Coagulation And Flocculation Process Of Water Treatment Construction Essay

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This chapter outlines the scope of this thesis work, with respect to the issue discussed in this research. The problem has been stated, the research questions and objectives are outlined as well as limitations encountered during the study. Furthermore the structure of the thesis was presented, in a view to facilitating continuous reading.

Despite the continuous evolving world of technology, maintenance has responded tremendously in meeting this rapid technological change. Nevertheless, inadequate maintenance has become one of the most issues faced by organizations in developing countries. Maintenance is seen as an unimportant activity in most developing countries thus, it is not given high priority due to insufficient/ minimal knowledge about the concept.

Performance of every company depends on a lot of factors and maintenance is not an exception. The research analyzes the impact of maintenance culture on company performance, a case study of Ghana Water Company Limited. In view of these maintenance was discussed in terms of it profit maximization for the company, customer satisfaction and regulatory compliance. Maintenance cost can be a significant factor in an organization's profitability (Chelson, Payne and Reavill, 2005). The type of maintenance practices that is adopted by any company can either impact the company's performance positively or negatively. As argued by (Kutucuoglu et al. 2001), traditional terms such as 'necessary devil' which were used to describe maintenance are now obsolete since the role of maintenance in modern manufacturing companies is becoming ever more important. Companies are adopting maintenance as a profit-generating business element. The aim of maintenance is to contribute towards an organization's profit with maintenance operation in harmony with the organizations business objective. Performance measuring systems are crucial to those who has stake in maintenance since research has shown that what get measured get done. This is to ensure that actual outputs are linked up to overall desired business needs of the company. According to Associate editor at American machinist (Jim Benesi, 2007), the perception of maintenance is changing with forward-looking companies that appreciate the crucial contribution it makes to their success. These companies view maintenance as the way to keep machines and equipment running, rather than as a way to fix things when they break. Proactive and predictive techniques allow for spotting and eliminating potential problems before they cause a breakdown. Many companies see the job of keeping critical production lines running to consistently satisfy customer delivery requirements as an exercise in frustration. According to (Terry Wireman, 2005), although many companies believed that maintenance is not a core competency, it fits all definitions of core competencies. In fact, many texts, when defining core competencies, actually use the maintenance/asset management function as an example.

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There are several definitions of core competencies, but all of them focus on processes that allow a company to differentiate itself from its competitors. As argued by (Terry Wireman, 2005), core competency may have an impact by lowering costs, increasing profits, providing improved service to a customer, improving product quality, and improving regulatory compliance. When maintenance is not seen as organization's core competency, it does not get the resources that are necessary to develop and maintain an effective maintenance management program. And their maintenance crews often move from one problem to the next only to find that they lack the tools, parts and, perhaps, the skills to get the broken down machine or equipment up and running immediately. If companies are to be successful in coping with today's demanding global market conditions, they have to view maintenance as core competency, eliminate reactive maintenance practices and become more proactive that ensures optimal machine availability. Moreover it is presumed that all water supply undertakings such as Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL), share a common purpose and management objective which may be stated according to (Faria & Alegre, 1996) as "the achievement of the highest level of consumer satisfaction and service quality in line with the prevailing regulatory framework whiles making the best use of available resources". This can be possible only if the nation's urban water provider view the voice of the customer as number one measure of quality of their service delivery. To achieve these also performance can only be assessed on efficiency but not effectiveness. According to (Jim Benesi, 2007), efficiency which is doing the right thing right at the right time all the time is underpinned by proactive maintenance practices rather being reactive.

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Taking into consideration the stakeholder, resources and values, one of the top management objectives for any utility company; according to (http://www.gwcl.com.gh/ourbusiness.php) is "to plan, construct, maintain and operate the company's physical asset as efficiently and effectively as possible". This is believed to be achieved under Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) which is a strategic change management approach that has considerable impact on internal efficiency in organizations both in the West and in Japan (Jackson, 2000). TPM is an organization-wide strategy to increase the effectiveness of production environment especially through methods of increasing effectiveness of equipments. The utility companies such as GWCL which has high dependability by its customers as the only urban water provider need to implement world-class maintenance strategies and techniques such as the TPM because urban water supply is facing accelerating changes of pace in technology, and market demand (Jackson 2000). Notwithstanding, there are challenges that are purely due to the fact that the company is managing a system that has high value assets making it capital intensive coupled with long term assets as a result of design reason for the supply system which is expected to work at maximum capacity during peak time in future when the system is being expanded. In recent years, Ghana Water Company has also experienced unprecedented degree of change in management processes, process technology, customer expectations and supplier attitudes. Competition was not a threat to GWCL because they are the only company providing urban water in the country. It can then be argued that, since the company is enjoying monopoly, they lack innovation into new processes which maintenance has a core role to play in. The company being a state own utility provider though not in competition, has a primary responsibility of providing affordable, portable, and regular water supply to urban communities in Ghana. To be able to achieve total quality management (TQM), the state water provider must consider Maintenance as a core competency. There is the need for high quality maintenance culture in GWCL.

