Constructability Issues And Hazards Of Equipment And Systems Construction Essay

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Constructability & Safe Design Principles serves as a preliminary process to provide Parsons Engineers, and the Construction Management Engineers an easy methodology to identify constructability issues & hazards that are likely to arise in the erection process and provide reasonable design features to preclude potential peril in the design phase of the Arabian Canal Project Infrastructure. The process provides practical information to Parsons Design Engineers to assist them in identifying constructability issues & hazards of equipment and systems used in the construction of the Arabian Canal Project Infrastructure. It offers practical principles that can be applied to control additional constructability issues & hazards found on the building site, in structural components, and from materials, processes, and procedures employed during construction and maintenance. This process is for developing the skills of Parsons Engineers to control many kinds of constructability issues & hazards at the time of design or before work begins on site to achieve optimal constructability and safety throughout the construction process and the life cycle of the Arabian Canal Project Infrastructure.

Start of the process develops methodology for identifying constructability issues & hazards then matching the issue or hazard with design features and/or safety appliances for the prevention of the hazard. This will highlight the role of the Parsons Engineer as a designer. When the Parsons Engineer places emphasis on constructability & hazard prevention by designing out the hazards inherent to construction processes, products, or facilities, the circumstances that produce construction interferences & injuries will be drastically reduced.

The second section provides the Parsons Engineer with a system for identifying hazards with an insight into the nature of hazards and guidance that categorizes the hazards into manageable groups. Specific identification of the different types of hazards in the design stage streamlines the hazard elimination process by providing guidelines to determine general control measures. This process will provide Parsons Engineers with easy principles of system safety adaptable to design and constructability that ensure for the elimination and control of hazards. Then it will provide a method to quantify the ability of design improvements to prevent injury, death, and damage in terms of reliability.

For instance, before a construction project even begins, the construction manager faces the potential constructability issues and hazards of faulty design by the architect, defective design of the equipment that must be used, and hazards within the construction site or property. To successfully control constructability issues and hazards during the project, these obstacles and hazards must be identified and addressed during design and planning stages. This process distills system safety methodology into five principles that focus on hazard identification, isolation, and control through constructability, innovative technology and applied science. A design matrix provides a check sheet to ensure potential loss exposures have been identified and controlled before the design has left the drafting room. Practical application of this method eliminates or controls potential constructability issues and hazards.

In a world of exponential increases in technology, Parsons Engineers have new and exciting options available to them. Parsons Engineers who can "think outside the box" will find many opportunities to re-engineer products using new materials and informational devices in a way that produces a constructible and safer product or process.

Constructability & Safety In-Design Compliance Procedure

Engineering Department Procedure "Constructability & Safety In-Design Compliance Program

Parsons' Constructability & Safety-in-Design (CSID) program is an ongoing implementation and confirmation effort relating to a project's safety requirements. Parsons CSID approach evaluates and resolves hazard analysis relating to the mitigation of personnel and public hazards in a facility's construction and operation, adherence to code requirements, and beneficial safe design practices.

The Parsons CSID process begins with implementing the "Constructability & Safety-In-Design Compliance Procedure" and supported by the Parsons "Constructability & Safety In Design Process Guide". The Parsons comprehensive "Constructability & Design for Safety Training Process" ensures the project staff fully understands the CSID processes and continually works to ensure complete implementation.

The CSID review committee will be tasked with completing the Constructability reviews. The Parsons Constructability review is a review of the plans and specifications to check for build ability and bid ability. When reviewing for build ability, Parsons checks for the completeness of the drawings. This includes a cross-check between the various disciplines (electrical, mechanical, architectural, structural, plumbing, civil, and landscaping, etc.) to coordinate pipeline sizes & locations, power capacities, road and bridge layout and sizing, and other major components that are essential to build the infrastructure. Additionally, there may be dimensional errors in calculating radius building plots that impact structural steel, site concrete, light bollards, and landscape. Critical dimensions are reviewed to prevent building delays, bidding errors and to ensure the complete project is capable of being under written for insurability. When checking for bid ability, Parsons Constructability Review Team performs an extensive review of details, notes, sections, elevations, site plans and specifications. As in any contract, the best contract is without ambiguity, error, conflict, and leaves little to interpretation. This review crosschecks the use of detail references and confirms consistent use of building finishes to specifications and other plan details. The work product of the review is a list of comments and a marked-up set of the plans and specifications to be reviewed by the project stake holders. The list of comments is created using the Parsons Constructability Assessment Register so the list can be modified and prioritized by other team members. (It also serves as a checklist to confirm the incorporation of the comments to the documents before going to bid.)

As projects become more complex and sophisticated, constructability and safety in design must be addressed with the same attention to technical detail as is applied to the engineering of these projects. The project critical path should be highlighted at those points where construction obstacles and hazards have been identified in order to highlight potential problem areas. For the construction obstacles and hazards to be eliminated, the entire engineering process needs to be examined in this fashion. Listing hazards in the critical path forces the Parsons Engineer to consider itemized alternatives. This fact leads to the need to apply a construction and safety in design approach. System safety relies heavily upon the additional provision for safety factors and redundancy in addition to hazard elimination and guarding. It is in this manner that foreseeable error is overcome.

To achieve zero-injury, damage, loss of completion scheduling the reliance upon behavior modification to ensure for error-free human performance becomes unrealistic. The age-old byline of human factors psychologists, "To err is human, to forgive design" has proved time and again to be a sound philosophy supporting the concept that the elimination of error-provocative circumstances is the basic reasons for system safety. "Safety factors" can be easily explained by the example of a bridge with a ten-ton load limit that is designed to sustain 30 tons, thus allowing for foreseeable misuse. Closer to the safety of construction equipment is an example of a questionable safety factor. Cranes are generally rated at a capability that is 85% of the tipping load at any radius. By industrial standards, this is a rather thin margin. In some cranes, rated capacity is only 85% of the structural design of the telescoping boom, which is far less than the tipping load. In such a circumstance, the consequences of an overload would not be a crane upset but a structural collapse of the boom.

"Redundancy" is more than one safeguard, each of which must fail before the system experiences actual failure mode. A good example is the fuel system on a military helicopter, which has several fuel tanks and a number of fuel lines. In the event of enemy bullets piercing the fuel tank, it is self-sealing to stop leaks. If a fuel line is broken, both ends have automatic shut-off, as fuel has several other routes through different lines to the engine. "Reliability" is no more than a numerical confidence rating, such as a failure mode that may fail one time in one thousand cycles. The big guess is WHEN it fails. If it fails on the first cycle, it is chancy that 999 successes will follow. Reliability is the judgment to quantify a system's ability to succeed, and is not a method of control. This function attempts to take guesswork out of the hazard prevention methods of an entire project.