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A construction project such as this would require a number of stages that it would need to go through before it can be completed. Initial preparations would include completion of a number of items such as the client's brief, schematic designs, and pre-construction services such as approvals, bids and contracts. Once approvals and the construction documents are secured, the construction stage can begin. Once construction begins, on-site inspection and observations are carried out during the construction stage of work. (Illingsworth, 2000). Visits consist of office-related work, correspondence necessary to coordinate and assist the project with building product reviews, quality control samples, necessary shop drawings, etc. It is vital for the architect and contractor to work closely to make sure that the drawings and specifications are built to the right outline. The designs will be specified for 200 3 bedroom dwellings, a public playground and a community hall as per specified in the brief (figure 1 - see appendix). The average cost of each dwelling is estimated to aprox. £71,500 including services and labour, and aprox. £150,000 for the community hall (www.acmediy.com/contractor/how-much.php - Accessed - 14/12/2010).
The total cost is estimated to be no more than £15,000,000 including the playground, materials, labour, services, etc. (www.whatprice.co.uk - Accessed - 13/12/2010).
The following construction steps will need to be undertaken during the construction of the dwellings and the community hall:
Preliminaries & Demolition
Landscaping & External Works
Preliminaries and Demolition
Since of the project is an old forest 5 miles out of the town centre so the area should be cleared of bushes, vegetation, grass, branches, trees and saplings. The roots of trees should be dug up to the depth of 60cm under ground level.
Existing structures and services such as power cables, drainage pipes etc. surrounded by or nearby to the area, are to be diverted/ removed. Any monuments or other objects should be fenced off in the area where the work is to be started (Brook M. 8 Mar 2004).
Removing Roots during Ground Work
The roots of trees should be dug up to the depth of 60cm under the ground level, 30cm below development level, or 15 cm below sub-grade level. The holes should be packed up with the earth which is rammed and levelled. The demolition/excavation areas will be isolated by construction hoardings. (Jackson, N. and Dhir, R. K. 1996). Trucks access and exits will be through dedicated construction gates controlled by gate keepers.
Filling up the Ground
The earth used for filling up should be liberated from all roots, grass, bushes, branches, trees, and wastes. Filling up with excavated earth will be done in standard matching layers. All bumps and clods more than 8cm in any direction will be broken up. Every level will be watered and consolidated with an iron rammer.
Outside of Excavation Area
Prior to the earth work is on the go, the vicinity coming under construction and filling should be cleared of shrubs, vegetation, brushwood, trees and of breadth up to 30cm over ground level. The rubbish should be removed up to a distance of 50m outside the border of the area.
Protective Measures during Excavation
Excavation will be secured off by a fence, with proper cautionary signs, noticeably displayed during the day and illuminated with lights during the night to avoid accidents (www.gharexpert.com/category/1326/Start-Construction-0.aspx?PL=2HYPERLINK "http://www.gharexpert.com/category/1326/Start-Construction-0.aspx?PL=2&Estimator"&HYPERLINK "http://www.gharexpert.com/category/1326/Start-Construction-0.aspx?PL=2&Estimator"Estimator=
Accessed - 14/12/2010)
Site workers will require satisfactory provisions toilets, changing rooms, rest rooms, storage rooms and washrooms. These amenities will be required for the duration of a project and so the project manager will need to make sure these have been prearranged in advance to avoid disruption to a development. Also site offices, storage areas, water and power supplies will in set up during the duration of works.
Mechanical plants equipment are relatively heavy machines which perform specific construction (or demolition) functions on a construction site. It is customary to classify construction machines in accordance with their functions such as hoisting, excavating, hauling, grading, paving, drilling, or pile driving. Excavated materials are moved great distances by a wide variety of conveyances. The most common of these are the self-propelled rubber-tired rear-dump trucks, which are classed as over-the-road or off-the-road trucks. Wagons towed by a rubber-tired prime mover are also used for hauling dirt. These commonly have bottom dumps which permit spreading dirt as the vehicle moves. In special cases side-dump trucks are also used. Conveyors, while not commonly used on construction jobs for hauling earth and rock great distances, have been used to good advantage on large jobs where obstructions make impractical the passage of trucks. Therefore the site would need to be properly cleared and have wide enough roads for the transport of the machinery (Lorenz, H.& Haven, H.M11 Jan 2010).
Since the site is an old forest 5 miles out of town, then there are no buildings or any structures that would be needed to be demolished for construction to commence. However the trees, shrub sand bushes will need to be removed using plant machinery such as bulldozers and scrappers. All unwanted obstacles would be discarded; the surrounding area will be needed to be fenced off. As there are no buildings there would be no materials to recycle and no building debris would need to be discarded (Lorenz, H.& Haven, H.M11 Jan 2010).
