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The focus of this research is on the definition and analysis Critical Success Factor in government based construction projects in Malaysia due to study on human factor.
The construction industry is one of the crucial industries that contribute to Malaysian economic growth. Thus, there are various government initiatives that have been carried out to stimulate growth in the construction sector from time to time. Every year, construction activity shows growth in terms of the number as well as quality of the projects involved. The encouraging amount of activity within the construction industry has increased the number of registration of contractors and construction personnel with the Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) Malaysia.
"In 2010, the construction sector contributed five per cent to the Malaysia's gross domestic product (GDP), although small in percentage terms but the total value of RM18.2 billion was actually very significant as it helped to generate huge economic linkages and create a multiplier effect on other economic sectors including the financial, banking, insurance, and transportation and manufacturing services" (NSTP, 2010).
Project management can be simply understood as the process of controlling the achievement of a specific objective, which involves a series of activities and tasks that consume resources. "A project is a series of tasks, arranged in a defined sequence or relationship that produces a pre-defined output or effect.Â A project always has a start, middle and an end" (Project management Institute, Body of Knowledge 1999, PMBOK).
The Kaoru Ishikawa theory "fishbone diagram" can dig up to find the root causes, identify area where there may be problems, and compare the relative importance of different causes. A common use of the Ishikawa diagram is in product design, to identify potential factors causing an overall effect. Based on the Ishikawa theory, in a construction point of view, there are four main groups of possible success factors that been discovered which are materials, machines, manpower (human) and methods.
Any project without a human force or other elements in a project will lead to disintegration of a construction project. One of the vaguest concepts of project management is project success. Time, cost, quality target and participation satisfaction (human factor) have been identified as the main criteria for measuring the overall success of a construction project (Dissanayaka & Kumaraswamy, 1999).
Since each individual or group of people who are involved in a project have different needs and expectations, it is very unsurprising that they interpret project success in their own way of understanding (Cleland & Ireland, 2004, p2). Other than that "For those involved with a project, project success is normally thought of as the achievement of some pre-determined project goals" (Lim & Mohamed, 1999, p244). In simple words, Critical Success Factors (CSFs) are strongly related to the mission and strategic goals of the project.Â
However, this study only focuses on human factor and the interrelationship between human and the project progress. The main reason why the human factor has been chosen in this study is because human is one of the assets in the organization or project team. Besides that, human contributes a big impact towards the project progression because they are the source of expertise and knowledge. Humans are the main driving force in a project.
The independent variables in this research would be the Critical Success Factors (CSFs) a study of human factor and the dependent variables in this research would be project completion.
1.2 RESEARCH QUESTION
The research question is that the researcher wants to find the relation to what extent does critical success factors method is so important to achieve a completion project in government based construction project due to study on human factor, and the impact of the implementation of this practice due to achieve a good project progress in construction industry. The purpose of this research is to define project success criteria, clarify their differences with success factors and analyze their importance in project management methodology.
What are the Critical Success Factors (CSFs) from the human factor contributes to the completion of a project?
How important are these factors as perceived by the respondents?
What are the interrelationship between human factor and completion of construction project?
1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
The objective of the research presented in this paper is to define/analyze the human factor interrelationship that lead to project success in the government based construction project by using Critical Success Factor (CSF) and to provide a forecasting tools to enables other parties to accelerate assess the possibilities of a successful government based construction project from their point of view.
To examine the CSFs based on human factor that contributes to the completion of a project in Malaysian construction Industry.
To determine the relative importance of these factors as perceive by the respondents.
To identify, using consensus expert panel, the relationship between of human factor and project completion in government based construction projects.
Due to the importance of the construction industry in a Malaysian economic growth, it is worthwhile to ensure construction projects are completed successfully. There are a number of ways to achieve success construction project which this research investigates, is by providing managers with Critical Success Factors (CSFs) that emphasize to human factor that can aid successful completion of a project. This means providing managers with tested methods of managing resources such as workers and subcontractors.
This research investigates a few of success government based construction projects in Malaysia. The research parameters will take place in Putrajaya and Melaka. The research model was designed to investigate various related questions outlined in the preceding section. This research only focused on government based construction project therefore the respondents will be government, contractors and consultants.
