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The Design Team Management process incorporates not only the design sector of the construction development stages, though also extends to the incorporation of the entirety of the project team from the concept and initial stages as soon as possible. This discipline utilizes project management, design, strategy, and supply chain techniques to control a creative process, support a culture of creativity and build a structure so to incorporate the organization for design development. From this it can be seen that the main objectives of the team management procedure is in essence to create an environment to which the organization, owner, builder, architect, consultants and contractors are able to achieve strategic and mission goals through design, by establishing and managing an efficient and effective system in the final achievement of a successfully delivered project.
From this viewpoint into design team management and through the analysis of the previous literature review incorporating articles "A 3D analyzer for BIM-enabled Life Cycle Assessment of the whole process of construction" by Tugba Kulahcioglu, Jiangbo Dang & Candemir Toklu and "BIM Extension into Later Stages of Project Life Cycle" by Pavan Meadati the main focus question that this report will develop upon is:
The Extension of BIM into the Later Stages of a Project's Life Cycle and ways in which they can be improved?
Incorporated into this topic overview will be the consideration of the main points of how BIM can be utilized in the enhancement of facility management in the occupation stages of a buildings life cycle and the way in which attached and relevant documentation can be incorporated into models and such to improve this process during the course of this specific period.
The Life Cycle process of a building or project initiates from its conception and extends all the way through to the final demolition of said building once it has come to the end of its useful life. The life cycle process in construction generally will incorporate the initial planning stages of a building, its design, through design development and the construction phases. Through these processes of the buildings development and construction existing documentation, engineering, design and analysis tools and software are able to be utilized through such methods as diverse variation of BIM software and documentation control and collaboration systems/software's. This multitude of information built up over generally the years of development and construction though can be seen not to be organized in a manner that will be useful and/or easily assessable to refer to during the period that the building or facility is actually in use. This general mind set can be seen as the norm as today most building companies today will build a project and move onto the next leaving the client to fend for themselves so to speak. This analysis and incorporation can be seen to greatly benefit clients and operators of facilities though needs to be specified that the information that will be presented be outlined to be included how and what information in contract.
The two texts analysed throughout the course of the previous literary review portray two aspects of the incorporation of a BIM based system or analysis to be utilised and enhance a projects life cycle not only throughout and at the beginning stages of the building and construction phases through most importantly through to the maintenance and operation stages where the incorporation of BIM utilisation processes to further the presented information available in a model or analysis is generally overlooked or 'put in the too hard basket' in today's industry. As stated previously both these techniques will not suit all clients and contractors, though no one system ever will. It can be seen that the utilisation of these techniques and technologies will depend on the intended purpose of the project and the client or owners intentions to maintain the project throughout its life cycle. Pending this, the monetary valve initially outlaid in the early stages of a large project would be far exceeded through the savings presented in dollar figures, time, energy efficiency and maintenance throughout the course of the life cycle of the building/project.
The following main ideas and issues can be drawn from the previous journal articles discussed and will influence the improvement of BIM use in the later stages of a project's life cycle through the development of this report:
Collating 3D as-built drawings for the development of a 3D/4D/ 5D as-built model
The link between graphical and non-graphical data exists as independent entities and not linked to each other as they should be
Early design stage decision making processes ability to have greatest impact on end product
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) dependency on the quality and availability of data from all phases of a building
The idea of extending the use of BIM into the later stages of a project's life cycle can be seen to be further improved upon through the use and incorporation of the ideas presented above. Through their incorporation into the construction industry it will become evident of their key influential nature through the benefits that they are able to offer the development of a construction project and design team that managers it.
It can be seen through the collation and expansion of 3D as-built drawings for the development of a 3D/4D/5D as-built model and the integration of construction process documentation the facilitation of BIM implementation during the maintenance, operation and decommissioning phases of a projects life cycle can be improved. This method of information integration that this BIM process can eliminate fragmentation of information within the industry and facilitate the flow of information through the planning, design, construction and operation and maintenance stages of a project. Reasoning for not achieving an integrated 3D AS-BUILT BIM post construction of the facility is the lack of the integration of construction process information into the initial 3D model, such as shop drawings, specifications, actual cost, change orders, actual schedule, submittals, site photos, and RFI's the incorporation of this information facilitates the BIM implementation further past the pre-construction stages. With the integration of this information a data rich integrated model is able to be created. It can be seen through this method of information integration that this BIM process can eliminate fragmentation of information within the industry and facilitate the flow of information. It can be seen that the lack of as-built 3D models are barriers impeding the further extension into the later stages of the life cycle process.
