Hypothesis

After evaluating in the cost effective materials comparing all the high technological material will be selected essential material among them. As per the evaluated records can be utilized cost effective materials for future projects.

2.2 Aim

To examine the commonly using cost effective Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing materials incurred in the construction industry and identify the necessary factors effect to the Qatar.

2.3 Objective

Objective of this investigation to, compare and ascertain the factors that are involved in the construction industry in Qatar and identified the main factor involving in the construction industry. Examine the possibilities of finding ways and means of cut down the Material cost in the construction industry.

To the cut down additional cost of the material it can be used Value Engineering concept. In that situation when following the Value Engineering concept both client and contractor introducing alternatives options for reduce the project cost. It can be affected to the whole project activates related cost. But in this research considering about how effect to the different kind of MEP Materials.

When in the construction field have to identify the Using the value management theory it is expecting to evaluate cost effective MEP materials in the construction industry. It can be done using several procedures and cases study as mentioned below.

Finally Objective of investigation to ascertain the factors that are involved in the construction industry in Qatar,

Finding out the MEP material Installation methods used in Qatar

Finding out the best method to collect and analyze the data concerning the research.

Collecting data from the picked out sources in Qatar & International media.

Analyzing the data gathered from Qatar.

Coming to conclusions.

Pointing out the most cost effective MEP materials for Qatar giving reasons why.

I think I reached my goal with success achieving all objectives along the way. I managed to find out the most cost effective MEP materials that best suits in Qatar.

Literature Review

History of Building Services

Building services engineers are responsible for the design, installation, and operation and monitoring of the mechanical, electrical and public health systems required for the safe, comfortable and environmentally friendly operation of modern buildings. The term "building services engineering" is widely used in the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia, but in the United States of America, the field is also known as architectural engineering or building engineering, though these terms can also have other meanings, even in the United States.

A Building Services Architect is an engineer with experience in the integration of all Building Services.

MEP Material management system using in Qatar

Materials Management System used in Qatar Construction.

Materials management system is very important in construction field in project planning and control. Materials are a very large cost in construction, thus reducing the cost of purchases or buy offers significant opportunities for cost reduction. Poor material management may also lead to costly and avoidable during construction. First, such materials are purchased in advance (From Qatar most of MEP equipment to another country), capital may be tied up, and interest on claims incurred excess inventory of equipment. Even worse, equipment can deteriorate during storage or stolen if not special security is taken. Example, electrical Materials every time store in waterproof areas. Second, delays and additional costs will be used as a resource needed for certain activities are not available. Accordingly, while insuring flow of materials are an important problem for the project managers.

Management Materials not only concern during the step of monitoring which construction takes place. Decisions about the procurement of equipment are also during the initial planning required and scheduling stages. For example, That activities can be incorporated into the project schedule to represent purchases of large items such as elevators for buildings. Availability of equipment can greatly influence the project schedule and track fast or very tight time schedule: enough time for getting the necessary equipment should be allowed. In other cases, more expensive vendors or shippers can be employed to save time.

Management Materials is also a problem at the level of organization as the central shopping and inventory control system is using for standard such items. In this kind of case, projects undertaken by the corporation would submit applications between groups of purchases. On the other hand, this group would maintain a list of standard items to reduce delays in providing equipment or get a lower cost due to bulk purchasing. This management utility equipment problem is similar to the calculation control any community faced with continuing demand for certain items.

Import equipment problems lend themselves especially well to computer-based systems to ensure consistency and completeness of the shopping process. In the world of manufacturing, the uses of automated materials requirements planning systems are common. In these systems, master production scheduling, inventory records and a list of products is part of the merged decide what items should be ordered, and when they should be ordered, and how much of everything must be ordered in the past every time. The heart of these calculations is a simple calculation: the projected demand for each item of material within each subtracted from the count are available. When the count becomes very low, the new procedure is recommended. For that items are non-standard or placed in inventory, the number is even possible since no account should be taken into consideration. Equipment and system requirements, the amount of detailed record keeping are automated and project managers are alerted to the procurement requirements.

