# Air Pollution In The Workplace Construction Essay

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This chapter is present the analysis and result discussions of the questionnaire from the survey finding. After collected all the sample of questionnaire, the data analysis will be present out with the different methods of analysis. The mostly methods used to analysis the results are pie and bar charts or the percentage of the response to a particular question. The summarizing also consists in the analysis process to let the result are presented clearly.

5.2 Response of questionnaire

It has 50 copies of questionnaire forms are printed out and send to the office building which located in the local area. There are 40 copies of questionnaire forms were sent out by hand and the 10 copies send out by the post or email. The return rates are show at the following table.

## Response rate (%)

By Hand

40

33

82.5%

By Post/mail

10

2

20%

Total

50

35

70%

Table 5.1 Return rate of Questionnaire Forms

From the table show that the response rates of the questionnaire form send out by hand is more effective than the questionnaire forms which send out by post or mail. The replied rate by hand is 82.5 % and the replied rate by post is only 20%. The reason for the questionnaire can't collected back all is the respondent are busy and no time to fill in or some respondent may get lost for the questionnaire form. At the same time, the method which by post or by mail are have a weak respond because the questionnaire forms may lost when posting out by postman or some of the occupants may didn't check their mail at the time. Thus, the overall response rate is 70% as 35 set of copies are successfully collected back from 50 copies.

## 5.3.1 SECTION A

Question 1: Gender

## Chat 2: Respondent's Gender

Based on the questionnaires form, we will able to know the majority of the respondent's gender. In the chat at the top are shows that the most respondents are males which are 57% of the total 35 respondents, while the female are 43%. There are males more than females because this is a marketing company so the male are more suitable as an employee in this company than the female. Beside on that, the male also will have strong resistance than female.

Question 2: Age

## Chat 3: Age of Respondent

In the pie chat is identify the age of the respondent. Most of the respondent's ages are group between 20-30 and 30-40. According to the result, the respondent's age are from 20-30 which is about 16 (46%) of the total 35 respondents. The most respondents is under the age between 30-40 years old which is 18 (51%) of the total 35 respondents. So, most of staff in this company is in the range 20-30 and 30-40 years old. The aim of this question is to know the age of the occupants in this office because the health of the younger staff may more strong than the oldest staff.

Question 3: How long been you working in this building?

Chat 3: Duration of the respondent working in this building

The chat 3 is to identify the duration of the respondent working in this building. Mostly the duration of the respondent spend in this building is 1-5 years which have 16 (29%) of the total 35 respondents. The second most is 5-10 years which have 10 (29%) out of 35 respondents and the least is the more than 10 years, it just have 3 out of 35. The different duration spent in this building also can feel different uncomfortable. Otherwise, the occupants who spend longer years at the office also can know more regarding to the cleaning and maintenance of the HVAC or carpet in the office. Some more they also may have more experience regarding to the discomfort in the building.

Question 4: How many hours will you spend in this building per day?

Chart 4: Duration spend in the office per day

In this survey, the occupants are the staff of the office. They may have a different post on the working, some may as the marketing sales and some may as the executive or admin assistance. Sales may spend a little time in the building and the executive may spend a lot of time in the office. Experience in acute health effects of building occupants, it seems linked to the time is spent in building. In the result, most of the occupants work in the range 8 to 10 hours per day which is 25 (71%) and the second mostly is more than 10 hours, which are 7 occupants or 20% out of 35 occupants. Other such as less than 5 hour or range 5 to 8 hour is only 9%. According to the result, it is show that the people are spending more time in the indoor compare to the time they actually spend outdoor. It is because they almost spend 8-10 hours in the office every working day.

## 5.3.2 SECTION B

Question 5: Occupants awareness of the Poor Indoor Air Quality?

Chat 5: Occupants Awareness of Poor Indoor Air Quality

In the chat 5 is identify the occupants' awareness of poor indoor air quality. This question has three similar answers but just have the one is more nearest to the meaning. Based on the result, mostly occupants are awareness that the poor indoor air quality is means the poor indoor air is the air which affected by the poor ventilation. It has 19 (54%) of the total 35 respondents and just have 12 (34%) choose that the air is affected by the indoor air pollutant. It is appears that, there is a slight number of respondents have heard and have the knowledge of the poor indoor air quality before. Due to lake of knowledge of the IAQ, therefore the occupants would not take action to prevent the poor indoor air quality in the office.