1.2 Problem statement.

The water supply sector in Ghana has not been able to provide and sustain adequate drinking water services to all citizens. The main problem is the lack of sustainable access to improved water supply service for the people of Ghana (urban communities) in an efficient, effective and equitable manner. Two problems are evident. The first is lack of access to water supply and second is the poor and unsustainable service for the inhabitants with access to water supply services. A significant proportion of the population does not have access to improved services and those with access are concerned with the quality of the service such as reliability, water quality and response to customer complaints. In Ghana, The rate of urbanization outstrips current levels of urban water supply. GWCL currently operates 82 urban systems with an average daily output of 572,012 m3/day as against a daily demand of 1,049,306 m3/day (Ghana National Water Policy 2007). Water is rationed to many consumers with only a few customers able to get 24-hour supply. In the peri-urban areas and the densely populated poor urban areas customers receive supplies once a week or none at all. Among the urban poor, water can be a critical resource in short supply. Nationally, the Ghana Demographic and Housing Survey found that only four out of ten respondents (41.4%) living in urban areas had piped water in their homes and a similar number (42.6%) purchased water form a public tap or neighbor's residence. The Ghana Living Standards Survey, Round 4 (GLSS4) reported that approximately forty percent (40%) of urban families were relying on neighbors and vendors for their water (Ghana National Water Policy 2007). Additionally, the urban centers are the focus of Ghana's industrial and commercial activities many of which rely on adequate and reliable water supplies for efficient production. Also, water is a fundamental basic need and an essential resource for economic activities with strong cultural and symbolic values for millions of people especially in developing countries such as Ghana where the researcher comes from. Domestic water supply is universally acknowledged as not only a basic right but a key development indicator (WHO, 202). It is also accepted as an excellent entry point to reaching the poorest women who have the responsibility of finding domestic water supplies. Poor women disproportionately bear the burden of the unpaid chores of fetching water for domestic uses. In Ghana, women and girls are almost exclusively responsible for domestic chores and for maintaining hygiene in the household. All these are reasons why maintenance practices at any company like GWCL which is mandated to perform this task ca not be ignored. Healthy maintenance culture can go a long way to increase a company's profitability. When maintenance practices are not in line with organization's objectives, customer satisfaction, regulatory compliance and profitability of the organization will definitely be challenged.

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Another side of all these problems is inadequate and inconsistent portable water supply to majority of Ghanaians. The persistent call on Ghana Water Company Limited to respond to this demand has resulted into little improvement. This is due to the fact that, most of the GWCL systems have seen little or no rehabilitation and expansion over the years. The other key challenges facing the urban sub-sector include: the urgent need for improved management in operations and maintenance of water supply. The research into the company's maintenance culture and its impact on the performance of the company is to identify better ways of maximizing benefit from the current systems. Water supply and distribution cannot be down played by the state own utility company. Every business starts with the customer and can only have competitive advantage if the customer is consistently satisfied with their service delivery. One of the challenges of Ghana Water Company limited is high value of unaccounted-for-water.

1.3 Research Questions

Is maintenance culture in Ghana Water Company Limited contributing to customer dissatisfaction?

Does the maintenance culture in Ghana Water Company Limited have any impact on the company's profitability?

Does maintenance culture in Ghana Water Company limited (GWCL) helps in compliance to Public Utilities regulatory Commission (PURC) requirements?

1.4 Research Objectives

To analyze maintenance practices in the water supply facilities that meet customer satisfaction.

To investigate the effects of maintenance culture on the profitability of a company.

To assess maintenance practices that meets PURC compliance.

1.5 Study Scope

The scope of the study was four urban water supply systems of GWCL in two regions in Ghana. The systems include Dunkwa on offin, Breman-Asikuma, Cape Coast all in the central region and Kpando in the Volta region. These three systems were chosen because these systems were undergoing rehabilitation and expansion which makes them a good case study in the analysis of the maintenance culture of the organization. The choice of two regions was to have a different geographical setting to be able to appreciate if maintenance culture can be affected by the location in which these systems are.

1.6 Significance of the Study

Maintenance should renovate each physical system so that it is able to fulfill the function or functions, for which it was designed; otherwise effort, time and hence energy may be wasted. Maintenance of equipment depends not just on those who undertake the maintenance function but also on designers, purchasers and operators. Thus, to achieve optimal performance of the system, all of these should possess a detailed understanding of what needs to be done, and to be able to, and willing to, do whatever is needed when required. In view of this, adequate and proper maintenance of the urban water supply systems by Ghana Water Company limited is important because public water supply is an essential service for communities and urban towns, part of the so called "services of general interest" being vital to general welfare, public health and the collective security of populations as well as economic activities and environmental preservation.

Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL) was created to be solely in charge of urban water supply. In spite of external assistance, GWCL continue to suffer from massive financial, managerial and technical problems. The gap between supply and demand increases while demand for portable water in the cities was on the rise and the supply systems were degenerating. Unaccounted-for water continued to remain high at around 50%, which resulted from leakages of old and badly installed, mainly unmaintained pipe networks (Fuest and Haffner, 2007). The inadequate and inconsistent supply of water has lead to customer dissatisfaction and lot of health implications in Ghana. Rehabilitations and expansion of old systems is needed to be able to operate at full capacity and day to day maintenance practices that will prevent breakdowns are significant efforts to solving the water problem for Ghanaians within short term since construction of entirely new systems are capital intensive. GWCL lack systems for post construction support to ensure that facilities are always functioning after they have been constructed (2nd Ghana Water Forum - Conference Report, 2010).

1.7 Limitations.

The study collected data from three departments in four water supply systems of GWCL located in two regions Central and Volta about the way maintenance activities are undertaken. These departments are Maintenance, Production and Distribution was referred to in this research as Maintenance group. The study collect customer responds to determine customer satisfaction because literature on Ghana water supply has indicated a great gap between water supply and demand. The economic importance of maintenance will not be discussed in this study due to lack of economic data from the case company, thus, it will focus on maintenance culture and practice adopted by the case company.

1.8 Organization of the Study

This research has been presented in five chapters with chapter two, reviewing all possible literature on operation and maintenance of the major components of a water supply system including organizational and maintenance culture of water supply system. Chapter three consists of the methodology used to collect the data and how the data has been analyzed to arrive at the findings/results. Chapter four discuses the findings/results whiles chapter five talked about the recommendations from the study. All materials used during the research are properly referenced at the last page of this thesis.