Material Procurement and Delivery

Main sources of information for feedback and control of material procurement are requisitions, purchase orders and subcontracts, bids and quotations, shipping and receiving invoices and documents. For projects involving large scale use of resources, the Owner may establish procurement procedures even before the selection of the build to avoid delays and shortages. Under normal conditions, to build up a shop handles procurement for equipment and features the best price / performance specified by the designer. Some overlapping with re handling in the procurement process is inevitable, but it should be reduced to ensure timely delivery of materials in good condition.

MEP Materials for delivery to and from the construction site can be broadly classified as: (a) standard-equipped off-shelf, (2) bulk material, and (3) fabricated members or units. Delivery process, including storage and transportation, and field installation will be different for these classes of materials. Equipment needed to handle and haul these classes of materials will also be different.

Bulk materials refer to materials in their natural state or semi-processed, such as HVAC duct work to be Installed, Insulation of piping, etc. which are commonly encountered in abundance in construction. Some bulk materials such as duct work or insulation work can be measured at the volume (KG). Obviously, much of the material for delivery could be significantly different when expressed in various stages of volume, according to the behaviour of such materials.

Standard Valves, piping, Louvers and etc. are common examples of standard equipment off-the shelf which are widely used in industry for chemical processing. Since the standard off-the shelf equipment easily stockpiled, the delivery process is simple.

Members fabricated steel such as Fire fighting Pipes and Valves for the buildings are pre-processed in the shop and simplify procedures for field erection. Bolted or Welded connections are attached to half of the members which are cut to standard dimensions for adequate fit. Similarly, pressure valves and steel tanks are often partially or completely fabricated prior to shipping to the field. Commonly, such work can be done in the shop where working conditions can be controlled better, it is advisable to do so, considering that the fabricated members or units can be shipped to the construction site for a reasonable cost.

As a further more step to simplify field assembly, the entire wall panel including wiring and plumbing, or even the entire room can be prefabricated and transported to the site. During the field work is largely the case, the "Materials" for the delivery actually manufactured products and value with other types of work. By means of modern transport construction materials and fabricated units, Percentage of the cost of direct materials and labour for the project could change if more prefabricated units are introduced in the process of construction.

In the industry of the Qatar construction, equipment used and special devices are generally handled by technicians, and not for general work. Thus, the electrical Materials, Plumbers handle pipe materials, etc. This handling gives a lot of scarce skilled technicians and management of contractor activities that are not directly contribute to the building. Since contractors are not common in the freight business, they do not work effectively for cargo delivery. All these factors tend to increase cargo delivery problems for very large projects.

Inventory Control

Once the goods are purchased, they represent the inventory (Check list) used during the process of construction. The overall objective of inventory control is to reduce the total cost of keeping inventory while making trade-offs between major categories of expenses: (1) Order list, (2) purchase costs (3) unavailable cost, and (4 ) holding cost. These costs are related categories from one species to reduce costs may increase costs for others. Costs in all categories in general are under great uncertainty.

Purchase Costs

The costs of purchasing the product buying the unit price from a foreign source including transportation costs and freight costs. For building materials, are usually receiving discounts for shopping, thus lowering the unit cost as increased buying in bulk. Come to think of marketing policies to reduce manufacturers' economies of scale in production, or scale economies in transport. There is also the advantage of being homogeneous materials. For example, the order quantity to ensure that colour or size of objects such as bulb fittings may be desirable. In that manner, it is usually desirable to make a small number of large purchases for supplies. In some cases, organizations that consolidate some small orders from a different number of projects to capture such as bulk discounts; this is a saving to be derived from primary central purchasing office.

Cost of MEP materials is based on the price obtained through the discussion effectively. The unit prices of MEP materials depend on a bargaining leverage, the amount and delivery of time. Organizations with the ability to buy for so long you can command better bargaining leverage. When ordered in large quantities can cause a decline in the price of the unit, they can also increase the cost of making and causing problems in cash flow. Demand for shorter delivery time can also affect the unit price. Moreover, the nature of the design which includes things uneven sizes or shapes must be avoided. Since such objects are not available in the reserve rate, their purchasing leads to higher prices.

