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Introduction: Research article of Naoko Nonoyama has summarised that peopleï¼Œ thingsï¼Œmoney information and facility are the management resources.From the managerial viewpoint, facility management has just grown awareness to modern plan and handling facilities (Nonoyama, 2007). On the other hand, facility management may be defined as an interdisciplinary field mainly devoted to the repairments and care of commercial(institutional) buildings of hospitals, clinics, hotels, resorts, schools, office complexes, and sports arenas. Duties of facility management can be summarized as the care of air conditioning, electric power, plumbing and lighting systems, cleaning, decoration, grounds keeping and security where computer programs can assist the above mentioned duties of facility management(en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Facility management).On the other hand, managing health and safety at work can be summarised as developing health and safety policies, conducting risk assessments which can identify hazards and assess the attached risk, carrying out health and safety audits and inspections, implementing occupational health programmes, managing stress, preventing accidents, measuring health and safety performance, communicating the need for good health and safety practices, training in good health and safety practices, and organizing health and safety(Armstrong, 2006).
Previous research has defined professional or job related safety and health is a kind of subject relating with protecting and defending human and facility resources in the workplace. It has further clarified that standards of occupational Safety and Health are usually set out in legislation where poor professional Safety and Health performances usually result in costs to the respective organizations. A healthy and productive workforce is the main focus of occupational Safety and Health for the betterment of people and nation (Abdul Rahman, 2006).
Safety audits: Safety audit can be defined as the part of a safety management system whose subject area of each company activity is to examine the systematic critical condition of health and safety. Management policy, features of the process and design, operating procedures, emergency procedures, and training are included in safety audits. Furthermore, safety audits are carried out by a group of people who are capable with a satisfactory degree of independence from the plant under safety audit .Health and safety audits is summarised as the hazard assessments to identify specific risks and quantify the risks attached to the employers and employees. Furthermore, health and safety audits transfer for a much more broad review of all aspects of health and safety policies, and procedures and practices programmes(Safety Audits, 2009). Saunders (1992) has concluded that a safety audit will examine the whole organisation in order to test whether it is meeting its safety aims and objectives. It will examine hierarchies, safety planning processes, decision-making, delegation, policy-making and implementation as well as all areas of safety programme planning (Armstrong, 2006).
HASAWA: Employers of all sectors have a responsibility to make their workplaces as safe as possible where the first legal requirement is section 7 (a) of the Act which requires not only all employees to take reasonable care for their own Health and Safety at work but also for others who may be affected by what they do or fail to do. According to HASAWA act, an employer should have to look and find out what risks exist in the workplace and record the risk assessment. Employers have to appoint employees to apply the Health and Safety measures needed, set up emergency actions, and provide clear information and training to employees. Research has summarised that standards of care in the upkeep of the workplace, equipment and systems, indoor ventilation, temperature and lighting, cleanliness and the handling of waste materials, room sizes and space, floors and organisation of corridors, windows and transparent doors, gates and wall ability to clean windows safely, escalators and moving walkways, toilets drinking water cupboards/coat racks for clothing and where people can change clothes facilities for resting and eating are the Health and Safety Regulations legislation at Work (Stranks, 2005).
Barrett and James, (1988) have claimed that HASAWA forms the central core of the UK's constitutional system for Occupational Health and Safety at work. Health and safety act 1974 section 17 section 2(1) of HASWA has declared that the duty of the employer is to make sure the health, safety and welfare of all his/her employees. Similarly, section 2(2) of HASWA covers the responsibilities of employers to extend to the employer's plant, system of work, handling and transporting of substance, provision of training, workplaces and access, and the working environment. On the other hand, Section 3 of HASWA also owes a similar duty to others coming on to his/herworkplace(Stranks, 2005). Research has summarised three important features of HASWA is employer's duty is to obey, as far as reasonably practicable of their duties in the . Research of Martin, et.al(2006) has summarized the responsibilities of employers is to provide a safe place of work, provide a safe system of work, protect employees from unnecessary risk or injury, and providing competent employees in the work place. Furthermore, the employer's duty to take reasonable care means he/she must protect employees from risk of foreseeable injury, so he/she is liable only for consequences that he/she can reasonably foresee. It has further explained that in practice, responsibilities of employers means that if he/she truly knows to have known, of a health or safety risk to the workforce, in the light of the current state of market knowledge, he/she will be liable for death, injury and disease if he/she fail to take reasonable care. So he/she must keep up to date on all developments in the law on health and safety. Again, the responsibilities of employees is to take reasonable care of the health and safety of themselves and other persons who may be affected by their acts at work and to co-operate with their employer, or any other person, to ensure that duties forced by the statutory provisions are complied with.