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction

In order to analyze the impact of maintenance culture on company performance, we need to understand best maintenance practices in the in the industry. This chapter critically reviewed past literature on Operation and Maintenance (O&M) of various components of urban water supply system. It reviewed literature on maintenance of water supply system, transmission and distribution system, treatment plants, storage reservoirs and Drinking water monitoring and surveillance. Finally, organizational and maintenance cultures that support maintenance in water supply system were reviewed.

2.1 Maintenance of Water Supply System

In an engineering sense, operation refers to hourly and daily operations of the components of a system such as plant, machinery and equipment (valves etc.) which is done by an operator or his assistant. This is a routine work. The term maintenance is defined as the art of keeping the plant, equipment, structures and other related facilities in optimum working order. Maintenance includes preventive maintenance or corrective maintenance, mechanical adjustments, repairs and corrective action and planned maintenance (Manual for operation and maintenance of water supply, 2010). Maintenance according to (Mishra 2007) is the combination of all technical and administrative actions intended to retain an item in or restore it to a state in which it can perform its required function. Maintenance as a business function serves and supports the primary process in any organization, its process adds to customer value in terms of quality, time and profit (Alsyouf, 2004). Maintenance of water supply system is defined according to (Eng. Ahmed Bahrudeen, 2010) as the art of keeping the structures, plants, machinery and equipment and other facilities in an optimum working order and proper functioning without any interruption. Maintenance must be viewed as routine and recurring process of keeping a particular machine or system in its normal operating condition so that it can deliver it expected performance or service without causing any loss of time on account of accidental damage or breakdown. In other words, maintenance means the work that is required to be done to keep a equipment in running condition such that it can be utilized to it full design capacity and efficiency for maximum amount of time. Not withstanding, utility provider's main concern should be plant and equipment availability and reliability to be able to meet the expectation of the customers always. According to (Operation & Maintenance Best Practices Guide, 2010), data obtained in many studies over the past decade indicates that most private and government facilities do not use the necessary resources to maintain equipment in proper working order. Rather, they wait for equipment failure to occur and then take whatever actions are necessary to repair or replace the equipment. As argued by (Mishra, 2007), the advance in technology and the competitive nature of the industry, maintenance engineers responsibility has become complex. Activities that make the best use of available resources to the maximization of company profit is the strategy of the day since maintenance operations add to the running cost of the organization's operation. The objective of maintenance work should be to strike a balance between availability and the overall running cost. The responsibility of the maintenance function should, therefore, be to ensure that production equipment/facilities are available for use for maximum time at a minimum cost over a stipulated time period such that the minimum standard of performance and safety of personnel and machines are not sacrificed. Moreover, it is presumed that all water supply undertakings such as Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL), share a common purpose and management objective which may be stated according to (Faria & Alegre 1996) as "the achievement of the highest level of consumer satisfaction and service quality in line with the prevailing regulatory framework whiles making the best use of available resources". This can be possible only if the nation's urban water provider view the voice of the customer as number one measure of quality of their service delivery. As stated by (Jim Benesi 2007), to achieve these; the performance of the company can only be assessed on efficiency but not effectiveness. Efficiency which is doing the right thing right at the right time all the time is underpin by proactive maintenance practices rather than being reactive. The rapidly changing global marketplace calls for affecting improvements in a company's performance by focusing on cost cutting, increasing productivity levels, quality and guaranteeing deliveries in order to satisfy customers (Raouf, 1994). Any time we fail to perform maintenance activities intended by the equipment's designer, we shorten the operating life of the equipment. But what options do we have? According to (Operation & Maintenance Best Practices Guide 2010), Over the last 30 years, different approaches to how maintenance can be performed to ensure equipment reaches or exceeds its design life have been developed in the United States. In addition to waiting for a piece of equipment to fail (reactive maintenance), we can utilize preventive maintenance, predictive maintenance, or reliability centred maintenance. Furthermore, the growth of mechanization and automation indicate that reliability and availability have become key issues in organizations as well as other sectors as diverse as healthcare, portable water supply, etc. requires preventive maintenance because the more automated the equipment, the more component that could fail and cause the entire piece of equipment to be taken out of service (Eti et al. 2006).

There are two types of maintenance viz., Preventive Maintenance and Corrective Maintenance.

2.1.1 Preventive maintenance.

As stated by (Terry Wireman 1991), in this type of maintenance, items are replaced or restored to their optimal working condition before failure is allowed to occur. This may base on scheduled and time-based PM. The schedule is drawn up on the supplier's recommendation, which usually only considers limited knowledge of the actual condition. Preventive maintenance constitutes routine works and precautions to be taken periodically to prevent the system from mal-functioning by mechanical adjustments, repairs, corrective action and planned maintenance. GWCL need to focus more on the basics of PM if they are to achieve "best-in-class" status, with a ratio of more than 80 percent proactive maintenance to less than 20 percent reactive maintenance. Preventive maintenance has the proficient of minimizing downtime or preferably eliminating unwanted stoppages due to machine/ equipment failure as well as enhancing machine availability and reliability. Preventive maintenance in the water supply system is a routine operation and more economical than corrective maintenance and it provides uninterrupted service and avoids the need for corrective maintenance (Eng. Ahmed Bahrudeen, 2010). Water mains have several appurtenances, located in chambers, which require preventive maintenance.

2.1.2 Corrective Maintenance

It involves carrying out works related to break down, which has actually occurred by replacements, correction of defects etc. This according to (Ahuja, Pankaj Kumar, 2009)) refers to the maintenance strategy, where repair is done after the equipment failure/stoppage or upon occurrence of severe performance decline. This maintenance program according to the (Operation and Maintenance Best Practices Guide, 2010), is basically the "run it till it breaks" maintenance mode. Observation in Ghana Water Company Limited has shown that this is the predominant mode of maintenance. This approach always fails the companies in meeting their customer expectation. Portable water supply is a must and the availability and consistency of the supply is the customer's number one priority.