This research instruments include a combination of structured questionnaires, open-ended interviews and surveys used for further validation. Following a thorough literature search, human factors are critical to the success of building construction projects. This factor was then assembled into a questionnaire that was distributed among three target groups who were connected with the building construction industry. The respondents were required to identify, from the factor which they agreed to be critical to the success of a construction project in Malaysia.
The results of this study thus provide a solid basis for further current research on effective development model based on human factors in Malaysia.
This research only focus on Critical Success Factors (CSFs) based on human factor and the relation towards project successful that has been applied in most of government based construction industry.
The limitations of this research are time limitations and geographical factor. Other than that, some of the respondents (project manager) may not return the questionnaires due to busy schedule at the construction site. Moreover, this research only focuses on a few construction projects. Therefore, the data collection for this research will be limited and the data are only applicable only to particular research area.
Also some government based construction project will protect their data information project which may involve with the company's and contractors financial data and other government confidential data that cannot be expose to the public.
1.6 IMPORTANCE OF THE RESEARCH
The importance of this research is to understand the relationship between the four critical success factors (method, material, machinery and man power) and the successful of a government based construction projects. In matter facts, this research also will create a new platform for contractors to fulfill government policies and specifications in develop a building.
This chapter introduces the importance and explanation on the importance of a good project management for project completion. Meanwhile to analyze the role of construction industry in Malaysia that contributes to economy growth.
This chapter highlights the definitions of the main parameter are will be discussed in this research. This study used various reference materials as a guide lines such as books, journals, thesis and other published medium. The information from this research can be used to strengthen the understanding and conceptualized research/theoritical framework.
2.2 DEFINITION CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS (CSFs)
Based on the recent studies which were held as early as the 1980's, the authors have different own views and definition.
Rockart (1982) defined Critical Success Factors (CSFs) as "The limited number of areas in which results, if they are satisfactory, will ensure successful competitive performance for the organization. They are the few key areas where things must go right for the business to flourish. If results in these areas are not adequate, the organization's efforts for the period will be less than desired". In simple word, Critical Success Factors (CSFs) are strongly related to the mission and strategic goals of the project.Â
Critical success factors are a relatively small number of truly important elements which a particular industry should focus and prioritize in order to achieve the completion of a project. The CSFs word represent "factors" which are "critical" to the success" of the particular industry. In fact to support the above statement, Rockart (1982) further emphasized that the critical success factors are specific circumstances or the characteristic of the particular industry. Other than that, the critical success factors (CSFs) will also change or evolve as the industry's environment changes, as the company position in the industry change (change management), and it also will vary in point of view depending on their environments, culture, government policies and legal constraint.
For example, in Asian countries CSFs in construction industry will differ with Europe countries which have their own particular condition. Thus, it is important to understand the function, advantages and disadvantages of the CSFs. The critical success factors (CSFs) are not a standard set of measurement or key indicators, which can be applied to all industry.
On the contrary, "CSFs are the particular areas of major importance to a particular industry, at a particular point in time. They demand specific and diverse situational measures, many of which must be evaluated through soft, subjective information" (Bullen and Rockart, 1981).
2.2.1 HISTORY OF CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTOR (CSFs)
In the late 1970s and early 1980s, organizations found themselves in the midst of an information revolution. The growth of information systems in organizations resulted in the production of significant amounts of information for analysis and decision making. The advent of the personal computer and the evolution of the field of information "systems" to information "technology" were indicators that the information explosion would continue. John F. Rockart, of MIT's Sloan School of Management, recognized the challenge that the onslaught of information presented to senior executives. In spite of the availability of more information, research showed that senior executives still lacked the information essential to make the kinds of decisions necessary to manage the enterprise (Dobbins 98).
As a result, Rockart's team concentrated on developing an approach to help executives clearly identify and define their information needs. Rockart's team expanded on the work of Daniel to develop the CSF approach. Daniel suggested that, to be effective in avoiding information overload, an organization's information systems must focus on factors that determine organizational success (Rockart 79). For example, in the automotive industry, Rockart suggested that styling, an efficient dealer organization, and tight control of manufacturing costs are important success factors (Rockart 79).