Further to this it steams to be evident that the link between graphical and non-graphical data exist as independent entities and not linked to each other as they should be. BIM is a process and it provides a basis and framework to which a data rich product model that facilitates an integrated can be created and benefit the overall project. It can be seen that information integrated into BIM models can be categorized into graphical and non-graphical data sets. The graphical data includes 2D and 3D drawings and non-graphical data includes other project documents. There can be seen to be an absence of a connection between these two aspects of data within a model that can be seen to decrease the design team's productivity due to the time consuming task of retrieving information and regeneration of data. It can be seen that the integration of BIM can facilitate the ease of access to information and reusage of data increasing project productivity.
It is also key that the design team comes to the realisation that the early design stage decision making processes has the greatest ability to have the furthermost impact on end building design and eventually operation. It is in the design development stages of a project that the considerations of the environmental impacts of a building be considered, along with the functionality, aesthetics, final use and occupants needs and requirements. This is due to the fact that the opportunity and ability to greatly effect and reduce the buildings impact greatly reduces after its design is complete. It can be seen that the existing weaknesses with the industry regarding the methodologies and analysis that integrate a life cycle analysis into the decision making process. To counter this problem a methodology to apply to LCA has been created incorporating the use of Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) based Building Information Models (BIM), in order to consider the whole life cycle of a building or project. Through the integration of this methodology the utilisation of the early design and decision making processes and is able to be suited and utilised by a range of stakeholders within the building industry including owners, clients, subcontractor, designers etc.
A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is dependent on the quality and availability of data from all phases of a building to be a successful and useful tool in order to enhance the final building design through meaningful utilisation by the design management team. As the building industry has such an influential impact on the environment (through emissions of green house gasses, material wastes, energy consumption etc.) it needs an effective tool to assess and deduce its impact on the environment and human health throughout life cycle assessment or analysis through all stages of the projects implementation/useful life period.
An approach that uses LCA methods and consists of four basic stages, commencing with the defining purpose of the analysis, the life cycle inventory (LCI) calculating the raw material and energy requirement of the project inclusive of various emissions and other release systems, then the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) creating a link between the mentioned potential environmental impacts (e.g. contribution to global warming, acidification, etc.) and finally the interpretation stage identifies, quantifies, checks, and evaluates results of LCI and LCIA. This valuable information/data is displayed visually and can then be interpretation and used to improve the building design to generate better analysis results to reach an optimized final building design. Through the integration of these technologies the methodology is able to provide a useful analysis framework that also supports 3D visualizations and user interaction, both facilitates and accelerates LCA process for buildings. This prototype is able to be incorporated in the early design and decision making processes and is able to increase the functionality and success of an overall building design.
From the report an analysis into the idea of the extension of the use and incorporation of BIM strategies and technologies into the later stages of a project's life cycle can be seen to be further improved upon through the use and incorporation of the ideas presented. Through the processes of the collation 3D as-built drawings for the development of a 3D/4D/ 5D as-built model, incorporating a link between graphical and non-graphical data, LCA dependency on the quality and availability of data from all phases of a building and the early design stage decision making process being utilised to make relevant changes the overall end running and operation of a building project can be seen to be supported and improved.
Through delving into the reasoning behind how and why the incorporation of this predominately new management and project system/technique/software will help the efficiency and efficiency of design and constructability of projects from the conception to the final delivery, management/occupancy and finally demolition stages of a projects lifecycle. We can see the importance of BIM to the industry as a whole to which the construction industry is generally reluctant to accept the incorporation of technology. The incorporation of BIM systems offer benefits to all facets of the design and construction processes of a project and cannot be overlooked in today's industry development. BIM is, though will soon be much more integral aspect of the industry as a whole to which it will not look back.
T. Kulahcioglu, J. Dang & C. Toklu, (2012), A 3D analyzer for BIM-enabled Life Cycle Assessment of the whole process of Construction, HVAC&R Research, 18:1-2, Pg. 283-293.
P. Meadati, (2009), BIM Extension into Later Stages of Project Life Cycle, Building Information Modelling, Engineering Project Organization Journal, 1:2, Pg. 83-93.