2.2. Water Treatment Plant

As stated by (Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Executive office of Environmental Affairs, Department of Environmental Protection, 2004), treatment of raw water is necessary in all public water systems to prevent the transmission of contaminants to the consumer. The contaminants could be toxic, cause disease, or have other long-term health effects for the consumer. Water also must be treated for aesthetic contaminants (i.e., color, turbidity, taste, odor, and corrosives) so the consumer continues to have trust in the quality, taste, and odor of the drinking water. Because of this trust, the water supplier and operators have a continuing challenge to provide water of the highest possible quality at a time when there is an ever increasing possibility of contamination. Although the operation and maintenance of water treatment plants have many features that are typical of the operation and maintenance of any infrastructure item, there are definitely features that are absolutely unique to water treatment plants (Guidance Manual for Preparing Public Water Supply System O & M Plans, 2000). Water treatment is in two stages; Pretreatment and conversional treatment (filter unit). The treatment processes may need pretreatment like pre-chlorination and aeration prior to conventional treatment. The maintenance operations of the pretreatment processes comprising of Coagulation and Flocculation under rapid sand filters was reviewed in conjunction with conversional treatment.

2.2.1 Pretreatment Works

The pretreatment units which form essential parts of a Rapid sand filtration unit include (a) Coagulation and flocculation with rapid mixing facilities and (b) Sedimentation units.

The purpose of coagulation and flocculation is to remove particulate impurities, especially non settleable solids (particularly colloids) and color from the water being treated. Non-settleable particles in water are removed by the use of coagulating chemicals (Manual for operation and maintenance of water supply, 2010). Preventive maintenance of units that carry out these process and the resultant effects of the particles on other units will enable continuous water supply to customers.

Fig. 2.1 Coagulation and flocculation process of water treatment

Source: (Michigan Environmental Education Curriculum Drinking Water Treatment)

2.2.2 Water Treatment Process

The pictures below illustrate the water treatment process in general (http://www.mansfield-tx.gov/departments/utilities/water/about/treatment.php). As the lake water enters the treatment plant microbes and minerals are reduced with chlorine dioxide. This stage is called pre-oxidation/ disinfection. The quality of the water is monitored during all of the various stages of treatment

Detailed laboratory analysis accompanied by on-line instruments that constantly monitor specific parameters to insure that that all phases of water treatment are optimized.

One of the primary stages of water treatment process is mixing coagulants into the lake water as it enters the treatment plant. This stage is called flocculation.

The chemical coagulants, and silt from the lake water are removed in the settling basin. This stage is called sedimentation.

The settled water then passes through a system of tube settlers that settle any of the coagulant that was not removed in the settling basin, and the clarified water is collected in launders that flow to the top of the filtration system. This stage is called settled water.

The settled water then passes through a granular activated carbon filtering unit. After the water passes through the filter system it is totally enclosed and protected from outside contamination. This stage is called filtration.

After filtration the pH of the water is adjusted to prevent scaling and corrosiveness. Fluoride is added to help prevent tooth decay, and the water is disinfected with chlorine.

The filtered water is stored in large tanks called clear-wells. Storing the water in these tanks prior to distribution allows the final disinfectant contact time with the freshly filtered water.

The disinfection residual in municipal drinking water helps to insure the safety of the drinking water as it is pumped away from the treatment plant and throughout the water distribution system. This stage is called finished or drinking water.

As stated in (Manual for operation and maintenance of water supply, 2010), preventive maintenance programs are designed to assure the continued satisfactory operation of treatment plant by reducing the frequency of breakdown failures. To ensure regular supply of water, electric motors must be kept free of dirt and moisture, good ventilation is important, Checking pumps and motors for leaks, unusual noise and vibrations, overheating or signs of wear. It is important to maintain proper lubrication and oil levels, inspecting alignment of shafts and couplings, checking bearings for overheating and proper lubrication. Checking for proper valve operation and checking for free flow of sludge in sludge removal collection and discharge systems. Above all there must be proper House Keeping. As described in (Guidance Manual for Preparing Public Water Supply System O & M Plans, 2000), for filter maintenance or backwashing after it clogs or breakthrough occurs or a specified time has passed, the filtration process is stopped and the filter is taken out of service for cleaning or backwashing. According to (Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Executive office of Environmental Affairs, Department of Environmental Protection, 2004), surface wash in order to produce optimum cleaning of the filter media during backwashing helps increase filter efficiency and to prevent mud balls, surface wash (supplemental scouring) is usually required. Surface wash systems provide additional scrubbing action to remove attached particles from flocculation and other suspended solids from the filter media. The filter control valves should be checked routinely for proper operation and any leakage, the instruments used to check the filter operation, head loss gauge, flow rate controller, particle counter and turbid meter should be calibrated on a frequent and regular basis. The filter media should be examined annually to evaluate its overall condition. Is the media uniformly graded and distributed? Is there the proper depth of each gradation of media? Expose the under drain system to check if the holes or nozzles are clogged. The backwash and surface wash pumps should be checked and lubricated according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The surface wash equipment, including nozzles, should be checked periodically for free operation and proper position over the media.

During sedimentation, routine maintenance applies only to the sludge collection equipment which should be lubricated according to the manufacturer's recommendations. When the basins are drained for cleaning, the condition of the basins and the sludge collection equipment should be checked carefully.

2.3 Water Transmission and Distribution through Pipes

The overall objective of a transmission system is to deliver raw water from the source to the treatment plants and transmit treated water from treatment plants to the storage reservoirs for onward supply into distribution networks. Transmission of raw water can be either by canals or by pipes whereas transmission of treated water is by pipes only. In Ghana, the transmission and distribution of water is through pipe. Transmission through pipes can be either by gravity flow or by pumping (Manual for operation and maintenance of water supply, 2010). Major transmission mains moves water from treatment plants and reservoirs to neighborhood distribution pipes. From there, the water is delivered to homes and businesses. A break in any of this pipes being transmission or distribution, there will be an interruption in water supply leading to customer dissatisfaction and loss of revenue. Instead, there should be a preventive maintenance practices to forestall this as far as practicable. In obvious circumstances beyond preventive maintenance there must emergency plan to keep regular supply.

