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Kuala Lumpur is Malaysia capital and the nations hub for and business. Many local and multinational corporations and businesses are located in Kuala Lumpur city center. To meet their growing and complex demands the city is being reengineered. The changes was start from eighties have been quite drastic. Its land use impact has rendered incapable the city's flood management facilities to perform. Traditional ways to reduce the problem are no longer effective. A more effective approach was formulation of Stormwater Management And Road Tunnel to mitigated the problem. SMART is the world first dual usage of flood management and road solution for Kuala Lumpur. This paper discusses the Kuala Lumpur flooding scene, actions will be taken by the government, why modification to the plan was necessary and what is the present day solution being implemented. Nowadays more high technology to mitigated flood is used tunnel to detain divert flood water and regulate its release through downstream rivers. SMART involves the construction of a 9.7 km long by 11.8 m internal diameter bored tunnel, six hydraulic structures, two detentions ponds, a 0.5 km long release culvert, and numerous other auxiliary facilities such as motorway structures, vent cum surge shafts and a flood detection system. The central 3 km length of the tunnel will also be used as a two-lane double-deck motorway.
SMART system works on the three principle mode based on the flood discharge ar the Klang River or Ampang River confluence and the operation status of the motorway. First mode is normal condition is when there is no storm or low rainfall; no flood water will be diverted into the system. Second mode is moderate storm, SMART system will be activated and the flood water is diverted into the bypass tunnel in the lower channel of the motorway tunnel and it is important to note, that, at this stage, the motorway is still open to traffic. Last mode is heavy storm; the motorways will be closed to traffic.
The tunnel was built to provide traffic relief on the main Southern gateway to the city centre from the South (KL-Seremban Highway) and West (Federal Highway). The 3 km motoway tunnel is only accessible to cars, MPVs and SUVs not exceeding 2.00 m height. No motorcycles, buses or lorries are allowed in. By providing the 24 hours command centre, CCTV surveillance, emergency phone, ventilation system and FM/mobile reception allowance, it becomes more advance for the tunnel users.
A major consideration was made for tunnel safety purpose which the ventilation/escape shafts were located at 1 km intervals; these powerful air ventilators will constantly renew the air and maintain the air quality within the motorway. The feature also allows for smoke control in the event of a fire. Furthermore, the tunnel was equipped with the fire fighting, telecommunication and surveillance equipment at 1 km interval.
4.0 Literature Review
4.1 Definition of Tunnel
A tunnel is defined as underground routes or passages driven through the ground without disturbing the overlying soil or rock cover. Tunnels normally are classified into three uses, first is traffic tunnels, hydro-power tunnels and public utility tunnels. A conventional tunneling method which is uses extensively explosives and manual labour. While, in 21st century tunnel excavation is done by Tunnel Boring Machines (TBM's).
4.2 SMART Tunnel
Tunneling is one of the common solutions in construction industry to cope with the difficulties cause by the restricted area and the topography elements of the environment. SMART is an acronym for Storm water Management and Road Tunnel, to alleviate the flooding problem in the city centre of Kuala Lumpur. Simultaneously, the tunnel was built to provide traffic relief on the main Southern gateway to the city centre from the South (KL-Seremban Highway) and West (Federal Highway).
4.2.1 Stored Stormwater
The Smart Tunnel primary roles are design to mitigate the flooding problem and traffic congestion around the city centre during peak hours. The holding pond located at Kg. Berembang, when the holding pond water level is up to 34.00mLSD the diversion is activated; the water will subsequently be channeled via the tunnel to a storage pond in Taman Desa before being released into Sungai Kerayong. According Mohd Fuad, this process would reduce the floodwater coming from Sg. Klang and thereby preventing Sg.
Gombak and Sg. Klang from bursting their banks and overflowing in the event of a storm (SMART Tunnel, 2007).
4.2.2 Operation modes
Mode 1 will be the normal situation in most days of the year. Mode 2 is expected perhaps eight to ten times each year. Mode 3 may happen once in a year or two years. During mode 2 or 3 situations, the diversion through the tunnel will not exceed 8 hours. Thereafter another 10 hours at the most is required to dewater the system for cleanup. Notwithstanding this, the component for stormwater management is designed to be ready in 24 hours for handling the next storm.
When there is no storm water, the motorway tunnel will operates as usual and no water at the lower channel
Figure 2.1: Normal storm (Sources: Gamuda, 2012)
During the moderate of storm, the stormwater will bypass the lower channel of tunnel when the rainwater is excess the limit but without affecting the upper and lower decks of motorways tunnel.