Question 6: Do you think the Poor Indoor Air Quality will affect Occupants' Health?

Chat 6: Respondent's opinion whether the Poor Indoor Air Quality will affect Occupants' Health

Chat 6 is identify the respondent's agree weather the Poor IAQ will affect occupants' health. They have 29 occupants strongly agree and 4 occupants agree that the Poor IAQ will affect occupants' health. Besides that, they have 14% occupants are not very sure that the Poor IAQ will affect their health but they have no occupants disagree that the Poor IAQ will affect their health. The occupants agree that the Poor IAQ will affect their health because they may have some cases before during their working times. They may feel some headaches or discomfort when they spend a lot time in the office, therefore they will consider that their office are affected by the Poor IAQ and the Poor IAQ affected their health.

Question 7: Do you think your place is affected by the Poor IAQ?

Chart 7: Respondent's opinion whether the Work Place is affected by the Poor Indoor Air Quality

The chat above show that 29% and 31% of the respondents agree and strongly agree their work place is affected by the poor indoor air quality, where as 5 occupants of the 50 respondents felt that the office is not affected by the Poor IAQ. By the way, this result does not mean this office is affected or does not affected by the Poor IAQ, because this is just only an overall result of the opinion of the respondents.

Question 8: Where is the place of your work station?

Chat 8: Location of Work station

Chat on the top is identifying that the location of work station of the respondents. It is show the percentage and the number of the respondents. The different respondents have a different work station; the different work station may influence the productivity of the staff in the office throughout their working hour. Based on the result show that the mostly staff is works at the air-conditioning area, it have 10 (31%) of the 35 respondents, while a rate of 28% same as 9 respondents works near to the photocopy machine or printer. Moreover, there are the 22% and 13% of the staff are works near to the smoking area and the window. At last, they are 5 respondents are works at the other area such as near the main entrance or near to the washroom.

Question 9: Is the window opened during your working hour?

Chat9

The window in the offices is 100% close during the working hours. Therefore, the working areas were not affected by the outdoor air pollutant. But on other way, the window was close all the times will affected the uncomfortable to the occupants because some of the occupants may have a nose-sensitive problem to the air-conditioning. The window is not opened all the time will decrease the natural ventilation in the office building.

Question 10: What types of the floor finishes in your working area?

Chat 10: Type of Floor Finishes Material

In this question, it is to find out the types of floor finishes material in the office. It is an important question because the material used in a building can determine the types of the pollutants that affected to the building. Different types can be exist different pollutant in a building. For example, the carpet can traps the dust and let the microorganism to growth up. From the result shows that the 100% of the staff is work in the area which is fully carpet on the floor. Therefore mostly of the office is using the carpet as the floor finishes.

Question 11: Does your work place use Pesticides?

Chat 11: Application of the Pesticides

The pesticides is an indoor air pollutant, it can affected the occupants health such as irritation to eye, nose and throat, muscular weakness, headache and nausea. Based on the result form the finding, there are 60% of the staff have apply pesticides on their work place to control the insects, termites and fungi. The other 40% is said that they did not use the pesticides in their work place. For reduces the health problem of the staff, the company can apply the pesticides to kill the termites after the working hours or apply during the weekends.

Question 12: Is the maintenance and cleaning in your office?

Chat 12

This question is to survey that the facility and the building uses whether have provide maintenance and the cleaning process to prevent the dust and the pollutant in the office. For the result, the carpets are always cleaned and the air conditioning system also has performed preventive maintenance. But it does not means that the pollutant can clear at all and the carpet does not have the dust and growth of microorganism. This cleaning is just can minimize the pollutants and minimize the occupants' health.

Question 13: Do you have the following discomfort when you are in this office?

