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Civil Engineering is a branch of engineering, mainly it's for study design, and analysis for all human constructions with its broad field it's containing many engineering subfield which is transportation, environmental, geotechnical, and construction engineering.
We are not exaggerating if we say the civil engineering is the oldest branch of engineering and the most effective in human life and revolution over years and ages.
The origin of word civil engineering was in the history of Romanian Empire there were two branches of engineering; military engineering which is concerned with castles and forts and weapons development ,and civil engineer concerned with the man and his demands such as housing construction and paving roads, Bridges dams, and canals for agriculture.
SECTION TWO: PROJECT MANAGMENT
Project management is a discipline and organization in planning and managing the resources necessary to achieve success through the project, as the project is a particular job with a beginning and an end, with a dedicated budget for useful change or addition of a specific value, projects usually have the temporary nature of the business, unlike other permanent or semi - permanent, and as such required the development of technical skills and find a separate department. (J Gordon Rees, 2004).
In the management of projects we take into account the objectives of the overall project, cost, schedule, and do not forget the roles and responsibilities of participants and stakeholders.
Project management as a methodology that incorporates the following stages:
1. Starting stage of the project.
2. Design or planning.
3. Production and implementation stage of the project
4. Monitoring and control.
5. Completion of the project.
In the Architecture and civil engineering the construction process represents a compilation of the building and infrastructure, this process is managed by the project manager and supervised by the construction manager, construction engineer, design engineer and architect for the project. (J Gordon Rees, 2004).
In general there are three types of construction:
2. Civil construction.
3. Construction industry.
SECTION THREE: HEALTH AND SAFTEY MANAGMENT
A variety of different organizations are possible for quality and safety control during construction. Ensure the safety and quality of construction is a source of concern to the project manager in charge of the project, in addition to the concerns of individuals, in terms of cost, time.
Quality control should be the main objective for all project team members. Managers should bear the responsibility for maintaining and improving quality control. Improve the quality can serve as an incentive to improve productivity by avoid problems in the long term; good quality control can pay for itself. And it should encourage owners of good quality control and contractors who seek to maintain these standards.
Ensure accurate and meaningful information is an important part of maintaining the quality of performance. There are other aspects of quality control including changes that have occurred during the construction process, procurement, and field inspection and testing, and the final exit of the facility. (John Redmond, 1999).
3.1 Safety step
The followings are the main safety steps:
Policy: the purpose of the permit-to-work system is to establish control over high-risk maintenance or other unusual work.
Organizing: An effective management structure and arrangements are in place for delivering the policy All staff are motivated to work safely and to protect their long-term health that done by arrangements:
Control: is central to all management functions Control is achieved by getting the commitment of employees to clear health and safety objectives
Co-operation: Participation by employees supports risk control by encouraging their 'ownership 'of health and safety policies. It establishes an understanding that the organization as a whole, and people working in it,
Communication: Three methods can be used to provide an adequate flow of information up, down and across the organization. They use both formal and informal means
Competence: Managers need to be aware of how to manage health and safety effectively. All employees need to be able to work in a safe and healthy manner. It may also be necessary to examine the abilities of contractors in this manner.
3- Planning: There is a planned and systematic approach to implementing the health and safety policy through an effective health and safety management system. The aim is to minimize risks. Wherever possible, risks are eliminated through selection and design of facilities, equipment and processes. If risks cannot be eliminated, they are minimized by the use of physical controls through systems of work and personal protective equipment.
4- Measuring performance: Performance is measured against agreed standards; report reveals how effectively the health and safety management system is functioning.
5- Auditing and reviewing performance
There is a systematic review of performance based on data from monitoring and from independent audits of the whole health and safety management system. There is a strong commitment to improvement involving the constant development of policies, systems and techniques of risk control. Performance is assessed through Internal reference to key performance indicators and External comparison with the performance of business competitors and best practice. (John Redmond, 1999).
Figure (1): Human factors in industrial health and safety
3.2 Organizational factors
Important factor affecting the behavior of the individual and the community where the neglected during the design work is common in many organizations. And institutions need to promote a culture of health and safety for its employees and to make sure I'm deviation from these standards for health and safety is not acceptable
3.3 Job factors
Important factors for the implementation of the work in the right way to be compatible with the requirements of the position of the individual, thus ensuring not to increase the pressure on the individual career, which leads to human error.
3.4 Personal factors
Qualities of the individual have a direct impact on his performance career include physical attributes such as strength and restrictions are caused by disability and disease, and psychological qualities such as customs, attitudes and personal skills that affect Triviality routes to perform its functions. There may be negative characteristics affecting its performance at work and can be closed through training and experience in some cases, these negative personal qualities cannot be modified. (Roger L. Brauer, 2005).
Figure (2): influence behavior in organizations.
Diagram shows the relationship between the three factors that influence behavior in organizations.
3.5 Accident ratio studies
Accident is one of the things that may occur during the execution of the work was conducted several studies to determine the relationship between serious and minor accidents and other events. (Roger L. Brauer, 2005).