Using success factors as a filter, management could then identify the information that was most important to making critical enterprise decisions. Accordingly, the underlying premise is that decisions made in this manner should be more effective because they are based on data that is specifically linked to the organization's success factors. In 1981, Rockart codified an approach that embodied the principles of success factors as a way to systematically identify the information needs of executives. This work, presented in "A Primer on Critical Success Factors," detailed the steps necessary to collect and analyze data for the creation of a set of organizational CSFs (Rockart 81). This document is widely considered to be the earliest description of the CSF approach. Our interpretation and application of Rockart's approach, as documented in this report, is largely based on this description.
2.2.2 DEFINING CSFs FOR CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS
Project success is an abstract concept and determining whether a project is successful is subjective and extremely complex (Parfitt and Sanvido, 1993; Chan et al., 2002), therefore, two distinctions must be established at this stage before further discussion can be carried on. De Wit (1988), Lim and Mohamed (1999), Cooke-Davies (2002), and Takim et al. (2004) have all differentiate project success (measured against the overall objectives of the project) against project management success (measured against the widespread and traditional measures of time, cost and quality).
On the other hand, there are also distinctions between success criteria (the measure by which success or failure of a project will be judged) and success factor (those inputs to the management system that lead directly or indirectly to the success of the project) (De Wit, 1988; Cooke-Davies, 2002). Success factor can be further classified under two main categories, one being hard, and objectives, tangible and measureable while the other soft, subjective, intangible, and less measurable (Andersen and Jessen, 2000; Chan et al., 2004; Anderson et al., 2006). As for the former, the criteria of time, cost and quality were widely recognized, but others such as health and safety, environmental sustainability, technical performance are factors with growing importance. As for the later, attainment of goals such as satisfaction, effective communication, relationship between project participants, and absence of conflicts are considered a sign of project success.
2.3 CSFs IN GOVERNMENT BASED CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS
The increase in development expenditure in the RMK9 for various sectors reflects more opportunities for all sectors, including the construction sector. This is in line with the government's mission to improve the standard and sustainability of quality of life of the people through the construction of better amenities and infrastructure such as improved transportation system, residential and commercial buildings and health care services. An average of RM 0.70 billion has been allocated for maintenance and asset repair work, and this provide construction work opportunities. An additional allocation of RM 1 billion is allocated yearly for the maintenance of public facilities to be undertaken by class F contractors (RMK 9, 2006 - 2010). This statement shows the effort of the government to spur the growth of the Malaysia's economy (GDP) and support the growth of Malaysia's construction industry.
Pinto and Slevin (1987) discovered ten Critical Success Factors (CSFs), including project mission, top management support, project schedule/plan, client consultation, personnel, technical tasks, client acceptance, monitoring and feedback, communication and trouble shooting.
ISHIKAWA THEORY "FISHBONE"
Table 2.1 Theoretical Framework based on four dimensions of CSFs due to project completion
In government based construction projects there are four dimensions of critical success factors (CSFs) in ensure the success a construction projects:
Method - The procedures and techniques utilized during construction. Construction operations are generally classified according to specialized fields. These include preparation of the project site, earth-moving, foundation treatment, steel erection, concrete placement, asphalt paving, and electrical and mechanical installations. Procedures for each of these fields are generally the same, even when applied to different projects, such as buildings, dams, or airports.
Material - Item, material, and supply consumed which being used in a construction project and incorporated in the constructed building or structure. Such as concrete, steel, stone and wood.
Machinery - Machine is a powered tool consisting of one or more parts that is constructed to achieve a particular goal. Mechanical equipment designed to perform construction operations. Certain construction machines perform a series of operations in sequence to achieve a final objective. Depending on their function, construction machinery can be classified into the following basic groups which are excavating, drilling, pile-driving, reinforcement, roofing, finishing machinery, and machinery for working with concrete.
