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Design Team Management incorporates not only the design sector of the construction development stages though tends to attempt to have an inclusive scope of the entirety of the project team from the concept and initial stages as soon as possible. This discipline utilizes project management, design, strategy, and supply chain techniques to control a creative process, support a culture of creativity, and build a structure and organization for design. From this it can be seen that the main objectives of the team management procedure is in essence to create an environment to which the organization/owner/architect/builder/contractors etc are able to achieve strategic and mission goals through design, by establishing and managing an efficient and effective system.
From this outlook into design team management the subject of Contemporary Issues & Challenges in Design Team Management will be the topic which I will further research for my literature review section of my major assignment as discussed previously in my 200 word summary. For the purpose of this literature review the main focus question that will be developed upon is, The current processes of BIM Extension into Later Stages of a Project's Life Cycle and ways in which they can be improved? Incorporated into this topic overview will be the consideration of the main points of how BIM can be utilized in the enhancement of facility management in the occupation stages of a buildings life cycle and the way in which attached and relevant documentation can be incorporated into models and such to improve this process. The journal articles that will be used throughout the analysis will include, "A 3D analyzer for BIM-enabled Life Cycle Assessment of the whole process of construction" by Tugba Kulahcioglu, Jiangbo Dang & Candemir Toklu and "BIM Extension into Later Stages of Project Life Cycle" by Pavan Meadati.
The Life Cycle process of a building or project initiates from its conception and extends all the way through to the final demolition of said building once it has come to the end of its useful life. The life cycle process in construction generally will incorporate the initial planning stages of a building, design, through design development and the construction phases. Through these processes of the buildings development and construction existing documentation, engineering, design and analysis tools and software are able to be utilized through such methods as BIM software and documentation control and collaboration. This multitude of information built up over generally the years of development and construction though can be seen not to be organized in a manner that will be useful and/or easily assessable to refer to during the period that the building or facility is actually in use. This general mind set seems odd to me though it can be seen as the norm as today most building companies today will build a project and move onto the next leaving the client to fend for themselves so to speak. This analysis and incorporation can be seen to greatly benefit clients and operators of facilities though needs to be specified that the information that will be presented be outlined to be included how and what information in contract.
The text "BIM Extension into Later Stages of Project Life Cycle" by Pavan Meadati, explores the ideas and means of collating 3D as-built drawings, the development of a 3D/4D/ 5D as-built mode and the integration of construction process documentation for the facilitation of BIM implementation during the maintenance, operation and decommissioning phases of a projects life cycle.
BIM is a process and it provides a basis and framework to which a data rich product model that facilitates an integrated can be created and benefit the overall project. As Meadati describes "information can be categorized into graphical and non-graphical data. The graphical data includes 2D and 3D drawings and non-graphical data includes other project documents. Traditionally, these two information categories exist as independent entities and are not linked to each other." This absence of a connection can be seen to decrease the design team's productivity due to the time consuming task of retrieving information and regeneration of data. It can be seen that the integration of BIM can facilitate the ease of access to information and reusage of data increasing project productivity.
The reasons for not achieving an integrated BIM post construction of the facility are the unavailability of 3D AS-BUILT models and lack of the integration of construction process information to the 3D model, such as shop drawings, specifications, actual cost, change orders, actual schedule, submittals, site photos, and RFI's the incorporation of this information facilitates the BIM implementation further past the pre-construction stages. With the integration of this information and such object information within the model as manufactures name, website, colours, finish's and lead times a data rich integrated model is able to be created. It can be seen through this method of information integration that this BIM process can eliminate fragmentation of information within the industry and facilitate the flow of information through the planning, design, construction and operation and maintenance stages of a project. We can see that the lacks of as-built 3D models are barriers impeding the further extension into the later stages of the life cycle process.
Secondly the text "A 3D analyzer for BIM-enabled Life Cycle Assessment of the whole process of construction" by Tugba Kulahcioglu, Jiangbo Dang & Candemir Toklu, explores the notion that "The accuracy of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) substantially depends on the quality and availability of data from all phases of a building." The article describes that as the building industry has such an influential impact on the environment (through emissions of green house gasses, material wastes, energy consumption etc.) it needs an effective tool to assess and deduce its impact on the environment and human health throughout a LSA.
It is in the design development stages of a project that the considerations of the environmental impacts of a building be considered. This is due to the fact that the opportunity and ability to greatly effect and reduce the buildings environmental impact greatly reduces after its design is complete. It can be seen that outcome of the authors is to effectively overcome the existing weaknesses with the industry regarding the methodologies and analysis that integrate LCA into the decision making process. To counter this problem a methodology to apply to LCA has been created incorporating the use of Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) based Building Information Models (BIM), in order to consider the whole life cycle of a building or project. Through the integration of these technologies the methodology is able to "provide a useful analysis framework that also supports 3D visualizations and user interaction, both facilitates and accelerates LCA process for buildings." This prototype is able to be incorporated in the early design and decision making processes and is able to be suited and utilised by a range of stakeholders within the building industry including owners, clients, subcontractor, designers etc.
The methodologies approach uses LCA methods and consists of four basic stages:
It starts defining the purpose and the method of the study.
After that, the life cycle inventory (LCI) stage quantifies energy and raw material requirements, atmospheric emissions, waterborne emissions, solid wastes, and other releases of the system.
The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) establishes a linkage between the system and its potential environmental impacts. It provides a basis to make comparisons, such as contribution to global warming, acidification, etc., rather than only mentioning quantities identified during the inventory stage.
Finally, the interpretation stage identifies, quantifies, checks, and evaluates results of LCI and LCIA (SAIC 2006). For interpretation to become valuable, it should be used to improve the building design to generate better analysis results. As illustrated in, Figure 3 this process requires an analyze-modify-update cycle until reaching an optimized building design.
T. Kulahcioglu, J. Dang & C. Toklu, (2012), A 3D analyzer for BIM-enabled Life Cycle Assessment of the whole process of Construction, HVAC&R Research, 18:1-2, Pg. 283-293.
P. Meadati, (2009), BIM Extension into Later Stages of Project Life Cycle, Building Information Modelling, Engineering Project Organization Journal, 1:2, Pg. 83-93.
and research journal articles to suit the topic at hand delving into the reasoning behind how and why the incorporation of this predominately new management and project system/technique/software will help the efficiency and efficiency of design and constructability of projects from the conception to the final delivery, management/occupancy and finally demolition stages of a projects lifecycle. The importance of BIM can be seen to the industry as a whole to which the construction industry is generally reluctant to accept the incorporation of technology. BIM systems offer benefits to all facets of the design and construction processes of a project and cannot be overlooked in today's industry development. I have chosen to research and further develop the incorporation of BIM into the construction industry as I believe that it will soon be an integral aspect of the industry as a whole (not just utilized sparingly or on some projects though the incorporation into all projects of a size that will be benefited by the use of BIM systems) to which we will not look back.