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In construction workplace, there are many electrical tools or equipments are needed in doing some steel works. This apparently benign source of energy when accidentally brought in to contact with conducting material, such as people, animals or metals, permits releases of energy which may result in serious damage or loss of life. Electric shock and burns are usually happened in the construction workplace. Most incidents of electric shock occur when the worker becomes route to earth for a live conductor. The effect of electrical shock and the resultant severity of injury depend upon the size of the electrical current passing through the body. However, the sense of shock is accompanied by pain and in more severe cases by burning.
The electrical fires are often caused by a lack of reasonable care in the maintenance and use of electrical installations and equipment. The most common causes of the fire in electrical installations are short circuits, overheating of cables and equipment, the ignition of flammable gases and vapours, and the ignition of combustible substances by static electrical discharges.
Where flammable materials are present, especially if there are gases or dusts, then there is great danger of fire and explosion, even if there is only a small discharge of static electricity. In the circumstances, construction workers may be causing died in electrocution construction accidents.
Safety harnesses should only be used alone when conventional protection, using guard rails, is no longer practical. Safety harnesses are to be used when only the length of fall is reduced only by a safety harnesses. A free fall limit of about 2 meter is maintained to reduced shock loading. The worker must be attached to a secure anchorage point before they move into in unsafe position. The lanyard should always be attached above the worker, whenever possible. The worker must be able to undertake safety checks and adjust the harnesses before it is used.
Safety nets are widely used to arrest falls of people, tools and materials from height but competent installation is essential. Safety nets are used for roofing work and for some redecoration work. However, the workers have a limited application since there are not suitable for use in low-level construction where there is insufficient clearance below the net to allow it to deflect the required distance after impact. Nets should be positioned so that worker will not fall more than 2 meter, in case they hit the ground or other obstructions.
Air bags are used when it is neither not possible nor practical to use safety nets. When the air bags are used, it is important to ensure that the bags are of sufficient strength and the air pressure high enough to ensure that any falling worker does not make contact with the ground. In the results, the method for prevention of falling from scaffoldings, ladder, or high area, the worker's risk will become less from injured and death.
According to the Construction Regulations 1989 mandates employers to supply head protection (safety helmet, hard hats, and etc) to workers whenever there is a risk of head injury from falling objects. All the workers and member in the construction site must wear the head protection. Besides, the visitors to construction sites should always be supplied with head protection and mandatory head protection signs should be displayed around the site.
A fuel will provide protection against faults and continuous marginal current overloads. Protection against overload is provided by fuses which detect a continuous marginal excess flow of current and energy. This protection is arranged to operate before damage occur, either to the supply system or to the load which may be a motor or heater. When providing protection against overload, consideration needs to be made as to whether tripping the circuit could give rise to an even more dangerous situation.
Furthermore, insulation is used to protect both people from electric shock, the short circuiting or live conductors and the dangers associated with the fire and explosions. Insulation is achieved by covering the conductor with an insulating material. Insulation is often accompanied by the enclosure of the live conductors so that they are out of reach to workers. In other case, a breakdown in insulation can cause electric shock, fire, explosion or instrument damage.
The mechanical assistance is the first consideration when it is reasonably practicable for precaution of mechanical machinery hazards. The rollover protective structures (ROPS) are now becoming much more affordable and available for most types of mobile equipment where there is high risk of turning over. A ROPS is a frame that provides a safe zone for the vehicle operator in the event of a rollover. This frame was to protect the driver inside the mechanical machinery be safety from falling object.
Besides that, the operator or driver of the mechanical machinery has an important role to play in safe use of mobile equipment. The operator or driver has to make sure he fully understands the operating procedures and controls on the equipment being used. The operator or driver must be trained and know the site rule and signals.
In the results, the operator or driver of the mechanical is playing an important role in construction site. It will be practicable to install safeguards which protect the operator or driver from mechanical.
Experience shows that a good safety program is based on a well planned, ongoing training program. The training program should include both safety and the skills involved in performing the tasks to be accomplished. The training program should include a minimum of classroom-type experiences and continual reinforcement of training concept. A well planned program will save time and increase the effectiveness of the training. The basic general objectives of the training program should include an understanding of the construction's basic viewpoint and real concern for safety on the job.
The behaviour of the supervisor is also important in the construction. The behaviour of the supervisor will say more than any training program. Safe behaviour of the supervisor is a must for any safety program. The supervisor gives the basic skills training to the worker. Skilled workers are a safe worker and know the knowledge of construction safety policies and practices. Annual training is required for the worker as necessary or required by law.
A possibly a better definition is "motivation presumes valuing, and values are learned behaviour; thus, motivation, at least in part, is learned can be taught" (Frymier, 1985). This definition provides us with the encouragement people who need to go forward and achieve the motivation. The motivation is focus on their attention to apply safety goal-directed behaviour. Reward can be the motivation for the workers such as prize, money, or praise has been use in organization in the form of incentive systems. It can encourage the worker to follow the safety regulation without any abandon because they want to obtain the reward which is set by the management.
However, the use of behaviour modification principles was increase safety behaviours in the construction workplace. The behavioural program also is an event for that workers to understand that the safety survey and accident rate. This program also provides promoting safe working behaviours and is associated with substantial reductions in accidents rate. Give some observation for the goal of behaviours safety program, then the program will be much more effective.
Furthermore, the other theory of the motivation is the goal setting point out that behaviour is in fact motivated by own internal intentions. The goal setting must be related to the safety and health for the worker. Setting the specific goal (e.g. always wearing personal protective equipment in construction site) provides a prior for the behaviour by reminding the individual of what he is expected to do. These intentions might be described as the goals that want to achieve the improvement of safety and health in construction.
In the results, the workers' attitude or behaviour may change or their values may be altered by motivation attempt. It is imperative that we motivate workers to exhibit a behaviour that will keep workers safe and healthy in the performance of their job in construction.