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There are numerous of barriers that are affecting the appropriate performance of sustainable development in the construction industry, the lack of information by the stakeholders is one of the huge constrain of the use of new technologies during the process of installation.
This document will analyse case studies were it is possible to see the improvements in old and new housing stock, by identifying the most significant barriers, that are currently affecting the use of renewable technologies in all the aspects such a political, social, economical, technical and design, take into the account that the design phase in the life cycle of a building became one of the most significant factors that constrain the good performance, when the construction industry has significant opportunities to reduce co2 emissions by improving the energy efficiency of residential buildings.
Keywords: sustainability, sustainable construction, barriers.
Nowadays, when sustainable construction is one of the most important issues in the construction industry, it became a very strong topic to solve due to remarkable problematic that the environment is tackling into the climate change, an immediate solution has to be taking into the account in order to minimize the currently consequences that the environmental disaster that world is fronting this days due to environmental disasters and generate a better society. (www.berr.gov.uk). Actually, the construction business contains a great opportunity to significantly reduce CO2 emissions by improving the energy efficiency of housing buildings. Nevertheless, in this industry dispersion of the cost effective clean technologies has been extremely measured and underneath prospective. (Pinkse and Dommisse, 2009).
One of the main issues are to identify what is stopping to develop the currently technologies and policies that have been taking as a consequence of the main problem which is the climate change. And by assessing these constrains that are stopping the accurate performance in the construction business, it will be possible to stabilize the use of the technologies, therefore the target of the zero carbon in U.K. can be achieve.
During the first design phase of the construction, it was not considered from the beginning, energy and concerns of climate change have not played an important role in UK urban design, in the stipulation of the various infrastructures of the built environment, or in the design or construction of buildings. The consequence is that most UK built environments, most notably the buildings and transport systems are considerable consumers of energy. (Ekins and Lees, 2008) and one of the solutions will focus in the appropriate investment in low carbon technologies will be essential to reduce the cost of making the conversion and will provide the prospective for business to profit on future low carbon opportunities. (www.berr.gov.uk).
In the process of promoting new technologies, the reality of market failures and barriers that restrain in a social context, the most advantageous levels of investment in energy efficiency is the main motivation for considering public policy interventions. (Brown, 2001) as soon as innovative technologies obtain access in the competitive market providing more reasonable prices the stakeholders will find the way to achieve its targets.
The choice to generate competitive markets need additional investment for the early stages of innovation and to ensure that successful low carbon companies can access finance as they grow. (www.berr.gov.uk). through the stipulation of global policies, established according with the government these markets can be motivated with the lower prices of the carbon. Additionally, the construction sector can be motivated through the easy use of new technologies.
Despite the fact that incentives are in position in the UK to promote modernization in these equipments, scheme failures or gaps are recognized by moving technologies by the side of the innovation sequence, preventing their unbeaten commercialisation. (Foxona, Grossa, Chaseb, Howesb, Arnallc, And Andersona, 2004). Additionally, to the improvements that these technologies have to address, the equipment of the houses has to follow an strong policies in order to attack the main point of trouble and minimizing the obstructions ''Market failures'' that may occur when there is a blemish in the way markets operate. There are conditions of a market that violate one or more of the economic assumptions that define an ideal market for products or services such as rational behaviour, costless transactions, and perfect information. (Brown, 2001).
One of the major drivers in terms of sustainable environment is the problematic presented around the world respect to the environment and in UK, one of the principal reasons in sustainable topics is The UK government target, that has been a strong supporter of the Kyoto protocol, which requires that the UK is obliged to diminish greenhouse gas emissions by 12.5% below 1990 levels in 2008-2012 (DEFRA, 2002). To achieved the target is necessary to attack the problems that the currently codes such as the code for sustainable houses is having nowadays, there is an evidence of the good performance. However, it showing some constrains.
UK's new carbon financial plan is giving data how important is to accelerate quickly carbon savings must be made. Compared to 1990 levels of greenhouse gas emissions, the government has stipulate targets to save 22 percent by 2012; a third by 2020; and 80 per cent by 2050. (www.berr.gov.uk). these targets can be achieving with drivers that can incentive the economy of the country through the appropriate manager of these days when there is knowledge of the dramatic problem.
The absence of the poor performance during the design phase of the buildings, it is seen as a constrain at the moment of the appliances of new technologies. Additionally the employ in buildings is influenced by a variety of factors in complex ways. traditionally, in the UK the efficiency of energy use in buildings has not been a major consideration in their design, that is one of the main factor that has to be asses by policies, and Nowadays when policy concern with climate change is changing this, because buildings have come to be perceived as the centre of attention of energy use with the highest cost-effective energy savings potential. (Ekins and Lees, 2008).
The innovation systems approach suggests that successful innovation requires different actors with distinctive roles to work together towards common goals. Developing a shared vision between government, industry and the research community for each sector is important. The study also reinforces the importance of policy incentives to overcome specific system failures, particularly those created by 'gaps' between policy measures, such that technologies cannot progress easily from one stage to another within the UK. (Foxona, Grossa, Chaseb, Howesb, Arnallc, And Andersona, 2004).
The intention of the report is to show new rows to help improve the existing barriers that can be identified in the development of new technologies. When there are some factors that constrain the progress in the development and prospect of the construction to produce, formulate and evaluate its future. The target in the construction industry is to discover modern ways and equipment that give the possibility to assure the need for a contemporary, economical, competent, and approachable in a social context. This is a huge challenge; however, the achievement of sustainable construction will depend on the construction industry's willingness and ability to drive much of this change. Actually, the new technologies are a big step during the progress of the construction industry. Nevertheless at the moment of the appliances it is possible to see constrains. To gather the cutback in carbon emissions that the housing business identify it must accomplish, it is critical the currently recover the performance of existing properties, slightly than focus exclusively on innovative build designs. (www.building.co.uk)
To analyse the barriers of sustainability from the currently use in construction industry and propose solutions.
