Civil And Construction Management Construction Essay

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Research review of previously conducted studies outcomes with significant information for professionals of the relevant field (Ackoff 1979). There are various techniques that may be used for literature review (Glaser et al 1967). In general, a literature review may be classified in to two major classes; qualitative or quantitative (Kline 1995). A qualitative literature review study has been purposed on the topic of construction design management regulations in UK at Msc Civil Engineering level. The dissertation will create an understanding for the CDM regulations in UK. It will also evaluate the causes, effects and ways to improve the implementation of the CDM regulations. The present thesis will analyse various sources of literature to investigate procedures, causes, advantages and drawbacks of the CDM regulations in UK. The dissertation is based on an open principle question to find out what has been researched for CDM regulations in UK until now.

The area of current study is wide and diffused. There are many quantitative studies on CDM in UK but in dept qualitative studies are rare (Forrest 2001). Studies with signals of relevance should be targeted when approaching a review of diffuse topic area (Oliver 2004). As the current study is an open study question, therefore an approach of relevance signals has been adopted. The study will take an account of changes in CDM regulations in UK and its impact on construction industry in UK. How CDM regulations were affected under changes in construction industry as an attempt of improvement and accountability? These issues will be evaluated in the present study. Two important areas of CDM regulations in UK have been focused in current study and aimed to bring study scope from wide to narrow. The study area is significantly wide. In the current study, there seems to be a widespread knowledge in searched studies; therefore a restrictive approach will be required in order to manage information. It will be mainly achieved by using broad to narrow technique (Casewell 1997). Systematic research of databases with open search criteria is a challenging job (Miles 1984). Therefore, a special technique of literature review known as thematic analysis will be used in analysing the literature in current study. Many Computer assisted Qualitative Data Analysis (CAQDAS) software are available in market but a manual approach will be used in current study due to limited number of papers. As the area of study is obviously wide, therefore a thematic analysis methodology has been adopted. The study will evaluate any available information and significant area of CDM regulations in UK. An intelligent data base approach will be used to search data base in the current study. Two significant elements of data base search include type of data base and terminology of search. These two research criteria will be used in present study to find out relevant data. A wide range of data base will be searched in the current study.

A literature review on significant issue may be conducted by using various techniques (Dawson et al 2002). A literature review may be qualitative or quantitative (Patton 1980). First of all, a major area of investigation (CDM regulations in UK) has been focused and is known as principle research question. The principle question may be concise to one important issue or it could be an open question to encircle all relevant information available within the scope of the question (Patton 1980).

Construction Design Management (CDM) regulations are important in the construction industry. CDM has undergone various changes and amendments to absorb latest issues arising in the area of construction management. Many quantitative studies are available on CDM but very few qualitative studies have been conducted until now. A qualitative approach is adopted in the current study to take a deep and comprehensive analysis of the construction management issues.

The new CDM 2007 was made on 7th February 2007, sent to Parliament for approval on 15th February 2007 and come into force on 6th April 2007(CDM 2007). The aim of the new CDM 2007 regulations is to minimise the risk of harm in construction industry and to enhance safety at work. Safety of workers in construction industry has great influence on worker's attitude and safety (Shoji et al 2006). The new CDM 2007 regulations explain Health and safety issues similar as CDM 1994. Some of regulations are revised, amended and updated in CDM 2007. Both CDM 1994 and CDM 2007 deal with health and safety considerations in effective planning and management of construction projects, from design concept onwards. The existing construction (Health, Safety and Welfare) regulations 1996 were not sufficient to cover all phases of construction and are therefore completely revoked (Edwin et al 1999). Regulations 1996 only deal with health, safety and welfare requirements on site during the construction phase and are now used as Part 4 of the new CDM 2007 regulations, with amendments. Parts 1, 2 & 3 of the new CDM 2007 regulations deal with similar issues as CDM 1994 but are revised with some amendments in CDM 2007. The frequent changes, amendments and reviews of CDM indicated that the qualitative study with an open principle question may encircle all issues in ever changing health and safety needs in construction industry.

Construction industry is one of the most dangerous industries in Australia and has killed many workers in last decade (Fraser 2007). The situation is not different in UK as well. There was a need to develop regulations for safety of construction workers in UK (CDM 1994). There are various factors affecting the safety of construction workers at work (Edwin et al 1999). It is true that identical safety factors cannot apply to all organizations but some general safety climate factors can be the foundation of safety regulations (Glendon et al 2001). CDM 1994 came into force on 31 March 1995. The CDM 1994 first time identified the need to reduce risk factors by better coordination, planning, designing, management and cooperation. With the enforcement of CDM regulations, construction industry started implementation of H&S in different ways. The responsibilities of clients and designers were made obvious and descriptive first time ever in regulation. The health and safety concerns are important issues in construction industry of any country. The current study may be more beneficial if it could encircle health and safety measures in other geographical area to present a geographical comparison.

