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The increasing global nature of manufactured construction projects has highlighted the importance of communication and the new challenges it brings to project execution. This paper explores the ability of project managers in UK and Rest of the world in communicating effectively on integrated project delivery process in off-site construction projects. The study examines the factors that influence communication and explores how communication can be made effective in integrated project delivery environments. Using data from 5 interviews in and UK and Rest of the world, the results show that communications within off-site construction project environments can be effective when project managers demonstrate an awareness of traditional variation. Participants further highlighted that, one of the critical components of integrated project delivery process is the creation and development of effective collectivism, trust, communication and empathy in leadership. The study underscores an urgent need for future research to investigate effective guidelines or strategies for effective communication in IPD project teams.
This study presents a balance between the experiences of project managers from a UK and Rest of the world. The study aimed to explore how project managers with different cultural background have managed communications In Integrated project delivery process in off-site construction projects. Specifically, the study was designed to explore the efficiency of communications strategies in off-site construction engineering projects.
The scope of the research must be carefully designed and controlled so that meaningful and manageable data can be collected, thus research tends to be focused on one particular event or one aspect of communication. This research provides advice on how communication can be improved in integrated project delivery process in off-site construction. Improvements in communication should result in an increase in the quality of the build and a reduction in the level of defect occurrence.
The successful completion of the project depends on the accuracy and timing of communication exchange between the project team. The inefficiency of the current communication practice has become a barrier to these innovative off-site construction processes. Research efforts and direction in the industry, however, have since changed. Several research studies are now focusing on integration of the construction and communication processes through standardization of data, taking advantage of evolving computer technologies.
Layout of the report:-
Chapter 2:-Literature review:-
This chapter includes all the literatures based on previous journals to improve communication
In Integrated project delivery process, and using different tools like BIM
Chapter 3:- Theoretical background:-
This chapter includes all the required theories & research for present study like change in
Project Communication levels, response analysis for project communication in off-site construction.
In this chapter, a force response analysis is carried out by considering communication and also by adding integrated project delivery possibility of identification of communication by using BIM is exploded.
Chapter 5:- Conclusion:-
This chapter concludes the results, observations and future work required of the project.
Emmitt and Gorse (2007) have shown that, for factual data transfer, a number of communication problems have been addressed due to the development of rapid global information systems and telecommunications, however, when it comes to off-site projects many issues remain unresolved. For example, the loss of face-to-face communication can lead to misunderstanding and the loss of non-verbal signals such as eye contact and body language. This can subsequently lead to difficulty in achieving mutual trust and confidence within off-site construction project. It is also difficult to manage or supervise off-site projects without face-to-face contact or to confer or develop relationships (Weatherley, 2006).
4.E.G. Ochieng a,, A.D.F. Price b. (2010). Managing cross-cultural communication in multicultural construction project teams: The case of Kenya and UK.Â International Journal of Project Management. 28 (1), 449-460.
E.G. Ochieng a et al defined the ability of project managers in Kenya and the UK in communicating effectively on multicultural projects. The study examines the cultural factors that influence communication and explores how communication can be made effective in multicultural project environments. Using data from interviews in Kenya and UK , the results show that communications within multicultural project environments can be effective when project managers demonstrate an awareness of cultural variation. Participants further highlighted that, one of the critical components of building multicultural project teams is the creation and development of effective cross cultural collectivism, trust, communication and empathy in leadership. The study underscores an urgent need for future research to investigate effective guidelines or strategies for effective collectivism and communication in off-site construction industry.
Turner,2003) defined as Projects are uncertain and so the process for their delivery often cannot be precisely determined from the start. The project manager needs to be empowered to adapt the process as the project develops (Huemann et al., 2004). Also, the purpose of organizing a project should be to create a cooperative, collaborative context for the parties to work in. Levitt and March (1995) say about organizing anything, routine operation or project:
Buntrock (2001) introduced 4 models of design development typically found on projects in Japan based on: (1) project participants that are responsible or provide input for each design phase, (2) influence of construction considerations on design development, (3) aesthetic innovation found in components, and (4) performance innovation found in components or systems. Table 4 lists project participant involvement during each design phase to provide a comparative measure for the degree of coordination and collaboration found in our case studies. In particular, Model 4 involving architect, fabricator, and contractor input during all phases of design seems most promising in terms of facilitating innovation inWorkStructuring.
Buntrock, D. (2001). Japanese Architecture as a Collaborative Process: Opportunities in
a Flexible Construction Culture. Spon Press, New York, 182 pp.