Investigate the factors that constrain sustainable environment.
Analyse the barriers of sustainability in the construction industry.
Propose solutions for future development in construction industry.
SCOPE OF RESEARCH
Sustainability is one of the most important issues, nowadays when the environment is in crisis and the construction industry is one of the major contributors to the CO2 carbon emissions, this is one of the most considerable problems that need to be assessing to achieve the performance.
The focal point on this research is to identified the most significantly barriers in the construction industry, by identify what is stopping the appropriate development in this area that is one of the most evident problems and generate ideas of solutions in earlier stage how is the design phase. It will be possible to see propose an intervention that is going to be beneficial for the environment and for the economy of the stakeholders.
The qualitative research elaborated in this piece of work, it is based in a systematic collection of data and the main problematic is discuss and propose base on the evidence presented, how are the cases studies that can provide the evidence of the currently barriers and the possible changes that has to suffer the construction sector, during their life cycle of the building for future work.
ORGANISATION OF REPORT
This statement is structured into seven chapters. The first chapter commence with the definition of the topic to study and . The second chapter is composed by , the four chapter is composed with the research methodology, the five chapter ...
CHAPTER TWO - LITERATURE REVIEW
DEFINITION OF SUSTAINABLITY
"The definition of sustainability are explored in terms of their orientation to the ontology of nature, substitutability, of resources, economic growth, role of technology, and social equity" (Vos, 2007). The main objective of sustainability is to offer a method for a better use of earth´s resources preserving its natural environment and providing the best way to protect our planet against all side effects caused by the constant development of city´s infrastructures.
Sustainable development can be describe as development scheme, which in the long run manages human resources and the natural resources for health and prosperity as much as financial and physical ideals. (Repetto, 1986). It is very important the creation of a sustainable development including the preservation of the earth´s resources, providing new generations and all areas involved with the best knowledge and grounding in order to adopt the most favourable techniques when developing future projects and regeneration schemes.
Sustainable development can be defined as: the continued existence of the earth. According to the World Commission on Environment and Development Report in 1987 (WCED, 1990),
The definition contains two crucial elements. First, it accepts that the basic needs of the world's poor people must be provided to allow a reasonably comfortable way of living. Second, it accepts that the environment's ability to meet present and future needs must be sustained. The definition of the WCED also suggests that sustainability is often cast as the 'triple bottom line' of environment, society and economics.(Sev, 2009).
Sustainable development does not accept applications and policies that aim at exhausting existing life standards and the possibility and risk that future generations will be poorer than us.' (Repetto, 1986). The new policies has to focus in the currently studies, there are numerous of strategies
Another studies is reflected in the Brundtland report shows the goals that have to achieve to establish a sustainable development. However, it does not show how to achieve the goals, and the success of the policies will be essential to minimize the constrains, and policies needed in order to achieve targets. The creation of new developments and renewal schemes must be designed and built sustainably, in order to provide people with places where environmental issues can be addressed more easily. In fact, the government´s sustainable programs are demanding developers and designers with new creations highly sustainable.
Developers and clients are expected to set out the measures they are taking to incorporate sustainability into their development proposals at the master planning stage. Moreover, local authorities are required to set their own policy targets and assess all schemes which come up for approval. Evidence of good practice is required across the board, however given the breadth of issues; it is difficult to have an in-house expert on every aspect of the sustainable design. It can also be difficult to keep up with what is currently considered to be good practice. www.bre.com
Definition for sustainable construction stated by Kibert: "the creation and responsible management of a healthy built environment based on resource efficient and ecological principles' as a starting point." These days when construction industry is one of the major contributors to the damage of the environment is an emergence to act.
The scale of energy efficient refurbishment is one of the most vital basics that need to be measure to contribute with the reduction of energy consumption in the building sector. In addition, the implementation of new building refurbishment techniques provides an excellent way to decrease energy utilization. At the same time, it involves technical, economic and social problem. According to Sunnika the real potential for sustainable building and CO2 carbon reduction lies in a management of the existing stock of residential building.
The construction industry plays a very important role in the human existence, which is important to quality of life in terms of housing, workspace, utilities and transport infrastructure, therefore, it has a high economic significance and has serious environmental and social consequences (Burgan and Sansom, 2006). When people spent most of the time of the life in buildings the good practice of the new technologies will provide an affordable housing, that will be reflective in their activities
The regulations of sustainable development should focus on the building sector more specifically in the life cycle of the building stated by Sobotka and Wyatt (1998). The inefficiency of buildings during the life cycle, it is a barrier to the appropriate sustainable development due to the changes that has to suffer the building when it is the time to upgrade the housing stock of new technologies. The housing stock is fronting this days the constrains. In many places in the world there are large amount of structures that posses and incredibly long lasting condition including bridges, buildings, cathedrals and so on. A standard life time of 80 to approximately 100 years in most of these structures will mean that new designs are going to have high impact on a construction´s environmental performance. Therefore, when considering a new design, it is imperative to include sustainability principles from the beginning of the project which allows the achievement of low environmental-impact. .  At this point is when is possible to analyze the importance that the flexibility of the design has over the environment.
Definition of sustainable development by the Brundtland Report
"Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". This definition is