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Harris and McCaffer (1995) indicate that construction projects have four types of planning technique. CPM is the one of the most important and very useful planning techniques illustrating the critical path method in the project, which all activities have to execute accurately and on time. That means the time for every activity cannot be exceeded. Not only set a plan and execute it very well, but also assess limitations that may face the project. This cause has been ranked first and the most important because good planning can give more opportunity to solve any limitation that confronts the project. Take Mina Hospital as a good example from the previous executed projects for accurate planning. This project had a duration of one year, because this project had to open one year later at the pilgrim period. So SAPAC Company, which had executed the project, made an accurate plan and followed it exactly. In precisely one year, they finished the project. Studying construction projects from all aspects helps the contractor to have good planning and assess the limitations, which in turn solves many problems.
Slow decision-making and late reviews and approvals of design documents by owner
Since a change in the main design needs to be approved by the owner, that means the owner will be responsible for the new design, and as a result of that, sometimes the owner is hesitant and takes more time than usual to approve a new design. Thus, the best thing to do is have all parties share the responsibility for a new design, and that will give them confidence to make the right decision and be on the safe side. This begins with the designer proposing a new design, and the consultant checking and approving it, and then the owner will find it easy to make the final decision and approve it without hesitating. Finally, the contactor has to check before executing it and guarantee that it will be not just the right design but a safe one as well (Flanagan and Norman 1993).
Delay in progress payments by owner
After every month, the contractor has to gain the money for the activities done in that month. Delays in payment in some situations by the owner are due to such issues as lack of trust between consultant and contractor or contractor and owner, causing the latter not to approve the activities that had been done in that month, so the contactor does not gain anything without approval of activities. The best solution for this problem is to approve about seventy percent of all activities done that month, and then later the contractor is due the remaining thirty percent after a guarantee to execute all activities in that month, amounting to one hundred percent with complete trust among all parties.
Conflict between construction project's parties
Different opinions between the parties cause them to not trust each other, and as a result of that, many problems will not be solved because each party sees his decision as right and the other decision as not. In this situation, conflict for some decisions will not give solutions, so they have to agree to approve other judges as external decision-makers for their issue. This can be illustrated briefly by what happened at the Al-Ahilah project executed by NPK Company. There was conflict between the project's parties so the owner agreed to accept a decision from an external party, and this was a clever decision made by the owner to make the project on the safe side.
Changes in materials types and specifications during construction
Every project has a complete design with full specifications before execution and some owners during construction want to change some design or add some specifications. As a result, the contractor has to change his plan and wait until the owner approves the change. If not approved before a critical time, the owner has to make the project into a safe plan. That means the project need not be delayed after changing the order, and the answer for that is to change the order before the contractor starts to execute the project. That makes the contractor not change his planning during construction.
Lack of labourers and unqualified work force
This is seen as two factors, but in fact, sometimes it is one of many factors that may cause delay in construction projects. An example that will illustrate how this factor affects and causes delay in a construction project is The Mina Hospital project in Mecca. Specifically a window item required up to seven days to install according to planning, but to finish it on time, twelve qualified workers and twelve assistants were needed. On the first day two unqualified workers appeared so that means the project will be late. Then the contractor handles the problem by substituting qualified workers and adds one additional qualified worker to oversee the planning. From this example it is discovered that there is a successive relationship between the delay in construction projects and the lack of labourers and unqualified work force.