The UK Law under the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 (HASAWA):
Hazard Spotting act 1974: Two major parts of sporting facilities are facility management and risk management which is valuable for anyone with an interest in the sport facility industry. Therefore, understanding the above two management techniques is imperative for everyone who is interested in pursuing career profession. The main question all managers need to ask themselves what exactly management is. Management is the conducting or supervising of something to ensure our businesses success in a social and technical process that utilizes resources and influences human behaviour to accomplish an organization's goals
Safety Policy: Research has concluded that working in the hospitality segment is physically and mentally challenging, and can be stressful, particularly for the many shift workers. It has further presented the example of Claridge's hotel in Mayfair where hotel employs 496 staff and obtained IiP status in 2000, and has recently been assessed against the health and wellbeing framework as part of the pilot phase. Claridge's hotel has introduced a range of policies and strategies to support health and wellbeing, including an employee assistance programme providing confidential telephone-based help 24/7. Preventative health measures are strong. For example, an OH nurse regularly visits all departments, providing advice on suitable footwear and position, mainly significant in higher-risk areas. It has further explained that the hotel has a diverse workforce, and the employer is very aware of the importance of supporting emotional wellbeing at difficult times. For example, hotel will open a centre equipped with telephones and PCs if a natural disaster occurs in an area of the world where staff might have relatives so that they can contact them.
All line managers are responsible for effectively managing stress at work, supported by a leadership programme across the hotel. On the other hand, healthy eating at work is important and staffs have their own head chef providing healthy food and vegetarian options in the staff canteen (IiP UK/Claridge's hotel).
Importance of Health and Safety at workplace of Hotel Environment: Researcher has insisted that the attainment of the highest standards of health and safety in the workplace of Hotel Management is significant because the avoidation of health and safety hazards and risks is the ethical as well as the legal responsibility of employers. It has further clarified that close and regular concentration to health and safety is important because ill-health and injuries inflicted by the system of working conditions result suffering and loss to individuals and their dependants(Armstrong, 2006). Researcher has further clarified that business reason as mentiuoned above is very much less significant than the human reasons but it is still a consideration, even though a divergent of managing health and safety at work is a matter of developing health and safety policies carrying out risk assessments which identify hazards and assess the risks close to individuals, carry out health and safety audits and inspections; implement occupational health programmes; manage stress; preventing accidents; measure health and safety performance; communicate the need for good health and safety practices; train in good health and safety practices; and organize health and safety(Armstrong, 2006).
Accident reporting: Employers should ensure that all employees are given training in health and safety requirements relevant to their jobs and that any specific health and safety rules. Employers should ensure that all employees are given training in health and safety requirements relevant to their jobs and safety policy that is regularly reviewed and updated. The policy should be circulated to all employees every time that it is modified. Health and safety refresher training may be suitable for some employees, depending on their works. All employers, mainly, those employees for which health and safety is a very important issue due to the nature of the work, should consider making compliance with any health and safety instructions an express term of the employment contract, and should also make clear that failure to obey will be considered as a disciplinary offence. It has further explained that where the problem is known to be particularly widespread to the extent that disciplinary action is not practical, employers are suggested to issue a reminder to all employees of their responsibility to obey with health and safety directions, and that any failure to follow will be dealt with as a disciplinary crime. Furthermore, employees who have been told again of the employer's health and safety requirements and who carry on failing to put up with by them should be dealt with under the penalizing procedure, following a full investigation. The sanction applied will depend on the seriousness of an employee's failure and any justifying factors. It is important that employers are consistent in dealing with situations; if a group of employees is known to be breaking health and safety rules, they should all be disciplined, although a higher sanction might be appropriate for an individual in a more senior position out in a health and safety policy that is regularly reviewed and updated. The policy should be circulated to all employees every time that it is amended. Health and safety refresher training may be appropriate for some employees, depending on their jobs. All employers, particularly those for which health and safety is a very important issue due to the nature of the work, should consider making compliance with any health and safety instructions an express term of the employment contract, and should also make clear that failure to comply will be regarded as a disciplinary offence. Where the problem is known to be particularly widespread, to the extent that disciplinary action is impractical, employers are advised to issue a reminder to all employees of their duty to comply with health and safety instructions, and that any failure to comply is dealt with as a disciplinary offence. Employees who have been reminded of the employer's health and safety requirements and who continue to fail to abide by them should be dealt with under the disciplinary procedure, following a full investigation. The sanction applied will depend on the seriousness of an employee's failure and any mitigating factors. It is important that employers are consistent in dealing with such situations; if a group of employees is known to be flouting health and safety rules, they should all be disciplined, although a higher sanction might be appropriate for an individual in a more senior position.