2.3.1 Routine Operations

Normally the operations involve transmission of required water within the available head or within the pumping head. Operations of valves at reservoirs from which transmission channels mains start and operation of pumps (in case of pumping mains) from which the transmission mains start are the routine operations (City of Mansfield, 2012). Operation of chlorinators where installed are also included in the routine operations. Regularly inspect at least once in a month transmission main alignments for illegal or unauthorized tapping and other activities such as;

Construction activities if any near the pipeline,

Slime growth in the pipes,

Leaks in joints and pipes,

Damaged structures of valve chambers, and

Inside of valve chamber with flash light for any accumulation of water resulted from valve leakage.

Flush the pipeline once in three months to remove deposits of silt and organic materials.

Maintain the alignment of the transmission mains clean by regularly removing the vegetative growths above the surface (Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Executive office of Environmental Affairs, Department of Environmental Protection, 2004).

2.3.2 Corrective Operation

2.3.2.1 Main breaks (Main pipeline Work) 

A stated in (Manual for operation and maintenance of water supply, 2010), pipeline bursts/ main breaks can occur at any time and the maintenance wing shall have a plan for attending to such events. This plan must be written down, disseminated to all concerned and the agency must always be in readiness to implement the plan immediately after the pipe break is reported. After a pipe break is located, determine which valve is to be closed to isolate the section where the break has occurred. Some important consumers may be on the transmission system and having an industrial process dependent on water supply which cannot be shut down as fast as the water supply lines are cut off and should be notified about the break. These consumers have to be informed about the probable interruption in water supply and also the estimated time of resumption of water supply. After the closure of the valve the dewatering/ mud pumps are used to drain the pipe break points. The sides of trenches have to be properly protected before the workers enter the pit (Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Executive office of Environmental Affairs, Department of Environmental Protection, 2004). The damaged pipe is removed, and the accumulated silt is removed from inside the pipe and the damaged pipe is replaced and the line is disinfected before bringing into use. A report shall be prepared following every pipe break about the cause of such break, the resources required for rectification and the time and cost required for repairing etc. so that the agency can follow up with measures for avoiding such breaks and also modify their plan to address such breaks in future.

2.3.2.2 Deterioration of Pipes.

Pipes deteriorate on the inside because of water corrosion and erosion and on the outside because of corrosion from aggressive soil and water/moisture. Depending upon the material of the pipes these are subject to some deterioration, loss of water carrying capacity, leaks, corrosion and pitting, tuberculation, deposition of sediment and slime growth (Manual for Operation and Maintenance of Water Supply System 2010). Preventive maintenance of transmission system assures the twin objectives of preserving the bacteriological quality of water carried in the transmission mains and providing conditions for adequate flow through the pipelines. Incidentally this will prolong the effective life of the pipeline and restore its carrying capacity. Some of the main functions in the management of preventive aspects in the maintenance of pipelines are assessment, detection and prevention of wastage of water from pipelines through leaks, maintaining the carrying capacity of pipelines and cleaning of pipelines. (http://www.thewatertreatments.com/water-treatment-filtration/operation-maintenance-water-supply-systems/)

2.4 Water Storage Reservoirs

Reservoirs in water supply are raw water reservoirs/surface water reservoirs and clear water reservoirs/service reservoir for storing treated water before distribution to customer. Maintenance of these reservoirs promotes the life span of the supply system. As described in (Manual for operation and maintenance of water supply, 2010), in order to ensure continued safe operation of dam and appurtenant works, including mechanical and electrical equipment installed therein, a record of operation and inspection of various works/equipment shall be maintained on suitable history sheets for future reference and guidance. Details of maintenance of all works undertaken and modifications, if any, carried out shall be carefully recorded so that proper assessment can be made subsequently in respect of adequacy/efficacy of repairs and modifications carried out. History sheets shall be prepared subsequently for civil, mechanical and electrical works. The record thus maintained shall be carefully scrutinized from time to time and remedial measures, as considered necessary, be taken. According to (Operations & Maintenance Plan, 2000) each treatment plant should be represented by a line diagram depicting flow of water through the facility. Major equipment and systems should be labeled on the chart. Although proper scale is not required, some attempt should be made to depict the plant in its actual layout. This will help in easy identification of each facility for maintenance purposes. For all raw water reservoirs, environmental, health and safety management plans must be followed when carrying out maintenance work on them.

Surface Water Reservoir

Maintenance activities according to (Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Executive office of Environmental Affairs, Department of Environmental Protection, 2004) may include removing silt and debris upstream of a dam, dam or spillway repairs, clearing shoreline vegetation, removing nuisance aquatic vegetation, , dredging to restore depth, and other in-lake work. Any of these activities may include partial or complete drawdown of the reservoir. Using appropriate erosion controls, dewatering or diversion techniques and other protection measures can help to ensure a successful maintenance. Typical protection measures that enhance environmental, health and safety compliance when doing maintenance for dam or lake reservoirs (raw water reservoirs) are;

Service Reservoirs

Water which has been treated and suitable for drinking is stored in service reservoirs. Service reservoirs therefore need to be totally enclosed and protected from outside contamination by animals, vegetation or ground and surface waters. They should not be confused with surface water storage reservoirs. Service reservoirs are used to fulfill the following functions as described in (Manual for Operation and Maintenance for Water supply systems, 2010) as;

To provide a reserve of treated water so as to minimize the possibility of supply interruptions due to failure of mains, pumping or treatment plant.

