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Energy management is a discipline which consists of a collection of ideas and techniques relating to the extraction, distribution; purchase and utilization of energy, the influence of the various professional knowledge was training by management team who establish a formal energy method and outline the basic techniques which determine to go the energy efficiency in building. Nowadays, many organizations would agree some move towards the more efficient use of energy and use some renewable energy resources. It will help reduce reliance on fossil fuels and reduce green gas emissions. Energy management includes effective use of energy to minimize costs and to enhance competitive business situation and involves energy awareness and motivates employees and supervisors to save energy.
5.1 Major difficulty factors affecting in application of PV system
Knowing what difficulty factors can be help us to identify preliminary design of PV system that increases in knowledge of feasibility study and determine efficiency of the system.
Major factors in application of PV system to building is affected as follows,
Lack of incentive
The energy price in Hong Kong is relatively low of the whole building investment, so the building developers and owners are lack of incentive in application of the renewable energy system because their investment would not benefit from the net saving energy. Government's is not keen to develop renewable energy and provide for stimulating energy market, such as tax rebate, financial supporting etc. Therefore, they are not favor to use of solar energy system or other renewable energy system that often required high initial cost and a longer payback period.
The climatic condition provides an essential solar radiation to strike the solar cell to provide electricity energy. Hong Kong is a high rise and high density city with a subtropical climate. Refer previous chapter 2.3 shows the monthly average data of the general climatic condition; the data indicates that some months were significant affect the global solar radiations from July to December, when insufficient solar radiation must be consider to ensure continues electricity supply by the auxiliary energy supporting. Furthermore, in Hong Kong weather condition, solar cell system structure should be added extra installation cost to place the strong structure to withstand high gales during typhoon season.
The economics of PV system is determined by the cost of system and the production for the electricity generated. The cost of system includes capital cost such as investment, interest and operating cost such as maintenance, labor cost. Each owner need to understand the importance of each element and is necessary to finding the correct the economic balance of project cost for solar energy application. Normally, a lifetime of PV system 25 years is assumed. The accumulative operation cost are generally low, the major economic factor required high initial investment that are high compared to fossil fuel and other conventional energy system, so economic analysis is extremely important for the engineer for evaluating of energy technologies. Beside, the solar cells have a high potential for reliability and long life.
Solar cells available in the commercial market can be classified into two main categories. They are single crystalline silicon cell and polycrystalline cells or thin film cells. The crystalline silicon cell is normally more popular use in the market. These have only around 11% to 18% efficiency (Refer previous chapter 2.4). Although solar cell technology have been developed to increase material efficiency rapidly over the past few year, unstable raw material supply and high production cost are major limitation factor to develop the solar energy market.
Professional technology support
PV system is a combination of difference specific technologies as structural, electrical, mechanical, climate and geography, etc. Change to the parameters of one affects the others, so this imposes collaboration and the presence of highly building professional supporting with construction sector of PV system on the project team, and also need specialized energy management team to analysis the other parameters, such as social, economic, environment and system efficiency etc.
Government's role is important for renewable energy deployment, energy policy setting will help to develop energy markets and operate efficiency. Based on global environment impact in future, the government will continue to establish the strategies for energy sustainable development in public work projects and encourage the private parties to participate. It can be help to review government policy in order to identify where the barrier can be removed. In Hong Kong, many complex regulations of different government's departments must be applied to place the PV system on the building or land by building developers or owners. For example, part of electricity and mechanical must approved by EMSD and electric supplies company, part of supporting structure design must approved by Building Department, and part of water supply facility must be approved by Water supplies Department when is application of solar water thermal system. So government departments could be integrated to increase the development of renewable energy system.