Dawood.N et al describes a collaborative research study being undertaken between the University of Teesside and an international contracting organisation based in the UK. The goal of the research is to develop a methodology and a system that will ease and improve communication and exchange of data and information between the construction project team. The author describe reports on an IT-based tool for site document management as a first phase of the storage and distribution of project documents between the construction project team. The structure and development of the system are described with reports of its implementation and performance on the site. This result shows how the available IT facilities can be exploited to improve communication within the whole of the construction supply chain. Optimum utilisation of already available IT can clearly improve the construction processes with accrued benefits.
Dawood.N,Akinsola.A,Hobbs.B.(2002).Development of automated communication of system for managing site information using internet technology. Automation in Construction. 11 (3), 552-572.
The main form of data collection comprised semi-structured interviews with senior project managers in UK, the companies involved have Rest of the world construction and professional expertise and experience. The results were particularly important in this study as the participants were selected from a different organisations and project environments. The sample was designed to achieve both UK and the companies involved have worldwide construction and professional participants with experience of project communication in off-site construction projects. In order to investigate the factors that influenced project communication it was necessary to have a range of organisations in terms of status, size, and projects managed. The five organisations that were selected, where 5 of the participants interviewed, operated in the construction sector.
The selected organisations were well balanced in terms of projects managed. In general terms there was a link between the existence of project work and the type of projects undertaken. The five participants were selected on the basis of their project management experience, with each having long-standing familiarity in managing large and complex projects over a period of many years. Each participant provided information regarding the heavy engineering projects they had managed outside UK and worldwide construction industry.
Interviewee variety is essential to the quality of data obtained in qualitative research. In this study, the aim of interviewee variety was to explore a diverse proportion of expert views from successful senior project managers on project communication within the UK and worldwide heavy construction industry.
The main advantage of this model is that each participant had worked on projects in developing countries. This allowed the authors to focus in depth on the experiences of each participant. This was particularly important because the research subject data available in worldwide construction and the UK. The participants worked in various types of organisation formations and project arrangements. All participants had a practical understanding of management
Interviews were conducted in research to understand the interviewee's perspective so that our selection becomes a role in the richness and depth of information obtained (Miles and Huberman, 1994).Â In this research, interviews sought to harness the expertise and the selection of interviewees was done to reduce biasness and controversy as the definition of a successful project manager continues to generate considerable debate and controversy.Â traditional criteria of success have also been argued as being too simplistic in today's context complex construction project environment (Dainty et al.2003).
Dainty, A.R.J., Cheng, M.-I., Moore, D.R., 2003. Redefining performance measures for construction project managers: an empirical evaluation. Construction Management and Economics 21 (2), 209-218.
An approach to semi-structured interview was used to allowÂ flow depth and without information from respondents.Â The flexible nature also encouraged respondents to participateÂ full and complete (Fellows and Liu,Â 2003 Patton, 2002; Schensul et al., 1999).Â
A combinationÂ strategy was adopted during the interview increasedÂ wealth of data collected.Â The strategy followsÂ presentation by Patton (2002) that the interview three mainÂ approaches:
Standardized open-ended and not mutually exclusive.Â
An interview guide was adopted to ensure that all issuesÂ be explored were covered during the interviewsÂ lasted between 45 min and 90 min.Â The guide also encouragedÂ preparation by the respondents and ensured that allÂ five directors focused on similar topics.Â TheÂ restriction imposed on an interview guide was used,Â however, removed to allow respondents to more elaborateÂ on issues that were relevant and important to the performanceÂ Team project implementation through informal conversationÂ and open questions.Â This combinationÂ even more flexible approach of the interviews andÂ allowed for data relevant to the practicesÂ team integration and collaborative practices metÂ in a relaxed atmosphere.
Case studies were employed to validate the findings. This yielded a better consistency of the findings since it allowed a systematic comparison of different organisations by exploring different management features and examining different levels of behavioural variables involved. Employing various data collection methods provided a complete picture of the issue under investigation. There was a logical progression to the order of the parent codes. This was an attempt to ensure that the main objectives of the study were met. Once this phase was complete, the authors took each topic in turn and inserted the relevant interview extracts. The analysis continued until data had been reduced amply to enable conclusions to be drawn from the coded data. The findings are presented below, where appropriate illustrative quotations drawn from the interview transcripts have been used to convey participants view.
Key dimensions of differences on communication behaviours drawn from participants in Worldwide and UK were used to collate the main attributes deemed to be the most important for 0ff-site construction projects. The reported results present generalised findings based on the 5interviews. The results are presented below under headings drawn from the analysis.
In this study we analyse that communication is viewed as a professional practice where suitable tools and regulations can be applied in order to improve the utility of the data communicated, and is a social process of interaction between individuals.