Transportation costs are affected by the shipment volume (size) and other different kind of factors. Transportation and a full load carrier often reduces prices and reflects the simplicity of delivery, if the carrier can travel from origin to destination of full load without having to stop for providing partial loads in the centres. Avoiding the transhipment is any other consideration in reducing the cost of shipping chargers. While reducing the cost of shipping is a great objective, needs delicate handling of some items cost more in favour of a system of transportation to avoid replacement and breakage costs.

Order Cost

Costs that reflect the cost of administration of the purchase order for an exporter. To expenses include the cost of making requisitions, analyse alternative vendors, receiving equipment ,writing purchase orders, checking on orders, inspecting equipment, and maintain records of the process. So the cost is usually only a small part of total costs for materials management in construction projects, although you may need to import large.

Holding Costs

Cost or expense to do is basically a result of main (capital) costs, handling, obsolescence, storage, deterioration and shrinkage. Capital cost results from the capital cost or opportunity cost of money tied up in inventory. Once a charge for a product is made, the cost of borrowing is found or death must be diverted from other productive uses. Thus, the capital carrying cost incurred is equal to the value of inventory during the period of rising interest rate obtainable or paid in the period. Note of that capital costs only accumulate when the payments for materials actually occurs, many organizations trying to delay payment for as long as possible to reduce those costs. Handling and storage charges represent the movement and protection for the equipment used. Storage costs also include discomfort caused by other activities of the project and list of materials that get through. Obsolescence is the risk that products lose value because of changes in specifications. Inventory shrinkage is reduced over time due to loss or theft. Deterioration reflects changes in quality equipment due to age or environmental damage. Many of these factors make the cost is difficult to predict in advance, In the site project manager knows only that there are some chance that specific groups of costs occur. In addition to these major kind of categories of costs, there are may be ancillary costs of additional taxes, insurance, (many countries treat the list as taxable property), or Especially in Qatar additional risk is fire. As a general rule, costs will typically represent 30 to 50% of the average account value over the past year, so as the average number of devices on the project is QR 3,640,000 over the year, the cost of doing so was expected to be QR 7,200,000 to QR 14,400,000.

Unavailability Cost

Costs incurred during the absence of a material not available in time to waste. In that manufacturing industry, this type of cost is often called the stock out cost or less. Shortages may delay the work, and so lose resources to delay completion of the work or the entire project. In return, it may be very difficult to predict in advance exactly when the product is required or when the shipment will be received. When there is one project schedule estimates, deviations from the schedule may be occurred during the construction. In addition, costs associated with the shortage may also be difficult to assess, as the material will be used for one activity it is not available, it is possible to assign staff to other activities and, depending upon the activity that is important, the project may be delayed.

Case Study

A case study will be primary, empirical evidence following the MEP materials Value Engineering theory practically process on one particular contract of an organisation. This will include the preparation of electrical materials information.

It has to be taken into account that not all MEP materials are carried out in the same manner and the case study will be following only one instance by a particular organisation whose processes and procedures may or may not be common practice. Certain elements of the value engineering process may be uniquely created by the organization to fit with what they aim to achieve from the process.

The aim of the case study is gain a first-hand insight into the process of VM and to highlight the alternatives of MEP Materials as they arise cut down the budget cost in the construction project.

Value Engineering

As discussed in the earlier section objective, Value engineering can be applied during any stages of a project life cycle. Third VE study (VE-3) stage of value engineering is considered for the case study. Aim of the case study to reduce the MEP material cost by proposing alternative which is providing needed function and reliability.

Application of Value Engineering in Construction project -Case Study

The project selected for value engineering study is the construction of 3B+G+4 Building. Scope of works of the contractor included the complete Civil, Electrical and Mechanical works. In that Construction of Car parks in the three basements, Construction of Retail shops on the ground floor and Construction of 32 flats in the 4 floors including complete supply installation and testing Commissioning of Electrical equipment and Mechanical systems.