Manpower (Human) - Manpower refers to the number of total supply of people available or currently working on a specific job or task. In term of construction, man power is stand for a professional, tradesman, or laborers who directly participates in the physical construction of infrastructure.
2.3.1 THE DELAY FACTOR BASED ON CSFs
220.127.116.11 POOR SITE MANAGEMENT (METHOD)
Effective and efficient site management by contractors is very important to ensure projects are completed on time. Poor coordination contributes to delay from estimated completion time. Poor site management may occur when contractors do not have enough experience and suffer from a lack of knowledge in managing the project team (Kadir et al., 2005). A project manager is the leader in a construction project in the sense that he is required to manage all the works on site from monitoring progress of construction works to managing all the administrative work in the project. It is the most importance element for the project manager to manage the work and project teams effectively.
Hence, poor site management from the project manager will affect the whole team and also the progress of works, resulting in the eventual outcome of project delay. This view is supported by studies conducted by Augustine and Mangvwat (2001), Arshi and Sameh (2006), Arditi et al. (1985), Faridi and El- Sayegh (2006), Toor and Ogunlana (2008), Aibinu and Odenyika (2006) and Ahmed et al. (2003) who concluded that poor site management is one of the factors that contribute to delay in construction projects.
18.104.22.168 EQUIPMENT AND TOOLS (MACHINERY)
Tools and equipment used in the construction site are either provided through direct investment by the contractor or acquired through leasing. Some contractors may acquire tools and equipment using both methods. The contractor has to plan the usage of equipment according to the construction work to be carried out during a particular period of time because equipment obtained by leasing has to be returned to the supplier by the due date at the end of the lease period. Joyce (2006) added that the construction of high rise buildings is increasing and, as a result, the use of cranes is also increasing. However, this is contributing to equipment shortage as the crane suppliers do not have a sufficient number of cranes to be leased out in order to meet this increasing demand. Hence, it is less likely that the contractor would be able to extend the lease period of cranes if it was necessary to do so. This shows that failures in effectively planning the usage of equipment will cause equipment and tool shortages.
22.214.171.124 COORDINATION PROBLEMS (HUMAN)
In a construction project, there are many parties involved such as contractor, consultant, sub-contractor and client. Often, it may be difficult for these various separate parties to coordinate well in order to complete the project. In one study conducted by Assaf et al. (1995) it was found that difficulty in coordination between the parties is one of the factors that contribute to delay. In addition, Majid and McCaffer (1998) also agreed that coordination problems will contribute to delay.
Ali et al. (2008) and Kadir et al. (2005) stated that lack of coordination between contractors and subcontractors will lead to delay, for example in the situation that newly revised construction drawings of a project may be issued later by the contractors to the subcontractors. This leads to construction mistakes and the work requiring to be redone. Reconstruction work takes additional time, therefore impacting upon the completion time of the project.
According to Sambasivan and Yau (2007), most of the unskilled labourers used in the Malaysian construction industry are foreign labourers. These foreign labourers have little formal education (Santoso et al., 2003). Thus, coordination is very important to guide and instruct these labourers to perform their work correctly. Without coordination, the project will be delayed due to rectifying defective works and low productivity of labourers.
126.96.36.199 CONSTRUCTION MISTAKES AND DEFECTIVE WORKS (MATERIAL)
Gerskup (2010) claimed that poor workmanship, carelessness and shortcuts are the three key factors that will contribute to defective works. Zanis (2010) also agrees that poor workmanship is the main contributor to defective works.
The use of poor quality materials is one example of poor workmanship. In Turkey, several of the building collapses in the Bingol earthquakes were due to the use of improper aggregate in the concrete during construction (Binici, 2007). In the same study, Binici, (2007) found that the reinforcement bars used had corroded, leading to the strength of the concrete being greatly reduced. Poor workmanship which leads to defective works has to be rectified by the contractor but in order to do that, thus the project will require postponement of time.
Careless mistakes such as taking incorrect measurements from plans and specifications will lead to construction mistakes (Thomas, 1991). Additionally, incorrect units and measures during construction will produce defective work. As a result, the contractors need to reconstruct those construction mistakes which results in taking additional time to complete the project.