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system: Morris has summarized that the development of (HACCP) is linked to the increase in space travel. The HACCP food safety management system is developed to identify potential hazards in food production and launch controls to avoid the possible hazards of future. HACCP is focused on the main risks by setting the hazards for awareness, dropping the time and effort needed to manage food safety while maximising effects and cost-effectiveness. HACCP is now accepted worldwide as the most effective way to decrease the risk of food defect and subsequent illness in the commercial food production sector. The global standard of HACCP has been established by the Codex, Alimentations Commission a part of the World Health Organisation. Nevertheless, HACCP was particularly developed for the manufacturing sector, where there is little product difference, not like the situation in the catering sector (Morris, 2009). Researcher has further concluded that food production is massively changeable with menus changing to meet customer needs, to reproduce seasonality, or often as a result of haphazard food prices in catering which means that HACCP can be a somewhat difficult in shape, often requiring changes in controls and practices as the menu varies. Next to variation, the food industry also suffers from challenges like, rapid staff turnover, variable technical expertise and skill, a wide range of languages, and often literacy issues.All the above mentioned issues make compliance with hygiene controls complicated, and when failures occur, food safety can be compromised and illness may result (Morris, 2009).
Communicating the need for better health and safety practices: Researcher Holt and Andrews (1993) have examined a variety of forms of misinformation selling the health and safety message have been used for many years, although: 'They are now broadly sensed to be of little cost in quantifiable terms in changing behaviour and influencing thoughts to health and safety issues.' But they still consider that it is still necessary to convey the message that health and safety is significant as long as this supplements rather than substitutes other plans. They suggest that the following steps can be taken to add to the effectiveness of safety messages: Better health and practices can be enhanced by the following ways where avoid negatives, expose correctly, use attention-getting techniques carefully, maximize comprehension, messages must be believable, and messages must point the way to action (Armstrong, 2006).
Avoid negatives: Successful safety propaganda should contain positive messages, not warnings of the unpleasant consequences of actions.
Expose correctly: Address the message to the right people at the point of danger.
Use attention-getting techniques carefully: Explicit images may only be memorised for what they are, not for the message they are trying to communicate.
Maximize comprehension: Messages should be easy and exact.
Messages must be believable: They should speak to real issues and be apparent as being sent by people who believe in what they say and are doing something about it.
Messages must point the way to action: The most useful messages call for positive actions that can be gained by the receivers and will offer them a tangible benefit(Armstrong, 2006).
Critical analysis of hotel safety and security:
Research has summarised that safety and security standards are made up of two major elements plans to ensure safe operation which are physical-safety attributes and organizational systems and (Taylor, and Enz, 2002).
Another research findings of Barsky and Labagh(1992),Stevens et. al,(1995), Legoherel(1998), and Ananth et al,(1992) have concluded that providing high quality service and enhancing customer satisfaction are widely known as important factors leading to the success of companies in the hotel, catering and tourism industries. It has further suggested that hotel attributes, like, cleanliness, location, room rate, security, service quality, and reputation of the hotel are regarded as significant by travellers for evaluating hotel quality of presentation.
Research has clarified that the responsibility of security personnel, reliability of loud fire alarms, and availability of safe box are major items of security in a hotel environment. Furthermore, research has further explained that guest security in hotels includes all measures required to maintain a sense of well being, to protect life and property, to minimize the risk of disasters. It has further insisted that safety and security can be regarded as the basis of a trip for the most travellers including the airline's destination and accommodation (HKTA, 1995).
Conclusion: peopleï¼Œ thingsï¼Œmoney information and facility are the management resources where facility management has just grown awareness to soficisticated plans and handle facilities from a managerial viewpoint (Nonoyama, 2007). Health and Safety at Work Regulations legislation covers standards of care in the running of the workplace indoor ventilation, temperature and lighting, equipment and systems, room sizes and space cleanliness, and the handling of waste materials, floors and organisation of corridors, windows and transparent doors, gates and wall ability to clean windows safely, escalators and moving walkways, toilets drinking water cupboards/coat racks for clothing and where people can change clothes facilities for resting and eating. Furthermore, sporting facilities have two main sections, facility management and risk management which are valuable for everyone with an interest in the sport facility industry. Finally, better health and practices can be enhanced by the avoiding negatives, exposing correctly, using attention-getting techniques carefully, maximizing comprehension, messages must be believable, and messages must point the way to action. My personal experience suggests that health and safety issues are mostly debated at present and should be taken as a significant part of Hospitality and Tourism management.