For to Understand the Concept of Value engineering in Construction project, the Case Study is only focus on the Electrical Materials. For this study data required are

1). Total Electrical Material cost of the selected project

2). Cost Break down For Electrical Material

5.2: Total Electrical Material Cost and Break down of Total Cost:

Item

Type of Materials

Price in US Dollar

A

Generator

62,664.11

B

Transformer

21,780.82

C

Switch Gears

84,718.36

D

Light Fittings

220,522.47

E

XLPE Cables

109,595.35

F

Containment

61,042.25

G

Wiring Cable

29,267.69

H

Isolators

5,410.50

I

Wiring Accessories

35,814.62

J

Bus Bar Trunking and Accessories

40,893.70

K

Lightening Protection and Earthing

11,136.65

L

Fire Alarm System

57,948.15

M

Low Current System

146,568.07

Total Electrical Material Cost in US Dollar

887,362.75

Table-5.1: Total Electrical Material Cost and Break down of Total cost

Figure-5.1: Percentage Break down of Total Electrical Material cost

From the management instruction to the construction team for to reduce the cost of material and to control the project value, finally concluded that Propose an Alternatives for the XLPE Cables which is contributing major Cost for the electrical Material.

Application of Value Engineering on XLPE cables

For this Study, by Proposing Alternative Manufacturer (Manufacturer B) instead of Specified Manufacturer (Manufacturer A) which is Considered during the time of Estimation. By considering the Specification of cables, prepared the Compliance Statements and also the breakdown cost of cables for the Manufacturer A and Manufacturer B.

Compliance Statements for the Specified Manufacturer (Manufacturer "A")

NO

Description of Specification

Status

Remarks

1

The cables used shall be all of standard sizes and shall satisfy all the requirements of the standard specifications for the type they are used for (complying with BS 5467, BS 6346 or BS 6724).

Comply

Comply With BS 5467

2

Any armored cable being used at site must bear the manufacturer's name on the outer sheath and voltage rating for which it is manufactured.

Comply

3

These cables shall be designed for 600/1000 volts system.

4

These cables shall be either PVC/SWA/PVC or XLPE/SWA/PVC as indicated on the drawings.

Comply

Comply with XLPE/SWA/ PVC

5

Cables carrying 3 phase and neutral loads shall be 4 cores, the neutral conductor having the same cross-sectional area of the phase conductors

Comply

6

The current carrying capacities shall be in strict conformity with the regulations applied after talking in to consideration the derating resulting from the prevailing conditions in the project.

Comply

7

The size of cables used shall be sufficient for the maximum load they are liable to carry.

Comply

8

The Thickness of insulation of Cable of all standard size shall be in the range 0.6 mm to 2.0 mm

Comply

Insulation of cable from the range 0.7mm to 2.2 mm

Table-5.2: Compliance Statement for the Specified Manufacturer (Manufacturer "A")

Total Electrical cable cost and Breakdown of Total cost (Manufacturer "A")

Item:

Description of Electrical Cable Size

Quantity in

Meter

Unit Cost of Material (USD)

Total Cost (USD)

A

4CX95 mm2+1CX50 mm2

750

50.15

37,612.50

B

4CX70 mm2+1CX35 mm2

652

37.10

24,189.20

C

4CX50 mm2+1CX25 mm2

390

26.26

10,241.40

D

4CX25 mm2+1CX16 mm2

365

15.81

5,770.65

E

4CX16 mm2+1CX16 mm2

2100

11.26

23,646.00

F

4CX10 mm2+1CX10 mm2

525

7.64

4,011.00

G

4CX6 mm2+1CX6 mm2

420

5.17

2,171.40

H

4CX4 mm2+1CX4 mm2

514

3.80

1,953.20

Total Electrical XLPE Cable Cost in US Dollar (Manufacturer "A")

109,595.35

Table-5.3: Total Electrical Cable Cost and Break down of Total cost (Manufacturer "A")

Figure-5.2: Percentage of Cable cost (Manufacturer "A")

Compliance Statements for the Alternative Manufacturer (Manufacturer "B")

NO

Description of Specification

Status

Remarks

1

The cables used shall be all of standard sizes and shall satisfy all the requirements of the standard specifications for the type they are used for (complying with BS 5467, BS 6346 or BS 6724).

Comply

Comply With BS 5467, BS 6346

2

Any armored cable being used at site must bear the manufacturer's name on the outer sheath and voltage rating for which it is manufactured.

Comply

3

These cables shall be designed for 600/1000 volts system.