A shortcut can be defined as the path that takes lesser time to complete compared to the usual path. Thomas (1991) emphasized that contractors usually use shortcuts to complete the construction work due to time and cost constraints. Shortcuts will, however, eventually produce defective works which need to be rectified later in the completion stage. This will subsequently delay the project.
2.3.2 THE NATURE OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS
The construction industry is perceived to be adversarial in nature (Rhys Jones 1994). However, construction is a collaborative teamwork process with successful projects dependent upon the strong co-operation between the client, architect, engineer, contractor, and supplier. Good coordination of all the parties is essential for the project's success. If individuals do not work together towards the common goal and merely maximize their own benefits (Walker 2002), it is difficult to achieve team effectiveness.
The stakeholders of construction projects each have different interests and goals. For example, the main contractor may want to maximize her or her own profit, while the client may want the construction project completed on time by spending less. Due to the different stakeholder viewpoints, complex construction process and market-driven nature of construction projects, this often leads to claims and disputes (Egan 1998, Latham 1994). The complicated construction process, project nature and procurement methods affect the performance, project duration and project price.
Understanding these distinctions will enable the researcher to have a clearer direction on the subject matter and to avoid possible confusion. As part of the future research aspect of an research and its finding will be used to develop an effective relationship procurement model in Malaysia, the paper will seek to give its attention to the critical success factor of project management in Malaysia. It also aims to establish relationships among the different perceptions of construction participants regarding CSFs for local projects.
2.4 CONSTRUCTION PROJECT BASED ON HUMAN FACTOR
Construction project management, in more detail, can be described as the art of coordinating human and material resources to achieve project objectives within time, budget, and quality. Project success is an abstract concept and determining whether a project is successful is subjective and extremely complex (Parfitt and Sanvido, 1993; Chan et al., 2002), therefore, two distinctions must be established at this stage before further discussion can be carried on. De Wit (1988), Lim and Mohamed (1999), Cooke-Davies (2002), and Takim et al. (2004) have all differentiate project success (measured against the overall objectives of the project) against project management success (measured against the widespread and traditional measures of time, cost and quality).
On the other hand, there are also distinctions between success criteria (the measure by which success or failure of a project will be judged) and success factor (those inputs to the management system that lead directly or indirectly to the success of the project) (De Wit, 1988; Cooke-Davies, 2002).
Success human factor can be further classified under two main categories, one being hard, and objectives, tangible and measureable while the other soft, subjective, intangible, and less measurable (Andersen and Jessen, 2000; Chan et al., 2004; Anderson et al., 2006). As for the later, attainment of goals such as satisfaction, effective communication, relationship between project participants, and absence of conflicts are considered a sign of project success.
CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTOR FOR HUMAN FACTOR
Table 2.2 Theoretical framework for the sub division extract from the human factors group.
Project efficiency and effectiveness measures are important to judge project performance and project success. This paper provides an empirical analysis of measures of critical success factors in terms human factor of efficiency (outputs) and effectiveness (outcomes) in the government based construction projects in Malaysia. The purpose is to distinguish the difference of the two dimensions and to identify the relationship between them. A survey was conducted in Malaysia among the four project stakeholders:
As for the conclusion, attainment of goals such as satisfaction, effective communication, relationship between project participants, and absence of conflicts are considered a signs of a successful project. Understanding these distinctions will enable the researcher to have a clearer direction on the subject matter and to avoid possible confusion. As part of the wider aspect of this research and its finding will be used to develop an effective relationship procurement model in Malaysia, the paper will seek to give its attention to the critical success factors (CSFs) in government based construction project in Malaysia. It also aims to establish relationships among the different perceptions of construction participants regarding CSFs for implementation in the future.
According to Plutchick R, "Research has its origin in a term which means to go around or to explore, and it is a combination of Re + Search". In other words, research means the repetition of search, and it always intended to invent or discover new knowledge. "Research may be defined as the systematic method of discovering new facts or verifying old facts, their sequences, interrelationships, causal explanations and natural laws which govern them" (Young PV, Research Methodology, p2).