The results of a study by HSE's Accident Prevention Advisory Unit (APAU) 1 are summarized below. The study confirmed the general validity of earlier work by Bird (1969) and Type and Pearson (1974/75).
There is a constant relationship between the different types of event.
2. Found that the ratio of minor accidents occurred more than those that are most dangerous
3. The occurrence of accidents, both those that caused injuries or did not cause a failure in the control and this provides an opportunity to learn and not be repeated again.
The main idea in health and safety policy to study unsafe event and everything leads to it, this help in controlling risk and measuring performance.
SECTION FOUR: QAULITY
the objective of the quality system needs to be clearly defined to lead to effective system and increase profitability ,The commitment of individuals is essential for the continued success of the quality management system..
Quality management system will vary depending on the type, size and products and assist by:
increasing customer satisfaction
identifying improvement opportunities
increasing effectiveness and productivity
Quality management system affect on repeat business, operational efficiencies, cost reductions, control on all processes, industry reputation and participation of human resources
Construction projects associated with low quality and trade disputes between the contractor and the customer, as a result of that was stressed the need for commitment to quality systems, to overcome the deficiencies to give confidence to customers that the projects will be in conformity with the specifications. (Eric Verzuh, 1999)
Quality system requires the following: ISO 9001:2000 to be documented, the commitment of management, the objectives must be measurable, must be allocated sufficient resources.
ISO it is a shortcut for an International Organization for Standardization published its first standards in 1987, a new set of standards were published in November 2001, these are known as ISO 9001:2000
Measures of the System Quality focus on performance characteristics of the system being studied. Some research studied the resource utilization and investment utilization, reliability, hardware utilization efficiency, ease of terminal use, human factors content of the database, aggregation of details, response time, and system accuracy, and these measures includes: data currency, response time, turnaround time, data accuracy, reliability, completeness, system flexibility and ease of use. (Eric Verzuh, 1999).
SECTION FIVE: FINICIAL CONTROL
The aim of project cost control is to identify the differences between the estimated cost at the beginning of project and the real spending cost on project, also the project manger can be able to assess and indicate the cost control, financial efficiency, and how the finance team deal with the problems occurred during the project life cycle regards to the keeping records. (Karen Schoenebeck,2010)
5.1 Project budget
The project budget is the estimated cost used to control, monitor, and saving the finance performance during project. The project budget estimate the baseline that the project manager depends on it to assess the project if it's under financial control or not. To monitor the project status project manager should be able to compare the achievement progress referred to schedule time to assess the completed task referred to time plane.
The project budget identified as a reference for management the cost where the original estimated cost for a specific job is described. So the cost for a specific job recorded to be compared with the original estimated cost for that job. The job cost is divided into sub tasks called element works for that job, so the cost for that elements is included into particular cost account for this job. (Jeffrey Waybright, Robert Kemp, 2010)
Entity in project budget for a specific job includes the estimation cost, information about needed materials and quantities, as well as labor needed for completed this job, so the cost overrun or saving can be measured depends on this requirements for this job.
Activity Cost Control
The project management and cost control is not only aimed to keep a records of costs for assessment, but the good project manger should interested on revenues, cost, and the ability to solve the problems that may occurred during the project. The project cost status assess depends on the following category:
The project budget Cost: it is the cost estimated at the beginning of project during planning process referred to it for cost control assessment.
Estimated total cost: it is represent the best current cost that is identified depends on the progress and changes occurred during project. So it may refer as the total cost up to date.
Cost committed and cost exposure: it is represent as a part of estimated cost for completion, so the committed cost represent the needed material cost and subcontracts that are committed. But the exposure cost represents additional estimated cost.
Cost to date: represent the real cost that are spending on the project where it can be defined from the past financial records.
Over or under: it is representing the cost amount if it is under or over estimated budget where the project manger depends on it for the financial performance assessment.
Financial and cost accounting
As mentioned before the cost control used for maintaining records in order to assess the financial performance, also these records can be used for the following purposes:
Daily reports to managers used to assess daily planning, control, and monitoring works.
Keep project manger updated about project status in order to aid project planning.
Inform owner, contractor, and government about project status.
Accounting information also keeps a record about daily transaction which represents the cash flow in dollars that enter or leave organization. This information gives an indicator about the organization state also forecast the future changes used for increase management efficiency. As described before the project manger is responsible about the assessment of project status which includes the activity, financial, payment and receipt. (Jeffrey Waybright, Robert Kemp, 2010).
The cost control, monitoring, accounting allowed the project manger to identify, and analyze the project status.
Another responsibility of project manager is to monitor the project schedule for completion. Construction process contains a deadline for completion work, so the agreement on the contract force the contractor to complete work as scheduled. Delays in schedule will affect on total cost by increasing it. To assess the time schedule during the project it should compare the actual duration for task refer to the expected duration for complete. In order to evaluate the progress schedule it should take in consideration that the delay in activities on critical path will affect on the completion time. (Karen Schoenebeck,2010).
Schedule and Budget control.