Excavation & Substructures
The excavation procedure will include levelling the ground so that the foundations can be dug for the buildings. The type of foundations that will be used in this project will be reinforced Concrete Shallow Foundations. Shallow foundations will be used for the construction of the dwellings. The foundations are close to the finished ground surface; where the founding depth is less than the width of the footing and less than 3m (Emmitt, S. and Gorse, C. 2010).
Shallows foundations will be used as the surface soils are adequately sturdy and rigid to support the loads; these are usually unsuitable in weak or highly compressible soils. When the foundations are dug hey would need to be at least 4ft deep and 2ft wide to allow the concrete to set in.
There are a few different shallow foundations that will be used, these include pad foundations, strip foundations, and raft foundations. A pad foundation is used to support a single individual load such as a column slab. A strip foundation is used to support a row of loads. Raft foundations are generally used to spread over the loads of a structure onto a larger area. It is concrete slab which expands over a given area, supporting the loads on top, so that the weight is distributed. This is highly useful is soft soils so that the beams do not sink into the soil. As the site is a forest, these foundations will be adequate, and since the soil is not straight, special plant machinery such as bulldozers will be required to flatten the sloped ground. Holes will be allowed to be left, this is to to allow 50mm clearance to avoid the possibility of any settlement foundation moving around as the soil is loose. Pad foundation should be used on the community hall as it is constructed from a steel frame, so it will have heavy loads at singular point of the structure, so proper concrete pads should be installed to accommodate the weight distribution (Foster, J. S. (1994).
During the excavation process trenches would also need to be dug to allow for services accommodation. These are need for services entering a building below ground (water, electricity, gas, telephone/cables etc), and leaving the building such as drainage, refuse systems, etc. (Neville, 1995)
It is stated in the brief that the dwellings are required to have 3 bedrooms and 1 bathroom on the upper floor, and 2 reception rooms, 1 kitchen and 1 toilet on the lower floor. The design brief states that the required flooring would be timber. First, concrete needs to be poured and levelled on the ground. Joists should be laid down across the ceiling; these would need to be levelled also. The timber flooring and ceiling can then be placed over the concrete (Foster J.S. & Greeno, R. 12 Jul 2007).
The walls are required to be fully insulated cavity walls with brick & block masonry; these should be plastered on the inside. The internal walls are to be timber partitions. The roof is required to be a pitched timber roof trusses with tiles. This is a traditional pitched roof which will follow across all 200 dwellings. The roofs will be fully insulated and the insulation will be measured according to an R-value. The higher an insulation material's R-value, the improved it is at thermal resistance. So the dwelling will stay cool in the summer, and warm in the winter. The insulation will need to be specified by the client whether sheep's wool,
thick foam, or fibreglass would be installed, depending on the budget. The roofs should be delivered and placed into position, on the supporting walls and fixed quickly with roof cladding. As this is a big construction project, this method would save time as the roofs will be built on another site and not get in the way of other processes.
The community hall will require a concrete foundation and flooring. The walls are steel framed and will be insulated. The roof is to a metal cladding rood. Scaffolding will be needed when working on the community hall as there will be raised platforms. These will consist of cylindrical steel alloys held together by couplings and fittings. The scaffolding will then be dismantled at the end of the project (Ching, F. D. K, 7 Mar 2008)
The playground will be constructed after the main works are carried out. The playground will be built next to the community hall, it will measure to 60ft x 60ft. Shallow foundations will also be used to make sure that the surface is strong and concrete can be poured over the foundations and levelled off. A layer of tarmac of 10mm will cover the top of the concrete. The playground will finally be covered off with recycled rubber to make the surface soft and safe for children (www.awkwardexcavations.com/about.htm - Accessed - 14/12/2010)
The services will be installed below ground in trenches, drainage tails; left for future connections with above-ground drainage must be temporarily sealed. For the relevant services permission must be sought from the local authority when connections to a public sewer are required. The local authority must bring in a contractor to inspect and approve all drainage work and the subsequent installed plumbing work. The final tests will also need to be carried out by the local authority after trenches have been backfilled.
Services above ground should be carried out and installed after completing the basic structural work such as the walls, floors and roof. The plumbing works needs to be carried out once the external enclosure is completed. After the basic finishes completed then the sanitary works can be done.
Landscaping & External Works
Landscaping designers should be called in to design greenery areas, communal gardens, lakes, etc to enhance the appearance and quality of the buildings and area. The roads should be designed so that it is convenient for methods of circulation on foot and by vehicles. The community area could be closed off gated area and have security in place from unlawful access (<http://landscaping.about.com/ -> Accessed - 14/12/2010)
Once all the works are completed all surplus materials and debris should be removed. All plants, huts, offices, temporary accommodation will be removed. The final site should be left in a clean and workable condition. Designers and authority inspectors will be brought it to inspect the final work. A maintenance manual will be prepared before handing over the project to the client.
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