Thematic analysis is different from normal literature review (Casewell 2002). In general form of literature review, the research trend is mostly quantitative rather than qualitative (Ian 2001). In thematic analysis, each selected source of information is deeply investigated to find out relevant information about selected topic (Denzin et al 2000). There are various ways to evaluate data through thematic analysis approach. Various themes may be generated by extracting data from individual reports and papers.

Initially, database is searched for broad terminology (Hoepfl 1997). Various types of terminologies are used in the selection of relevant information sources. If two terminologies are used, the first terminology is called as primary terminology and indicates the major area while the secondary term focuses on various aspects and contexts. Two or more types of terms are used in combination for searching literature. In thematic analysis, the terminology is kept broad to include every possible information in themes. As thematic analysis is not superficial study. An inclusion exclusion criterion is fixed and searched literature which meets the inclusion exclusion criteria is used in thematic analysis study (Kothari 1985). To encircle all relevant information on CDM in UK, thematic analysis approach has been adopted in the current study.

Any system of regulation or codes is developed by a process of evaluations (Maohua et al 2003). Health and safety issues are important in construction industry of any country (Hassanein et al 2007). Attempts have been made to equip construction worker with health and safety training and awareness in various countries (Helen 2002).There were some concerns about complexity and bureaucracy of CDM 1994. Therefore feedbacks are collected by consultations. Feedbacks provide good basis for any revision or alteration in a system (Tam et al 2002). CDM 1994 was less focus on risk reduction and was more concerned about paper work. Therefore a need to simplify CDM 1994 was felt. The actual aims to revise CDM 1994 include simplification of the regulations, to make them more clear and obvious, to enhance their flexibility, to focus on effective planning and management of risk factors, to reduce paperwork and documentation, to integrate the requirements and regulations on various parts of the construction project. A project is not only the construction work, but also includes all the planning, designing, and management or other work until the end of the construction phase, to simplify the procedure of H&S assessment.

The process of thematic analysis in current study will consists of three basic steps. In first step, various codes will be designed by keeping in view the extracted data. Example of some codes may include Code A; construction design management regulations, Code B; UK, Code C; amendments, Code D; significance and Code E; implementation. Several codes will be designed to encircle all issues of CDM in UK. At this stage codes will not make any meaningful outcome. Codes will not be pre-designed but developed after extraction of data with consideration of encircling all relevant information of selected area. In step 2, codes will be bridged to create meaningful outcome known as individual findings. Depending upon the data fitted in various codes, the codes will be bridged to create meaningful outcome. For example, bridging between A&B creates a meaningful individual finding of CDM regulations in UK. Similarly several other individual findings will be searched by combination of various codes. The codes may be combined in pair of two or three depending upon evaluation of a meaningful finding. In step three, individual cluster themes will be created. Initially, the combinations of codes will result in a piece of extracted data known as valuable findings. These findings will generate individual themes at their initial process or a further bridging will be performed. When individual findings are further bridged, a meaningful data extraction will be derived known as sub theme. The subthemes will be further bridged to create a significant piece of information known as theme.

The safety at work is important issue for workers. Sense of insecurity creates distress among construction workers (Oi-ling et al 2004). The main change in CDM 2007 is very important. The quantitative study is preferable as compared to quantitative study as it takes a deep view of searched literature and come out in significant themes. Research points out that there is a clear statistical correlation between management commitment to safety and injury rates in construction industry (Osama et al 2006). The things which were implicit in CDM 1994 are made explicit in CDM 2007. Regulations of CHSW and CDM are combined to apply simultaneously on all construction work. Duty of clients and designers on H&S management are made obvious. Research has indicated the need of increased client and designer involvement in health and safety issues at construction industry (Tony et al 2000). A new duty holder has been introduced known as "the H&S coordinator". The paper work and documentation is on less focus. Actual focus has been changed to create clarity in relation to competence and assessment. A new method for appointments and preparation of the plan has been introduced. The new CDM 2007. Regulations will also apply to projects that are already in progress. In an already started project, a planning supervisor or principal contractor appointed under CDM 1994 will be deemed to be the CDM co-coordinator or principal contractor, but they must ensure that they acquire the new competencies within 12 months. A project longer than 30 days or 500 person days of construction work is notifiable to the HSE in CDM 2007 (CDM 2007). However in case of projects for operational railways, projects should be notifiable to the Office of Rail Regulation.