4

These cables shall be either PVC/SWA/PVC or XLPE/SWA/PVC as indicated on the drawings.

Comply

Comply with XLPE/SWA/ PVC

5

Cables carrying 3 phase and neutral loads shall be 4 cores, the neutral conductor having the same cross-sectional area of the phase conductors

Comply

6

The current carrying capacities shall be in strict conformity with the regulations applied after talking in to consideration the derating resulting from the prevailing conditions in the project.

Comply

7

The size of cables used shall be sufficient for the maximum load they are liable to carry.

Comply

8

The Thickness of insulation of Cable of all standard size shall be in the range 0.6 mm to 2.0 mm

Comply

Insulation of cable from the range 0.6mm to 2.0 mm

Table-5.4: Compliance Statement for the Alternative Manufacturer (Manufacturer "B")

Total Electrical cable cost and Breakdown of Total cost (Manufacturer "B")

Item:

Description of Electrical Cable Size

Quantity in

Meter

Unit Cost of Material ((USD)

Total Cost (USD)

A

4CX95 mm2+1CX50 mm2

750

44.88

33,660.00

B

4CX70 mm2+1CX35 mm2

652

31.66

20,642.32

C

4CX50 mm2+1CX25 mm2

390

23.90

9,321.00

D

4CX25 mm2+1CX16 mm2

365

13.67

4,989.55

E

4CX16 mm2+1CX16 mm2

2100

10.51

22,071.00

F

4CX10 mm2+1CX10 mm2

525

7.05

3,701.25

G

4CX6 mm2+1CX6 mm2

420

4.52

1,898.40

H

4CX4 mm2+1CX4 mm2

514

3.34

1,716.76

Total Electrical XLPE Cable Cost in US Dollar (Manufacturer "B")

98,000.28

Table-5.5: Total Electrical Cable Cost and Break down of Total cost (Manufacturer "B")

Figure-5.3: Percentage of Cable cost (Manufacturer "B")

Comparison of Total Cost of Cable for the Manufacturer "A" and Manufacturer "B"

Item

Manufacturer

Total Cost of XLPE Cables (USD)

A

For Manufacturer "A"

109,595.35

B

For Manufacturer "B"

98,000.28

Total Saving On Cost by Proposing Alternative Manufacturer "B"

11,595.07

Table-5.6: Comparison of Cable Cost for Two Manufacturers

5.4: Result and Conclusion of Case Study:

Because of the diverse nature in the construction industry, a particular construction project was selected for the implementation of value engineering methodology. "Cost" is one of the key factors which is influencing during the life cycle of project. By applying the value engineering concept and tools to the selected project, proposed an alternative manufacturer "B" for XLPE cables instead of Specified manufacturer "A", gained one percentage reduction of cable cost. Similarly it is possible to apply in case of the light fittings and Low current system, which is also contributing major cost of electrical material.

Interviews

For the interview section of the primary research, two interviews have been carried out with professionals within the construction industry. One of the interviews was with a professional with many years' experience in the MEP main contractor; the other was with a professional who has spent his entire career as a MEP Materials Supplier. The aim of the interview is to satisfy the objectives, to investigate the experiences of the Cost effective Materials process from the perspective of contractors and from the Materials supplier how to apply factors in construction field their point of view.

The interviews allow a thorough insight into two people's opinions on the two opposite sides of the MEP material process and will cover the usage of the Factors as well as the select cost effective materials that it offers.

As the interviews have been carried out in an informal manner, as described in the methodology, they had no particular fixed question to be asked and answered. There was however basic interview outlines that was produced for each interview. These can be viewed in appendix B for the main contractor and in appendix C for the subcontractor's interview.

Both interviews have been carried out anonymously and therefore in this section the main contractor and Supplier participants will be referred to as 'the contractor' and 'the Material Supplier' respectively.

Main Contractor Interview

Material Supplier Interview

Summary of both Interview

Questionnaire

Questionnaires have been chosen for collecting primary data to aid in satisfying Data analysis, to investigate the experiences main contractors, subcontractors and MEP Material Suppliers have had with reverse Cost Effective MEP Materials.