Figure 2.2: Moderate storm (Sources: Gamuda, 2012)
During heavy rain and storm water, the electronics board will issue an alert of the tunnel will be close the motorway tunnel. The tunnel management will allow sufficient time for vehicle to exist the tunnel. After the automated water-tight are opened the tunnel will full with storm water and will be divert to Sungai Kerayong. The motorway tunnel only needs 48 hours to be re-opened after closure
Figure 2.3: Heavy storm (Sources: Gamuda, 2012)
4.3.1 Road Deck of Tunnel
The 3 km dual purpose road tunnel is constructing in double deck for the safety purposes. The lower deck is for the users entering the city centre and the upper deck is for users leaving the city. Lower and upper deck is designed in one way direction to entering or leaving the city. Due to the limitation of headroom inside the tunnel, only light vehicle is allowed to enter the tunnel.
The road decks were constructed in two pours. Firstly the lower deck and secondly sidewalls and upper deck. The original design and anticipated construction method was modified to that using precast planks, 100mm thick carrying the lower reinforcement cage, introduced, similar to the 'Omni' system used in bridge decks. To achieve programme the work progressed at the same time that TBM tunneling continued while deck construction proceeded above the TBM service railway. Provisions for hydrant, cables and openings to cross passages are provided within the secondary mass concrete placed inside the structural walls. (Yeoh Hin Kok et al., 2007)
4.4 Tunneling Methods
4.4.1 New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM)
'NATM' or 'New Austrian Tunneling Method' was since developing 1957, the excavated method is in front is drilled, charges placed, and detonated. If choose using this method it is important that the soil condition around the tunnel must be completely understood. In homogeneous material or cavity-filled rock, the 'drill and blast' technique may not be the good choice.
The main concern pointed out by Muller (1978) in any soft ground application of NATM is that the shotcrete ring must be closed as early as possible. One of the reasons for rapid ring closure is to prevent surface buildings suffering damage from settlement. Another reason is that the shorter stand-up time of soft ground is due to the bond between soil particles being weaker and cohesion is also lower than for rocks (Karakus et al., 2004)
The tunnel is excavated and supported by the initial ground support such as shotcrete combination with fibre or welded-wire fabric reinforcement. For stabilize the ground by soil nailing or spilling. The permanent support is a cast insitu concrete lining.
4.4.2 Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM)
Two main types of tunnel boring machine (TBM) are used in osft ground, slurry TBM and an earth pressure balance (EPB) TBM. Both types operate with a sealed front compartment that is kept under sufficient pressure to stabilize the face and minimize ground movement. EPB TBMs have been limited to diameters less than 33 ft due to the high torque needed to drive the rotating cutter head, although other forms of drive may overcome this limitation. Slurry TBM has been built up 50 ft diameter, and larger sizes are planned. Settlement at the surface in soft ground is directly related to the percentage loss of material outside the tunnel. Typical loss of material lies between 0.5% and 2.5%. Factors affecting the loss include the properties of the material traversed, the face pressure used, used the design of the shield, and the rate of advance. Tunnels exist where the loss has been zero. Soft ground TBMs are generally launched from a relatively small shaft, with subsequent parts of the machine being added as progress is made. (Merrit, 1976)
The lining of the tunnel is built up by the double tapered pre-cast concrete rings. The rings are designed as double tapered rings and each ring consists of 8 segments and a keystone. The keystone of each ring is located above the spring line which is horizontal center line. The pre-cast concrete linings are huge and heavy, therefore an erector is needed to lift them up and place in the correct position in the tunnel by the TBM hydraulic arms, which working rotationally. Next, the lining will bolt among each other. the final step is fill up the voids in between the excavated surface and the outer surface of the tunnel lining with cement mortar grout under pressurized conditions to ensure that all the voids are fully filled. A total 5390 rings or 43120 segments plus 5390 keys are needed to line the full 9.7 km long tunnel. The tunnel excavation schedule was based on an average production rate of six 1.7m wide rings per day, working two shifts per day, 7 days per week for both TBMs. The project's best progress to date is 11 rings or 18.40m in a 24 hour production day recorded by the South Drive TBM in February 2005.
As the TBMs underpass several important structures including the tracks of urban train services it must ensure that the construction process is not interrupting the normal services. A few resistivity surveys of local ground conditions are interpreted to assess the risk to the sensitive structures and necessary pre-treament is considered and instructed by the site management.
4.5.1 Ground support design
Most tunnels and open excavations require some form of permanent ground support. Removal of material causes unbalanced soil or rock stresses that reduce the capacity of the excavation to support itself. Varying geological conditions mean that control measures that have worked previously may not be satisfactory under these changed conditions (Queensland Government, 2007).