To enable a fluctuating demand within the distribution system to be met.

To enable pumps to operate at a constant output and to make economical use of power tariffs.

To provide a reserve of water for fire fighting.

To provide stable and adequate mains pressure in the distribution network to minimize bursting.

Policies for storage capacities of reservoirs will often vary between different companies. This will depend on the daily demand of the supply area. Ghana Water Company Limited must constructed its supply network (the Treatment Works, pipelines, reservoirs and distribution mains) in such a manner as to enable the running of pumping plant during the cheaper night periods. This enables the reservoirs to fill during the night and gravitate into supply during the day. The reservoir levels therefore fluctuate between pre-set limits which are monitored by Operations. According to (http://www.portsmouthwater.co.uk/about-us/default2.aspx?id=102),

Reservoirs are generally constructed from reinforced concrete for strength and security. In Ghana press steel reservoirs are ideal for hot temperate zones such as Northern Ghana where proper setting of concrete cannot be guaranteed due to high temperature. There must be a routine inspection and maintenance program carried out by qualified engineers and operators. The planned maintenance program ensures reservoirs remain watertight and contamination risks are eliminated. Whenever any work is completed, the reservoirs are thoroughly cleaned, sterilized, water tightness checked and microbiologically tested before returning to service.

2.5 Drinking Water Quality monitoring and Surveillance

2.5.1 Sources of water supply

Drinking water sources can either be ground or surface water. Ground water includes wells and boreholes while surface water includes rivers and dams. Water sources are exposed to a variety of hazards that may damage or contaminate them, but they can be protected against disasters to some extent (Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Executive office of Environmental Affairs, Department of Environmental Protection, 2004). This section is concerned mainly with ways in which improvements to existing water supplies can make them more resistant to damage. In Ghana, the principal source of urban water supply is Dams, rivers and boreholes. Maintenance of these water sources is very crucial. Wells or boreholes in areas with a high water-table are more prone to contamination from flooding than are deep boreholes. They may also dry up sooner in a drought. Wells near rivers can be contaminated and filled with sand during unusual flash flooding.

According to (www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/hygiene/emergencies/em2002chap7.pdf), there should be a routine form of protection for existing well or borehole source such as raising the head wall of a dug well, and providing a cover and outward-sloping concrete apron around it, simultaneously provide additional protection from contamination due to floods and run-off into the open hole, and short-circuit seepage from nearby puddles; they also prevent contamination by debris. If the surface or groundwater could be affected by toxic hazards, it is probably better to avoid the water source. Providing an alternative water source should then be a high priority.

2.5.2 Ground water

As indicated in the (Manual on Operation & Maintenance of Water Supply System 2010), ground water has the following source of pollution which needs to be prevented.

Major source of pollution may also include;

Landfills,

Mining activities,

Abandoned sites,

Abandoned wells,

Agricultural practices,

Underground storage tanks and pipeline,

Increased salinity and salt water encroachment,

Septic tank and soakage pit system,

Petroleum exploration,

Radioactive wastes.

According to available data in (Manual for operation and maintenance of water supply, 2010), the specific capacity of wells should be measured at regular intervals either monthly or bi-monthly and it should be compared with the original specific capacity. As soon as 10 to 15% decrease in specific capacity is observed steps should be taken to determine the cause and accordingly corrective measures should be taken. As preventive measure, rehabilitation procedures should be initiated before the specific capacity has declined by 25%. A check list given below can be used to evaluate the performance of a well:

Static water level in the production well,

Pumping rate after a specific period of continuous pumping,

Specific capacity after a specified period of continuous pumping,

Sand content in a water sample after a specified period of continuous pumping,

Total depth of the well,

Efficiency of the well,

Normal pumping rate and hours per day of operation,

General trend in water levels in wells in the area,

Draw down created in the production well because of pumping of nearby wells

2.5.3 Surface water

Surface water source may be divided into rivers lakes and reservoirs. Dams are constructed to create artificial reservoirs. Canals or open channels can be constructed to convey surface water to the project sites. The water is also conveyed through pipes by gravity or pumping. These facilities need regular maintenance to keep consistent the supply of water to the customer (Manual for operation and maintenance of water supply, 2010).

Preventive maintenance shall be carried out to;

Operating criteria, equipment manufacturer's operating instructions and standard operating procedures should be bound into a manual and used for reference by operators. If written references are not available for a particular facility, they should be prepared with the assistance of knowledgeable operators, engineers and Manufacturers.

Screens should be regularly inspected, maintained and cleaned.

Mechanical or hydraulic jet cleaning devices should be used to clean the screens.

Intake structures and related facilities should be inspected, operated and tested periodically at regular intervals.

Proper service and lubrication of intake facilities is important.

Operation of Gates and Valves.

Water Quality

Complete records of physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis of water-samples collected at strategic locations at least twice in a year from source to the consumers' taps should be maintained and reviewed. Charts could be prepared for important water quality parameters (for example turbidity, Fe residual chlorine etc.) and any changes as compared to standards must be taken note of for taking corrective measures as stated in (Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality 1997).

2.6 Organizational culture in Water Supply System

According to (Ravasi and Schultz, 2006), organizational culture is a set of shared mental assumptions that guide interpretation and action in organizations by defining appropriate behavior for various situations. At the same time although a company may have "own unique culture", in larger organizations, there is a diverse and sometimes conflicting cultures that co-exist due to different characteristics of the management team. The organizational culture may also have negative and positive aspects. As stated by (Schein, 2009), (Deal & Kennedy, 2000), organizations often have very differing cultures as well as subcultures. This indicates that organizational culture supports the maintenance culture within an organization. Maintenance culture can be viewed as a subculture within a company.

