Building durability depends on the underlying structures (foundations, walls, floors, partitions, stairs, roof) and fire resistance. Building durability - this is an attribute of an existing building to remain strong, durable for a long period of time is affected by a variety of mechanical and environmental influences (weather, temperature, etc.)... Almost all the buildings and their elements are relevant for the requirements to be classified into the following five categories: functional, architectural aesthetic, technical, economic and environmental. One of the most important are the technical requirements, as they have to ensure that the building would be a strong, sturdy, durable, reliable protect people and equipment from a variety of atmospheric effects, meet fire safety and all hygiene requirements.
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This project is about the residential dwellings and its building requirements.
The foundation is the base of the house, and their construction is one of the key stages of construction of the building, so it is very important to choose the right foundation. Home longevity depends on: foundation design, waterproofing, soil properties. If the foundation is installed in the wrong, then they open up cracks consequently damp and frost will penetrate to the house.
Each house foundations should be individualized, taking into account soil characteristics, the type of construction of the building and the site topography.
Foundations can be classified according to various characteristics - usually by installing method and techniques that are used to calculate their carrying capacity.
The types of foundations are:
- Strip foundation
- Deep strip foundation
- Wide strip foundation
- Raft foundation
- Piled foundation
Residential buildings are most often made â€‹â€‹to strip foundations. Strip foundations are made from concrete blocks, or made from monolithic concrete. Strip foundations are made in whole, after all bearing walls of building. The size of foundation depends on the wall thickness and the soil bearing capacity. Only the lower part of foundation should be widened, so that the load spreads on the wider area of â€‹â€‹soil, when the soil is weaker or base is exposed to a higher load.
Components and materials
To build foundations are used heavy natural stone, concrete, reinforced concrete, metal, red well-baked bricks, poles, impregnated wood (for wooden buildings).
It is often seen cracked walls of the house. This happens because the foundation is sinking to the ground, the reason may be, that soil has not been studied. Therefore, before designing the foundation of the house, it is first necessary to carry out geological investigations. Each soil has its strength properties. Therefore, only after establishing soil resistance will be clear how it will withstand the weight of the house. In the absence of geological research, calculations can be inaccurate, the house can sit, deformed. Thus, the substructure depth and width will depend on the strength of the soil.
Soil is classified according to type:
- Rocky soil, which is particularly strong, conhesionless, waterproof, freeze proof, they could not expand and they cannot be washed out with a water . Foundations can be laid directly on them.
- Sandy soils consist of particles from 0.1 to 2 mm. They are divided into pebbly, coarse, medium size and anther. Larger and cleaner sand can withstand more weight. Evenly distributed such sand is a great support for the building.
- Clay soils have a very small particles (less than 0.005 mm), which have many capillaries, that easy absorb water.
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The most common mistake is the lack of attention to install foundations, because the majority of them are underground. However, only the foundations of the building will determine whether we will have a nice, warm, economical and durable house.
38Viršutinî€€ plokštuma vadinama pamato viršumi, o apatinî€€ – pamato padu. Pamatas savo paduperduoda apkrovas Ä¯ pagrindo gruntÄ….
14 pav. PamatÅ³ rÅ«šys: a – juostinis sienos pamatas, b – juostinis kolonÅ³ pamatas, c – pavienis kolonos pamatas,d – stulpinis sienos pamatas su pamatÅ³ sija; 1 – pamato viršus, 2 – pamato padas, 3 – siena, 4 – pamatÅ³ sija,5 – kolona
According to the materials used in the walls are divided into wood, brick, concrete, and metal complex.
All the buildings are made of similar structures and their elements. According to the purpose they are allocated to the bearing and the partitioning.
Supporting structures - are those that can withstand all kinds of loads and influences and transmits them through the foundation to the soil.
External walls shall perform the following functions as transmit overlays, roofing and wind loads for foundations, as well as insulation against cold and other atmospheric effects, protects against noise.
The outer walls of the building according to the load divided into: bearing and non-bearing.
- The load bearing wall is a vertical outer structure of the building, which restricts a building from outside and holding the weight of other constructions of the building.
- Exterior non-load bearing wall is a vertical outer structure of the building, which restricts a building from outside and holds its own weight.
Exterior walls must have a good noise and heat insulating properties must be weather-resistant, aesthetically beautiful. Exterior walls can be built out of wood, made â€‹â€‹of bricks, various masonry bricks, monolithic, and so on, according to the materials used and construction.
ï‚· External walls
Cavity block walls
ï‚· Internal walls
Inside the space of each other are separated by walls or partitions. The interior wall is the inner vertical structure of building, that separating one space from another, and holding the weight of other structures of the building. such us roof, ceiling, etc.
Also are used partitions to separate space in the building. Partitions are structure, which do not hold the load bearing of Building and can be arranged according to each person's imagination and needs. Various materials are used to internal constructions such as: bricks, hollow clay or lightweight concrete blocks, wooden planks, wood chips or wood fiber boards, plaster chips, light or porous concrete blocks and slabs, glass blocks and others. The inner walls can be installed from a variety of materials, but the most common is masonry and stud partitions.
Construction is divided into vertical: outer and inner walls, columns, partitions, etc.. and horizontal: decking, beams, girders, etc..according to their layout. The building also has a sloping structures, such as roof rafters, stairways. All of these elements are combined to form a three-dimensional building construction system, which provides the building and its parts necessary strength and rigidity.
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Connections have to be strong, to isolate the sound, humidity should not miss the air and water, must be resistant to corrosion.
Internal load bearing walls
External wall insulation
Fire safety requirements form the group of important technical requirements. Building materials and construction, according to the degree of flammability is divided into the following main groups: non-combustible, low-combustible, combustible.