As the objectives are aimed at three separate variables, the experiences of the main contractor, Material supplier and of the subcontractor, three questionnaires will have to be constructed. It is important that the questions within the questionnaires are of similar nature so at the analysis stage, comparisons between the three sets of results can be made to highlight variances or relationships.

The questionnaires will be mainly quantitatively research based with closed questions, meaning questions asked will be fact based and leave the participant a set quantity of specific answers to choose from. This will make the analysis process much simpler for the author to complete and produce graphs/charts. The down sides to asking closed questions are that the participant can answer questions hastily and can leave them with a limited amount of answers which may reframe them from expressing their actual views on the subject.

An attitudinal research approach will also be integrated into the questionnaires. "Attitudinal research is used to 'subjectively' evaluate the 'opinion', 'view', or the 'perception' of a person, towards a particular object. The term 'object' is referred to as an 'attribute' a 'variable', a 'factor' or a 'question' (Naoum 2007). Objectives are investigating the views and opinions of the participants so this approach will quantify their opinions and make analysing the data a much more manageable task.

In order to receive reliable data from the questionnaires the author must take an impartial stand on the subject and reframe from intentionally or intentionally asking leading questions based on their subjective opinions on the research area.

Once the final questionnaire has been produced it has to be sent out to the participants. Due to the technical nature of the research subject asking random participants to complete the survey would not provide the required amount of data. The questionnaire will be sent out electronically to known professionals within the industry as well as via stamped addressed envelopes to a variety of main contractors, subcontractors and Material supplier.

Approximately 25 responses from both contractor and subcontractor, making 50 in total, would deliver a reasonable variety of data to be able to analyses. As "response rates for postal surveys usually range between 40 and 60 per cent" (Naoum 2007) around 100 questionnaires in total, 50 to main contractors and 50 to subcontractors, must be sent out to achieve the required responses.

Research Method

3.1 Research Design

For this research, the writer first considered the use of primary data for the comparison and analysis in Qatar. But, most suppliers were not willing to impart their price lists to anyone other than potential buyers such as contractors. And most contractors were not willing to give out information about their material procurement prices due to obvious reasons. The price lists this writer got from the contractors in Qatar could not be considered reliable since they tend to printout and show higher prices than the actual prices they procured the material for. And the writer having contacts in the construction industry material supply trade. So, collecting and using primary data was a favorable option.

The writer then considered the use of secondary data. Use of published and recognized data seemed a far more reliable approach to this research. And since the data to be used in this research were mostly of the quantitative sort, use of secondary data was recommended by most professionals in the industry. And secondary data gives access to a broader area in the industry since there is published data on all varieties of contracts in all parts of the country.

In the analysis and coming to a conclusion, the decision to use secondary data had a huge impact on boosting reliability, clarity and transparency. Internationally recognized guidelines have been used in collecting data and analysis.

There are many types of building in Qatar such as Official, Residential, Hotels, Commercial, Substation, Warehouse & etc. The Qatar construction industry covered not only buildings but, Road, bridges, landscaping other aspects. But Writer could not able to find these all types of building and selected types such as warehouse and substation. The cost of construction of any type of the building is extremely depends on the use of MEP materials and there prices.

3.2 Data Collection

The writer used data given by the How United Services Qatar (MEP Contractor), to collect data required for the research. How United Services is an organization set up by the Private sector of Qatar. HUS head office gives construction records the access to all construction Material related data they collected through the last few decades from projects all over the country. For this research data analysis from projects within six years such 2006 to 2012.

Using case studies expect to collect data of MEP materials. Meet up professionals involved in the construction field and by interviewed them. By examine the documents in Midmac MEP contractor Qatar given data to my research project. And also it is supposed to be met peoples who are having well known experiences about the MEP materials such as Quality Assurance and Quality Controller Engineers (QAQC), Production Managers, Material Engineers, Procurement Managers. There are several documents using for the material evaluating process in this exercise, it has to be realized related all those documentation dealing with responsible persons, and also engaged with documentation as required actual process.

For the literature, the researcher referred recognized books on construction and research articles. Conference papers were studied; related books, research papers, journals and conference papers were used. The literature review was much easier in the United Kingdom since there were much more reliable resources available to refer.