Organizations looking to fully understand their current levels of performance and improvement potential need a different approach, methods that will guide the organization toward sustainable improvement. They must realize that the only path to sustainable change is by focusing on the levers and causes that drive performance: behaviors, practices, and processes, which lead to equipment, production, and people reliability

The extensive literature on business process change suggests that organizations can enhance their overall performance by adopting a process view of business. However, what is too often neglected is that most problems regarding business process management are not technical but arise from an inappropriate organizational culture that may impede innovations being implemented and superior performance being achieved. A dictionary definition of culture is "the total of the inherent ideals, beliefs, values and knowledge, which constitute the shared basis for social action". Continual business change is inevitable in a global economy. A successful business environment should reflect the way people live. Thus it is desirable, within the industry, to provide an environment and a culture which contribute to the welfare of all personnel. Considering staff as individuals, rather than as a generic workforce, is seen by enlightened companies as a prerequisite to achieving a positive company culture. Desirable human motivations, attitudes and behaviour are determined by a culture based on addressing human needs.

Such a culture is therefore an aid to management in efforts to make their personnel "creators and wise doers" rather than parasitic "done-for's". The factors that significantly contribute to a high-quality culture in an industry according to (ISO 9001: 2008), are:

Top-management involvement

Customer focus

Wise management of human relations (HRs)

Providing an inspiring management and work environment.

Measurement, analysis and improvement of all activities

360o loyalty

Success in business is not determined by the executives' skills alone, or by the visible features, the strategy, the structure and the reward system of the organization. Rather each organization has a certain style, a character, a way of doing things that influences new entrants as well as existing personnel. The pervading corporate culture provides the social benchmarks that inspire or fail to drive successfully the organization: much of what goes on in an organization is guided by the cultural quality of shared meaning, hidden assumptions, and unwritten rules. "There are no rules here, but if you break one of them, you've had it" in the words of a famous manager - Giles Alington.

Organization culture is defined as the personality of a company! It represents a set of common perceptions such as: norms, guiding beliefs, values, customs and modes of behaviour. The management leadership should implement measures to ensure that the organization has a more open and supportive culture to encourage relevant learning, cooperation and teamwork in order to improve performance. Organizations influence the behaviours and values of its individuals and vice-versa. Over time, there is a tendency towards uniformity of individual behaviour within an organization and a corresponding tendency towards uniformity of organizations within the business environment. Hence regular transfusions of 'new blood' are desirable especially if the industry is faltering. Each organization is a society unto itself and has its own internal culture or social system. An organization adopts values that reflect the administration in charge and the environment with which it has to cope. New personnel soon become aware of the value system of the organization, either consciously or unconsciously, and most guide their actions accordingly. These resulting actions can manifest themselves as company policy.

The culture of an organization comes through the development of norms and values that help it to survive given the environment in which it was created and subsequently exists. The organization's culture should endow individuals with rules or principles that provide guidance when making decisions.

Accompanying this effort should be systematic problem-solving experimentation, learning from past mistakes and experience, acquiring know-how from others, and transferring 'modern' reliable information from the outside world. Evolution often needs the transfer of a culture: the advantages of the learning organization are that it provides internally an intrinsic motivation for change. Further energy for achieving the desirable change can be obtained through the "creative tension" between the desired vision of the future and the current reality.

2.6.1 Training Requirements for Maintenance Personnel.

Well trained operations and management personnel are essential to the continued successful operation of any facility. Even the best designed and equipped facility will not operate without properly trained personnel. Training provides for compensation of deficiencies in skills and knowledge of entry level employees, remedies for performance deficiencies, and upgrading and/or retraining employees for new equipment, processes and techniques. The personnel who are already available or chosen to carry out the activities of O&M may have to be trained through special courses or by "on the job training" to ensure that these personnel are thoroughly trained to carry out the actions required in the plan of maintenance. This training is essential from time to time so as to keep them conversant with the latest technological advances in the field and to prevent experimentation by operating personnel to meddle with equipment since often these operating personnel may not be capable to take up the required maintenance. On the job training is preferred to class room lectures. The supervisors can be trained initially and then they can later train their operators. With proper training the existing operation and maintenance staff can do the operation and maintenance work without any extra expense. According to (Drinking Water Permitting & Engineering Program, 200) training needs prior to performing in-house training or recommending outside training programs, it is important that the training accomplish its purpose, improve performance or expand skills. Training analysis is accomplished in three steps.

Purpose - the training program must (a) Improve performance; (b). Expand skills;

(c) Correct deficient performance.

Type - type of training must be identified as (a) Technical (b) Management (c.) Remedial

(d) Orientation (e) Certification.

What goals should be met by training? To meet the goals of the training, (a) priorities must be set (b) Controls established and (c.) Provide a basis for evaluation.

2.7 Maintenance Culture in Water Supply System

In general, the goal of any organization is to increase profitability by providing quality products, prompt or complete service as well as swift delivery. Modern maintenance management is not to repair broken equipment rapidly. Modern maintenance management is to keep the equipment running at high capacity and produce quality products at low cost possible. In today's competitive business, been successful often entail how well a company is able to make change and adapt to those changes swiftly. This can be seen as a way/ technique of dealing with out- fashioned or out-of-date managerial approach and other forms of managerial practices. There are many reasons why maintenance is becoming more and more important. In developing countries, where many old machines are found

Maintenance culture is a subculture of an organizational culture. This implies that for maintenance practices to be successful, it must be supported by the organizational culture that have clearly defined organizational chart in the water supply system that defines specific duties, supervisory, reporting and performance level goals (Drinking Water Permitting & Engineering Program, 200). Occupant of positions must be determined on general ability in terms of reasoning, mathematical, communication skills, and mechanical/technical skills. They must exhibit high level of interest in the task. Positions in the organization can either be filled from within the organization or outside. There must be clearly shown line of authority (solid line) and support channels (dotted line) in the organizational chart. Maintenance functions shall be in line with organizational chart that shall generally be made up of five levels;