Chat 13: Discomforts encounter in the office

This question is to identify the discomforts encounter in the office. The different occupants or staff may have a different sensitivity. The indoor air pollutant can trigger different reactions in different people. Some of the occupants may not get affected at all. In unhealthy environment or work place the specified problem may be affect to the staffs' health. By analyzing the data in the chat, it appear that symptoms suffered most by the staff are headaches in which have the 14 cases reported. Based on the resources before, the physiological effect such as headache is affected by the common indoor air pollutant such as the CO, Formaldehyde, NO, VOC, SO2 and Dust. Nose irritation and throat irritation was reported the second highest with 13 cases being reported. There are many possibilities to how the respondents might be suffering from the nose irritation and throat irritation but the main pollutants to affected that are Formaldehyde, NO, VOC, Dust, Microorganisms, ETS and SO2. The third highest is an eye irritation. It reported with 11 cases from the respondents and the pollutants impacts to the eye irritation are same as the throat and nose irritation, just have a bit different which is the throat irritation have the SO2 and the eye irritation does not have it. And the more is the eye irritation has CO as the pollutant. The other syndromes such as respiratory complaints, vertigo, fatigue, confusion, nausea and skin rash also reported in the survey, but those syndromes are only with less than 10 cases being reported.

Since our survey is focus on office building, so the high technology of office equipment will be increase the SO2 and VOC may be provided by the materials used in the construction such as paints and carpets. Other from that, the office equipment such as copier and printer also is a source for the VOCs. Furthermore, the other pollutant such as dust and microorganisms may come from the carpets of the office because the carpet is the good growth place for the microorganisms. Therefore, these all the equipments are bring the pollutant to indoor air quality and affected the occupant's health and fell discomfort.

Question 14: What is the effect if you are discomfort when you are in this building?

Chat 14: Effect of the occupants when feel discomfort.

This question is need to identify the effect of the occupants when feel discomfort in this office. The mostly effect is the occupants will can't concentrate on working when the suffered discomfort are happened which has 63% of 35 occupants mention that. The second highest rate is the working performances are decrease when they are in an unhealthy state. Based on the result, only a few staff is gets more serious and go to consult doctor and get the medical certificate for rest at home. In this result show that, the employee may can't concentrate on working when in the uncomfortable area.

## 5.3.3 SECTION C

Question 15: Do you think the improvement of the indoor air quality is required in this office building?

Chat 15: Respondent's opinion whether the work place is required to improve the Poor IAQ

The Chat 15 is shows the respondent's opinion whether their workplace is required to improve the poor indoor air quality to good indoor air quality or not. They have 40% and 34% of 35 occupants strongly agree and agree to take some remedies to the indoor air quality in their workplace. Beside on that, the respondent other respondents are put neutral means that they not agree and disagree to that and no respondents are not agree and strongly not agree to do the remedies of the indoor air quality in their work place. The respondents will agree that because they need the good and healthy environment in the working place to increase their working performance. Other than that, they also feel discomfort when working in this office which the employer has not taken any action to the poor indoor air quality. Nowadays, the indoor comfort and healthy is important to the occupants so no one are disagree that improve the indoor air quality the good indoor air quality on their working area.

Question 16: In your opinion, what are the remedies to improve the Indoor Air Quality in this building?

Chat 16: Occupant's opinion to the remedies types to improve the IAQ

The improvement of the IAQ is very important to the building because it is important to ensure the healthy and comfortability working environment for the occupants. The result of this finding is show the opinion of the occupants on the remedies improvement the IAQ in this building. Based on the result, it has 19 occupants which is 46% of the respondents are prefer used the exhaust ventilation and pressure control to control the indoor air quality in the office. The second chooses of the respondents is the smoking policy. It have 9 (26%) of the 35 occupants. And followed the remedies choose from the occupants are use the exhaust ventilation and pressure control. It has 20% of the 35 occupants suggested for it. The less percentage is use the furnishings and finishes with respect to their off gassing characteristic. Use the exhaust ventilation and pressure control will be the first rate from the opinion's occupants because it is suitable to exhaust the poor air quality out of the building from the office and this company is the sales the tobacco products company and the staff is more male than female, therefore the smoking policy provided is strongly agree and suggested by the respondents to the employer as the tools for prevent the Poor IAQ.

## 5.3.4 CONCLUSION

From this chapter we know that, the occupants in this building are lack of the knowledge of indoor air quality. There are no take any intention or action to improve the indoor air quality in the building. From the result of the analysis, we have found that the staff of this company are not satisfactory to indoor air quality in the office because many staff are mention that need to be improve the indoor air quality in there working area. Moreover, it also found that many occupants experience discomfort in the office. With the lack of the maintenance and household cleaning, the pollutant may can't be reduce and the problem will be continuing. So, the remedies to the indoor air quality also will be carried on to reduced the poor indoor air quality, most of the occupants also agreed and suggest to take the action such as use the exhaust ventilation and pressure control in the office building.