An alternative to temporary ground support may be to use overhead protection. Ground support systems include engineering issues that involve both structural design and soil/rock mechanics. Using ground support, designed for the unique circumstances of the current situation, is essential to control the risk of a collapse or tunnel support failure (Queensland Government, 2007).
5.0 Aim and Objective
Bases on the latest researches done on SMART, the main problem is during raining season the storm water will flow from Sungai Gombak to Sungai Klang before discharging to Melaka Strait. This was the main causes of flooding in around Kuala Lumpur City Centre. SMART is used to mitigate the flooding around the city centre in high technology.
To identify the uses of tunnel
To study the types of methods used on tunnel construction
To study the factors to be considered in tunnel construction
6.0 Research Methodology
Stage 1: Literature review
Before we carried out the research proposal, preliminary work is very essential and need to be carried out of this study. For descriptive literature review describes the work of previous writers, while for analytical literature review analyses critically the contribution of others with the view of identifying similarities and contradictions made by previous writers.
There are three types of literature sources; Primary literature is the most accurate source of information as it publishes original research. Primary sources consist of academic research journals, refereed conferences, dissertation, report or occasional paper, and government publications. The secondary literature sources are those that cite from primary sources such as textbooks, and newspaper articles. The final literature source are references guide, it is very useful sources of information for short and quick answers to basic question. The function of the references guide is to introduce the basic information about a particular subject area. Sources that fall within these guides are dictionaries, glossaries, encyclopaedias and handbooks (Naoum, 1998).
From these literature materials, the information will be obtained to achieve the objectives. All of the information that obtained will very useful in this research which can provide guideline and overview of.
Stage 2: Fieldwork research
In fieldwork research, there are 4 types of research methodologies which are case study, observational, interview and questionnaire. Case study is used when the researcher intends to support the argument by an in-depth analysis of a person, a group of persons, an organization or a particular project (Naoum, 1998).
Semi-structural interview is adopted for gather the primary information because the interviewer has a great deal of freedom to probe various areas and to raise specific queries during the course of the interview (Naoum, 1998). Besides that, it is more formal than the unstructured interview. This form of interview uses 'open' and 'closed-ended' questioning but the question are not asked in specific order and no schedule is used (Naoum, 1998).
A semi-structured interview is flexible; allowing new questions to be brought up during the interview as a result of what the interviewee says. There are 2 respondent will involve in this interview, there are from MMC-Gamuda Joint Venture, and Syarikat Mengurus Air Banjir & Terowong Sdn. Bhd.
7.0 Anticipated Findings / Contribution
After done this research, found out that SMART is very useful and innovative infrastructure to our Malaysia. Every year happened flood around the city centre will lose a million of property, public facilities, and infrastructure and so on. After a few years of study to mitigate the flood happened, our government was announcing this project to solve the problem. While the traffic congestion around the city centre was getting solve after this project was done and give a lot of convenience to the citizens to entering and leaving the city centre. This SMART was solving the flooding problem and traffic congestion which are more and more serious around the city centre of Kuala Lumpur very effectively. Other than that, this SMART project was giving our local contractors a very great experience on construction method use for the tunnel project. If the government want to construct a tunnel for mitigate the flood problem at Johor. The whole project can do by our local engineers and contractors. Finding from this research is our Malaysian also can do an innovative and effective infrastructure to mitigate the flood problem.
8.0 Working Programme and Timetable
Tasks to be completed
Discussion on topic of interest
Confirm topic selected with
tutor, searching relevant
information on topic selected
Research aim and objectives
Anticipated findings /
Working programme and
Planned chapter structure
Checking the style, grammar,
Acknowledgement of sources
and References list
Complete the research
proposal and submit
9.0 Planned Organisation of Dissertation
To identify the uses of tunnel
To study the types of methods used on tunnel construction
To study the factors to be considered in tunnel construction
9.1 Outline Chapter
Chapter 1: Introduction- This chapter consists of defines what are Stormwater Management and Road Tunnel (SMART) and some specification of the tunnel.
Chapter 2: Literature Review- This chapter consists of study what is the uses of tunnel, methods of tunnel construction and factors considered in tunnel construction.
Chapter 3: Research Methodology- This chapter consists of how to get the qualitative and quantitative data from.
Chapter 4: Data collection through questionnaire survey and interview- This chapter consists of interview of the SMART construction team.
Chapter 5: Data analysis- This chapter consists of data analysis after interview the construction team and gets back the questionnaire.
Chapter 6: References- This chapter is where I get the information.