Executive (Authority board)

Upper management (Utility director, Director of public works (staff support)

Middle management (Division Managers, plant managers(staff support)

First line management (Foremen, supervisors)

Technical workforce(operation, maintenance, laboratory, labor)

An efficient maintenance culture must encourage training of it staff to be abreast with new technologies. Planned maintenance program is to prevent unplanned, reactive maintenance. To accomplish this, the water supplier's staff must have a working knowledge of the equipment, its required maintenance, and the spare parts to be stocked. There must be an effective system to inform the staff of the priorities and frequency of the maintenance which needs to be done. A record of the repairs made to each piece of equipment should be kept. This allows the manager to make appropriate judgments about the maintenance program, the quality and condition of equipment, and when replacement should be planned (Manual for operation and maintenance of water supply, 2010). Appropriate charts indicating the operating and supervisory staff actually in position should be maintained at the WTP, pumping stations and at each office for review. The job description of operating personnel shall clearly define the limits up to which these personnel can carry out normal maintenance. The job description of the Supervisor Manager shall include the requirement that they shall ensure that the operating personnel conform to these limits and thus ensure the safety of the equipment. As stated in (Manual for operation and maintenance of water supply, 2010), the necessity for good maintenance records is often overlooked. The maintenance plan program contains as to what should be done and when. But to decide as to how long equipment is to be allowed to be kept in service requires information as to when it was installed, what is its normal life etc. Budgets for operation and maintenance can be prepared only on the basis of records of previous year's maintenance. The managers shall realize that most of the maintenance can be carried out without more staff. The existing operation and maintenance staff with little training can do the operation and maintenance work without any extra expense. Similarly, record keeping and analyzing does not require any additional cost. However costs have to be provided in the budgets for spares, tools and plants, training to operation and maintenance staff and any specialized services for important equipment. Good record system shall include the following minimum information to ensure the required maintenance. Overall supervision and inspection of O&M activities are essential to ensure efficient functioning of all components of the water supply system. Buildings, other structures and equipment should be maintained in good condition. Exterior of concrete surfaces are color washed and metallic parts are painted annually. The environment of the WTP and pump houses must be maintained clean, tidy and pleasing, by developing good garden and trees as mentioned by (Eng. Ahmed Bahrudeen). Maintenance management is a crucial step to adopting a healthy culture that can translate into production cost cutting, regulatory compliance and above all customer satisfaction. According to (Wireman 1990), Maintenance as a support function together with asset management can be a driving force in this regards in two major ways, i.e. by decreasing the cost of running plant and machine while also increasing capability. Hence, with the growth of mechanization and automation, which mean that component could fail at any given time leading to interrupted operations, availability and reliability becomes a keyword. (Al-Najjar 2007) expressed that company should be able to utilize its valuable and rare resources efficiently and effectively to attain the long-term high profitability, regardless of which prospective, outside-in (i.e. external factors, such as emerging of companies, partnership and market structure) and inside-out (i.e. internal factors, such as company's resources, competence and differentiation) that is adopted or implemented by the company's management. In addition, the negligence of maintenance and its role in production processes allows swift degradation of machine and its resultant product quality.

Maintenance organization can be considered as being made up of three essential and interconnected components i.e.

Resources - personnel, spare parts and tools, of a particular size, composition, location and movement.

Administration - a hierarchy of authority and responsibility for deciding what, when, and how work should be carried out.

Work planning and control system - a mechanism for planning and scheduling the work and feeding back information which is needed if the maintenance effort is to be correctly directed towards its defined objective.

Maintenance management according to (Adrelia 2007) can be considered as the direction and organization of resources to control the availability of equipment. The tasks associated with maintenance can be divided into three main areas; work management, plant condition control and cost control.

2.7.1 Work Management

Work management is concerned with the logistics of organizing maintenance and has the following objectives:

To identify, control and co-ordinate the resources (labour, spare parts, materials and tools) that are required to complete the maintenance tasks;

To ensure that job priorities are correctly allocated;

To locate plant failures or potential failures and provide an appropriate response.

2.7.2 Plant Condition Control

Close monitoring and control of the overall plant condition is necessary to achieve a high level of plant availability. Its long-term objectives are:

To highlight maintenance engineering problems by monitoring plant performance, diagnosing causes and providing effective solutions;

To adapt maintenance policy as production requirements change. This should not be restricted to changes in preventive maintenance but should encompass re-design and the application of condition monitoring techniques where appropriate.

2.7.3 Cost Control

The third activity, cost control, is normally operated as part of a company's budgetary and expenditure control system, primarily for job costing. To achieve the improvements in maintenance effectiveness and efficiency, the maintenance manager must make use of all of the available management tools. Computer based maintenance management can increase plant availability and reduce overall maintenance costs as stated by (Adrelia 2007).

In conclusion, maintenance is very essential in every organization and the cost associated with it can be a significant factor in an organization's profitability (Chelson, Payne and Reavill, 2005). Nevertheless, inadequate maintenance has become one of the most issues faced by organizations in developing countries due principally to the attitude to it. Generally, maintenance is seen as an unimportant activity in most developing countries thus, it is not given high priority due to insufficient/ minimal knowledge about the concept (Terry, 2005; Kutucuoglu et al. 2001).

Performance of every company depends on a lot of factors and maintenance is not an exception. The research reviewed possible literature and manuals in water supply. As a result, it analyzed the impact of maintenance culture on company performance, a case study of Ghana Water Company Limited in relation to the literature. It was premised on the fact that the type of maintenance practices that is adopted by any company can either impacts the company's performance positively or negatively.

The review shows that maintenance practices in the water supply facilities contribute to performance in terms of customer satisfaction, regulatory compliance and profitability.