Civil Engineering And The Significant Environment Construction Essay

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Civil engineering project is a project which involves the construction and restoration of a structure or significant alteration in the environment. Civil engineering projects are taking place on a very diverse scale all over the world. Some examples of civil engineering projects include: updating a city's sewage processing system to accommodate a growing population, building a canal, constructing a bridge, widening a roadway, wetlands restoration, and earthquake retrofitting of private homes so that they will meet local building codes. There are many disciplines within the very broad field of civil engineering, and projects also typically involve input from other experts as well as a civil engineer, with an engineering firm supervising the civil engineering project to make sure that it is done correctly. Civil engineers are very concerned with the safety and efficiency of every civil engineering project, and they are also engaged in making projects which are designed to be lasting, which means that they must be flexible enough to accommodate changing usage needs in addition to being very sturdy and built to meet or exceed safety requirements. A civil engineering project can involve starting from scratch to meet a need or solve a problem

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The purpose of this essay is to find out what the needs for civil engineering project are and what input which a civil engineer would have into a project. Also the essay have asked to find a suitable project which has a significant size and have sufficient complexity to require civil engineering input throughout the design and construction. The chosen project is Strait of Gibraltar crossing which is a tunnel or bridge project that would connect Spain to morocco. The project has been proposed to Spain and morocco government to investigate the project. The Strait of Gibraltar crossing could be a biggest civil engineering project which linking the two continents. This tunnelling project is more suitable than bridge. This tunnelling idea came from The Channel Tunnel project which was discussed in lecture and could possible to use this similar idea in this project. But the area under the Strait is less stable than that under the English Channel, as an active major geologic fault, the Azores-Gibraltar Transform Fault, bisects the Strait, and severe earthquakes have occurred in the area. The presence of two very deep Quaternary clay channels in the middle of the Strait also makes construction complex, causing doubts about the feasibility of the project and proposals for an exploratory tunnel. The project was estimated 24 miles the length and 980 ft below sea level is deeper than the channel tunnel which makes it difficult for civil engineer to tackle the issue but with today technology anything can be solved. The tunnelling project could take 15 years to complete because of the deepness of the sea. The project is underwater railway tunnel and two railway terminals were proposed with this project. It was estimated that train can carry 9 million passengers from undersea tunnel. But they could use freight vehicle shuttle to carry cars or buses from Europe to Africa which would be benefit for both country and international countries. It will boost the economy and tourist attraction. The advantage of the tunnel would be that it will allow shipping to pass. Although low bridge would be need to be an opening or swing bridge to allow shipping to pass otherwise it can cause traffic congestion. Bridges can be close for road and rail network due to the harsh weather such as high winds and for that reason engineer prefer bridges than tunnel. Apart from tunnelling construction , civil engineering need to design a railway terminal for Spain and morocco and build highways and railway network to connect other countries . Building terminal need to be more secured to stop immigration coming into Europe .also they need to think about the ventilation plant to allow the air inside the underwater tunnel escape. They also need to find solution how they are going to dig underground.

Surveying - This role is one of the main part of the civil engineering project process where civil engineer have to analysis the ground conditions of the Strait of Gibraltar underwater tunnel project where they have to collect samples from both Spain and morocco lands soil from boreholes and by other geophysical techniques. Then engineer will make a best choice for the machinery and methods for excavation and ground support. This will reduce the risk of unexpected ground conditions. They also will have to measure the distance of the underwater tunnel. The surveying process takes lot of time until it is safe to build tunnel which is challenging to civil engineer. When the ground condition examined by surveyor then they have to measure the ground deepness and what kind nature of rock is available for them. Surveying role will help civil engineer to insure two halves of the tunnel met up at the same point when the engineer using boring machine for the digging process. The advantage of surveying is that it will insure the engineer that the Strait of Gibraltar underwater tunnel project will be safe and successful

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Design - designing tunnel is one of the most important and big parts of what civil engineers do in Strait of Gibraltar underwater tunnel project. In this project civil engineer will have to design similar design of the channel tunnel or The Seikan Tunnel. The design of the underwater tunnel should have two main tunnels where one line is for Spain to Morocco and other line is Morocco to Spain, a service to tunnel for emergency accident and a tunnel which connect both main tunnels. Civil engineers most design very carefully where designer have to design station location for emergency accident , maximum gradients for the trains using the tunnels, minimum curve radius of the trains and the location of obstructions such as tube lines, building foundations, sewers and other tunnels. These are the main things which designers have to design before they start the construction. Also apart from designing underwater tunnels, they will have to design the terminals for the passengers. The design should be modern and unique building and should design a border building to stop the immigration. The advantage of design is that the engineer will be able to build the tunnel by looking at the design.

Construction - civil engineers will be more involved in the construction which is the main part of the tunnelling process. Civil engineering will dig the underwater tunnel where they have to pass from soft clay to hard rock. They will use different method tunnel construction d to dig underwater tunnel depends on the ground conditions, the ground water conditions, the length and diameter of the tunnel drive, the depth of the tunnel , the logistics of supporting the tunnel excavation, the final use and shape of the tunnel and appropriate risk management. There will be lots of engineers involves in underwater tunnel construction where they will follow the designer to make sure everything going as a plan and the design. In the construction there are two types of roles, those roles are planning and site supervision of the construction. engineer will need to plan the construction where they have to sort out how long is going to take the tunnel to be completed, also as well as planning there is management of the construction which controls the timetable of the construction .Site supervision is a role which engineer will be on the site to make sure everything done properly, they also need to dealing with any problems which they face in underwater tunnel. Also engineers need to construct international highways for both countries in order to help passenger travel through the country and also connect the highways to other countries as well. The advantage of the underwater tunnel construction is that helps to Spain and Morocco economy and

Every civil engineer will do their own specific roles which they enjoy. From those main five roles, I mostly enjoy three of the roles, which are surveying, design and construction. The reason why I have chosen those three roles is that of the way these roles challenging me and the skills which improve my ability. Surveying is the practice of measuring angles and distances on the ground which require maths skill to calculate the distance, designing a project will need a good IT skill which I have and it's also challenging me as well and finally construction works is mainly to do with communication and management skills, these two are not my strongest skills but as I said that I like something challenge me and this encourage me to improve those weakest skills. From those three I can be able to perform Surveying and design role well enough. The other two roles service/ maintenance and quantification are not my specific roles which I enjoy because they are not challenging to me.