5.2 Optimizing energy efficiencies in building
The optimizing energy approach adopted to use of various kind of operation activities that contains multifarious activities such as energy data entry, classification of energy cost and profit, monitoring the performance of energy system and prediction of equipment performance for remedial process etc. This would help us in understanding the various parameters on energy consumption, energy efficiency, operating costs and maximize profit. The energy manager enables to achieve a better understanding the information of plants performance in their building and has led to plant improvement and energy saving. This information is vital to implement the effective energy management program.
5.3 Implementation of building energy management
Energy management of building is not a simple approach of managing the energy distribution for lighting and air conditioning. However, modern energy management consist a centralized station with complex technologies of operating processes to energy control and monitoring, which have the ability to calculate and make decision based on the data it received from sensors of input station. For example, centralized network control operate zone air conditioning, master control of air ventilation, adjustable striped canopy and sensors control of lighting by automatically switching lamp off in unoccupied spaces, etc.
The objective of energy management is designed to minimize energy consumption and to optimize energy supply through relied on energy resources that focus at how to make efficient use while satisfy the energy requirement, results in energy saving and provide a better work environment.
So the energy manger must be identifying in process of energy processes that require the analytical evaluation to measure the energy saving. It can be understood each relationship of procedure and making energy use of change to control the related processes.
5.4 Future of PV system
The global market of the PV panels has an annual growth in excess of 18% in over a decade , the cost of solar panels are gradually decrease due to improve new semiconductor technology and higher demand with mass production, so the price of solar panels will be increase competitive with fossil fuel generation in the future.
Photovoltaic conversion could be solved the technical and economic problems standing in the way of widespread use of solar cells. Large-scale application will require much lower price and installed in the countryside, they are already economically competitive, for example, China Light & Power Company (CLP) is building the Hong Kong's first standalone solar energy power system on Town Island in Sai Kung. Its system involved putting up 100 solar panels which can generate 20 Kilowatts. The next stage will install up to 800 solar panels in 2011.
At last, Hong Kong is interconnected with the mainland China, Hong Kong develops the renewable energy application and collaborates with southern China which has abundant renewable energy resources and land, and then the cooperation could bring about greater benefits to both sided .
Chapter 6 Conclusion
There is a city of many high rise buildings and high density development in Hong Kong where is difficult to promote the solar energy application and current building developers are lack of incentive in application of the renewable energy applications due to their business reasons. Furthermore, Government's has provided slimly effort for stimulating the renewable energy market. Up to now, solar energy applications in Hong Kong are small in number where almost installed among in government buildings and public area. The projects included the headquarters of the EMSD, Whachai Tower, Science Park and Castle Peak Hospital.
According of stage report 1 by EMSD that evaluated the potential of different forms of renewable energy technologies for local use, PV systems are mainly divided into 2 categories which are Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) type and non-BIPV type. The BIPV type is installed on rooftops, facades and envelop of a building, while non-BIPV type is build along highway noise barriers, slope and non-building structure etc.
Solar energy in Hong Kong is regarded mildly rich, and has annual average global horizontal solar irradiance of 1290 KWh/m2. According to the report indicated that the potential of solar energy in Hong Kong is 5944 GWh/year which is equivalent to around 15% of the 2006 electricity consumption . This was derived by assuming that all feasible land area of solar application were covered up by both BIPV and non-BIPV system. This could be quite a significant use of renewable energy to meet its energy requirement. Although there is difficult to find suitable location for large scale solar energy application in the high density urban areas, commercial buildings for installing BIPV system are considered a reasonable choice. The country side and new town are high potential for developing its energy system.
Government's role provides actually financial and technical supporting, enforcement through legislation to stimulate to develop renewable energy market and draws all the people's attention to understand the importance of energy saving through some sample demonstration project. It makes to increase public awareness and education is crucial for the more exploitation of renewable energy resources in Hong Kong.
In brief, people can learn about the importance of energy saving and how to effective use renewable energy that promote around the world, more and more people understand to take better care of the earth. Business parties have opportunity for people who sell environmentally products; thus customers have a chance to purchase that enables them to live without harming air and our working and living environment.