The project schedule and planning is a continuous activity during the life time of project. The deviation and difference between the real time of progress and schedule force the project manager to reschedule the time and estimated cost.
The time schedule and cost estimation must be periodically update to avoid unexpected delays on schedule. If one of major activity delays then it will affect on related activity unless the project manger do some changes. Without updating the project schedule waste more time in progress. For update the project manager should identify the update cause, and future expected affects on related activities. (Jeffrey Waybright, Robert Kemp, 2010).
In construction field the builder responsible about the execution of construction where is referred to general contractor that coordinate the tasks between subcontractors specialist each one in their field like mechanical and electrical.
The main role of general contractor is to coordinate and distribute the task into subcontractors. Good general manager who's worked with a team of subcontractors before and know their productivity and loyalty to work
Specialty contractor (subcontractors)
These contractor are reported to the general contractor and they are special each one in their field like electronics, electrical, mechanical, and other related fields.
Construction loans almost provided by banks or guarantee the construction. When the facility is completed the loans will be terminated and owner will rearrange the construction financing. The construction loans will be paid to contractor depending on the schedule completion time, so if the completion time delayed then it will cause additional penalty cost.
SECTION SIX: HUMAN RESOURCES
Management of human resources is a strategic and coherent approach to the management and organization assets be worth more than the people who work in any organization, whether collectively or individually designed to achieve business objectives, the concept of personnel resource management in the organizations to recruit people and develop their use and compensation for their services in line with the requirements of the post and regulatory
6.1 Labor law
The Labor Code is a set of laws and administrative decisions to address the legal rights and restrictions on the work of people and their organizations, and it mediates both the trade unions and employers and employees. The rights of workers are an integral part of economic development since the industrial revolution.
Labor Code covers the two categories: collective action, which included the relationship between employee and employer and union, and the second individual concerns to ensure the employee's rights in the workplace and during the period of the employment contract. (M.W. Abrahamson, 1990)
6.2 Employment contracts
each employee working in any organization supposed to have work contract, even if not in writing, it is automatically created as soon as he started to work in the Organization
The definition of the employment contract, we can say that it's an agreement between the employer and the employee specifying the responsibilities and duties in the organization and helps to cut off or resolving disputes that may arise between the employee and the employer until the end of work and, of course, by giving notice, or even change the terms of this contract. (M.W. Abrahamson, 1990).
6.3 Terms of the contract
It is possible to get the contract terms by one of the following:
Notice board located in the Employee Handbook
Offer made by the employer
Are required by law, for example have to pay the employer a wage not less than provided for by law
6.4 Written statement of work
The written statement of work must be received by each employee hired for a period longer than one month a written statement of the details of the work, the employer must provide the employee within two months of starting work for him, this statement does not cover all the conditions its only contains the basic terms, and the terms which the employer should include in.
6.5 Principal statement
Statement contains some of the main details of the employee are as follows:
1.The name of the employee and the employer's name
2. Job title and brief description of the work
3. The date of commencement
4. Number of working hours
6. Sick leave
7. The notice period
8. Disciplinary action and grievances
9. Pensions and terms and conditions
Each employee has the right to have this document that shows the details of work and outlining their rights and duties with clear and correct format, and has the right to get a copy of these documents. (M.W. Abrahamson, 1990).
6.6 Type of contract
There are three types of contracts shown below:
Permanent (full-time or part-time) - ongoing employment
Temporary (full-time or part-time) - fixed term employment for limited period of time
Casual employment (full-time or part-time)
6.7 Employment contract and change
Employment contract based mainly on the agreement between the employee and the employer describing the duties and rights of both parties, and sometimes these conditions are changed for certain reasons, but this change can't be made without the following:
Negotiation and agreement between the employer and employee
Collective agreement - and this is a place between the employer and the trade unions or associations
Implication, to do something customary for long time ,usually done by the employer
Employment contract can be changed in the following cases:
For the benefit of the employer, because of some economic circumstances or a change in the laws, employer needs to reorganize his working practice, below are the things that might be changed:
employees rights and responsibility
place of work
For the Employee's benefits, on the other hand also employees can request a change to their contract, and these changes can be for:
Improve working conditions
Improve working conditions
Change the hours
Flexible in working
6.8 How to resolve a problem at work
Problems can happen, especially the atmosphere of work between employee and employer, but these things can be resolved formally or even informally through specific actions followed the company, the employer may also solve problems that may be caused by the employee by the submission of complaints to the court if he abandoned by one of the terms of the contract.
Problem can be sorted into grievances from the employee's side and disciplinaries from the employer side, and all of them have the right to solve his problem and guarantee his right to work in a comfort and justice environment.
both the employee and the employer had concerns and matters of interest to, for the employees things such as his job, conditions of employment, contractual rights and the way they treated the work, if there was fear of a problem or even a real problem, it is recommended that the employee go to the manager and explain the problem and seek to resolve them informally, and remove misunderstanding that was there.
for the employer he is also always thinks about the conduct of staff absence from work and the way they do is the performance of their job, it's better, and also to try to resolve problems peacefully and to reach agreement before the disciplinary procedures