To acquire quantitative data, published books by the RICS were used, Namely SPON'S Architects and Builders Price Books, 2005 to 2001. Rates per labor for various MEP materials were taken from these books. Since the data was reliable, the accuracy of the analysis was not an issue. This would not have been so if it were primary data as there could have been many issues.

To carry out this research it has decided two ways to complete it is successfully. E-mailing and interviews are major ways to be expected. Prior to emailing questionnaires, a telephone call will be made to each organization in order to identify the person in the company with responsibility for the entire contract commercial potion. Almost all the questionnaires have to be close ended, some question will be open ended, to obtain numerical data or encourage some written comment.

Data Analysis

Analysis of the MEP materials in Qatar

Literature of review

The building MEP materials are the ingredients used in the construction industry any type of building services. These MEP materials are easily not available in Qatar and most of the material importing by other countries. However there are many types of the materials.

There are many types of building such as Official, Residential, Hotels, Commercial, Substation, Warehouse & etc. The construction industry covered not only buildings but, Road, bridges, landscaping other aspects. This research is confined only on the construction of difference types of the buildings. The cost of construction of any type of the building is extremely depends on the use of MEP materials and there prices.

The cost of materials directly affects the construction industry in any country. When the cost of material is high the cost of the project is high. At a high cost there will be no developer or investor. There are many reasons affecting the cost of materials. The material can be grouped as local & foreign materials. The cost of local materials is affected by the supply and demand of raw materials, availability and cost of transport etc. Similarly the cost of foreign materials is affected due to the fluctuation of exchange rate, import duty charges and various other duties etc. (Levy, 2000)

Management of the material is significant process to develop the project planning and control. It is represent major part of the construction. Weak management of the materials shows unnecessary cost during the construction. If can minimize the purchase cost it will be happened good opportunity to reduce the cost. Without tight schedule to construct, if purchase material early capital may be tight up and interest charges will be applied in vain. And also material may be deteriorated during the storage or be stolen without any acknowledgement if not considering about value of the material. For an example, Electrical fittings usually store in water proof location. As per the site condition delays and extra expenses can be incurred if the material for required activates are not available. According to project managers, must concern about the MEP materials insure a time flow of materials is important. (Hendrickson, 2008)

5. Conclusion

At the end of literature review, following facts can be summarizing as key aspects.

Cost of building services MEP material directly affects the construction industry. Further to this cost effective material it is expecting to go through practically and actually for more information.

Large construction companies should maintain and they have an idea about the quality of materials and the cost. For more clarification each MEP construction companies finding out material by material for future cost effective plans. It will be identify all the details end of the final research.

MEP materials are more effective to build up good quality buildings in the construction field. It shall include essential requirements regarding the cost effective materials and quality of the materials to complete the construction successfully.

Quantity Surveyors play a major role to estimate the cost of MEP building materials. Prior to the tendering process their evaluating the cost of the material and pricing to become a lowest bidder to award the particular contract.

The subject cost effective MEP materials affect to the Qatar construction industry has described as a complex process, being influenced by various interrelated factors or variables. The challenges in making appropriate cost effective MEP materials select from range of options, demand an understanding of the fundamental factors or variable needed to effectively and accurately, evaluate the trade-offs between technical, environmental, economic and performance issues.

The data collection methods adopted for this research include; expletory literature reviews, networking with domain experts and practitioners, use of questionnaire surveys and knowledge-mining interviews.

The research intends to adopt this framework presented by the processing of data collected for the various categories of factors or variables using any statistics-based software such as SPSS. The derived factors / variables will be evaluated and aggregated into a priority or a composite index of fitness, classified according to the views of respondents, so that each tree will consist of a small number of the primary criteria of high-level cascade up to a greater number of more specific secondary criteria. It aims to automate the integration with macros in excel application, considering his ability to manage and analyse large and various types of information or data. The choice of the best material option will be determined through the application of multi-factorial assessment model based on the 'analytic hierarchy process', or AHP [32]. The AHP approach must be initiated as a critical component because of its inherent ability to handle qualitative and quantitative criteria for the selection problems of the material. Moreover, the developed prototype was implemented to test and validate the accuracy of the estimates of the best choices of materials, using the new toolkit for a series of case studies of projects.

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