CDM 2007 is a result of evolution from health and safety needs in construction industry. Client's duties are mentioned in section 9, 10 of part II and in section 15, 16 and 17 of part III of CDM 2007. CDM 2007 has put grievous responsibility on client to ensure H&S regulations implementation on construction project. There was an obvious reason behind this change. The Client has control on contract, finance, resources, design, and decision which make him one of the biggest influencing factors over the way a project is run. Clients make decision for project team and know well about competence of team as they appoint the team. Clients are responsible for encouragement of team to cooperate and work together effectively. Clients are information provider to team about the site, existing structures and the present arrangements. Clients maintain and coordinate the work of the team. If the client is so important personality, then client should be given big responsibility in construction project. This has happened in new CDM 2007. CDM 2007 has made clients accountable for the impact they have on H&S Standards. Clients are responsible to make sure things are done according to CDM 2007. Clients must provide enough time, money, work force, training, equipment, material, information and resources to allow the project to be delivered safely. Training to workers can enhance safety at work (Wojcik et al 2003). However it is not client's duty to go on site and H&S coordinator is their key advisor in CDM 2007. In CDM 2007 client can discharge more than one CDM 2007 function provided he has the appropriate level of competence. Clients can decide to perform the coordination duties themselves or they may appoint the designer as the co-coordinator.

The literature on CDM is widespread and covers a wide range of knowledge. It ranges from client's duties and responsibilities to the fines and penalties as a result of negligence and mistakes. As discussed in earlier paragraphs, the literature and studies on CDM are not few in number due to time by time changes, amendments, updates and importance of CDM. The unlimited range of CDM information is enough to understand that why thematic analysis has been decided in the current study instead of a simple literature review.

In CDM 2007, client's duties have been divided into two categories; duties in regard to all construction projects and additional duties for notifiable projects. These duties are mentioned in the Part 2 of the Regulations. The clients (excluding domestic client) have duties to check competence and resources of all appointees and to ensure that there are suitable management arrangements for the project welfare facilities. The clients should allow sufficient time and resources for all construction stages and should provide relevant pre-construction information to designers and contractors. CDM 2007 considers property developers as clients because they are carrying out work in the progress of a business and therefore they are 'clients' under the CDM 2007. Additional duties for notifiable projects are mentioned in the part 3 of the Regulations. According to these duties, client should appoint CDM co-ordinator and principal contractor. Client should make sure that the construction phase does not start unless there are suitable welfare facilities and a construction phase plan is in place. The client should have access to the health and safety file. Client should provide information and access to health and safety file to the CDM co-coordinator.

Most of studies are not really perfect. The studies are limited due to some restrictions and boundaries. Limitations may include sampling method, sample size, geographical area, methodology and legal barriers. Sample of study is very significant but may be one of the major limitations of a study (Abdul 1974). Sample of a study range from large sample to small. Small sample studies may ignore large statistical data and large sample studies may fail to encircle qualitative data (Arnold 2009). Sometimes, the sample of a study is not big enough due to less available time. When considering a qualitative study, the sample size does not matter as qualitative study is more concerned with data evaluation and analysis rather than the number of sample. Therefore current study will focus on the quality of data evaluation and interpretation rather than on the number of sample. Geographical limitation is another big issue in the context of limitation. Study may be universal covering a wide range of geographical area or it may be limited to an area. The current study is limited to a small geographical area as CDM is present in UK. However, the current study may be made open for more geographical areas to make a comparison of similar or alternative regulations in various parts of the World.

The information, evolutionary phases, comparison among various versions and content of CDM demonstrate the significance of research on health and safety issues in construction industry. In a real sense, the regulation and management of health and safety issues at construction trade are ever changing issues in UK (Wright 2003). A new regulatory package known as CDM 2007 has emerged by certain amendments and bringing together the CDM Regulations 1994 and the construction (Health Safety and Welfare) regulations 1996 into a single regulatory package. CDM 2007 has defined all construction works. Now construction projects are either notifiable or non-notifiable and raise obligations on duty holders as defined in the regulations under the word 'construction'. Now a very simple construction task like replacing a broken old window will be covered under CDM 2007. CDM 2007 is more comprehensive in defining duty holder's duties under two headings. Focus on paper work and documentation as was in CDM 1994 has been decreased in CDM 2007 and main aim is to ensure the implementation of health and safety regulation on construction project.

In the light of above mentioned discussion about CDM in UK, its ever changing position, review and need to update regularly, attempts to improve continuously, making duties and responsibilities more obvious, removing ambiguities and aiming to provide safer working environment to construction workers is possible by conducting qualitative research in CDM issues and providing feedback to improve to professionals.