A research design is the overall plan for obtaining answers to the questions being studied and for handling some of the difficulties encountered during the research process (Polit & Beck, 2004). Research designs are developed to meet the unique requirement of the research. According to (De Vos, 1998), and (Wood & Haber, 1998) indicated that selecting a good research design should be guided by an consideration, namely whether the design does the best possible job providing trustworthy answers to the research question.
Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. Once can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation. The Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English lays down the meaning of research as "a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge" (The Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English, Oxford, 1952, p. 1069). Redman and Mory define research as a "systematized effort to gain new knowledge". Some people consider research as a movement, a movement from the known to the unknown. It is actually a voyage of discovery.
Research is an academic activity and as such the term should be used in a technical sense. According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. D. Slesinger and M. Stephenson in the Encyclopedia of Social Science define research as "the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art" (The Encyclopedia of Social Sciences, Vol. IX, MacMillan, 1930). Research is, thus, an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement. It is the pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment. In matter of facts, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem is research. The systematic approach concerning generalization and the formulation of a theory is also research. As such the term "research" refers to the systematic method consisting of enunciating the problem, formulating a hypothesis, collecting the facts or data, analyzing the facts and reaching certain conclusions either in the form of solutions towards the concerned problem or in certain generalizations for some theoretical formulation.
3.2.1 EXPLORATORY STUDIES
Exploratory research is an initial research which analyzes the data explores the possibility of obtaining as many relationships as possible between different variables without knowing their end-applications. This means that a general study will be conducted without having any specific study. The exploratory only provide a basis for general findings in the future.
Descriptive or "case-study" research is research in which a specific situation is studied either to see if it gives rise to any general theories, or to see if existing general theories are borne out by the specific situation.
3.2.3 EXPLANATORY STUDIES
3.3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.3.1 QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGN
To achieve the research objectives and to address the research problem this research will conduct quantitative research method. A quantitative research generates quantifiable data. It is primarily concerned with observable and measurable phenomena involving people, events or things, and establishing the strength of the relationship between variables, usually by statistical tests (Counchman & Dawson, 1995). Other notable author opinion:
A quantitative research lends itself to investigating phenomena that require precise measurement and quantification often involving a rigorous and controlled design (Polit & Beck, 2004).
A quantitative design tends to be fairly structured to enhance the research objectivity. A quantitative research primarily rests upon numbers data that will be inserting into statistics, to enable the researcher to interpret obtained data and reach conclusion (Cormack, 1996).
The features of this research study are in accordance with quantitative research paradigm. Its focus was concise and narrow. This will give this research exercised to control the research by enhancing the external validity of the study. By utilize a structure questionnaire, which enable this research to quantify the response and to conduct statistical analysis.
In this study, the most suitable research design to be use is non-experimental, univariate, and descriptive survey design. The term of survey can be used to designate an research activity in which investigator gathers data from a particular population for the purpose of examining the characteristics, intentions or opinions of that population (Couchman & Dawson, 1995).
The main reason of this research using the descriptive design is selected because of its high degree of representative and he case in which could obtain the participants data.
3.3.2 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGN
3.4 PRIMARY DATA SOURCES
3.4.1 SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRES
A questionnaire survey is one of the most cost effective ways to involve a large number of people in the process in order to achieve better results, as recommended by McQueen and Knussen (2002). The method adopted for this research was based on a structured questionnaire survey of four principal target groups within the Malaysian construction industry, focusing on the states of Selangor, Melaka and Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia. A structured questionnaire was distributed to the four targeted groups (the Government, private clients, consultants, and contractors) representing a mixture of professionals, including those dealing with policy formulation, design, construction, quantity surveying, and clients of construction. In total 100 questionnaires will be distribution in target research area, only 60 respondents completed the questionnaire as predicted. However, based on the minimum sample data requirement the validity of this research is 40 respondent feedback/data.
Based on a comprehensive literature review, lists of thirty significant factors of both efficiency and effectiveness measures, respectively, were produced for the respondents to identify their level of success criticality to the Malaysian construction projects. Respondents were required to rate each question on a five-point "Likert scale" that required a ranking (1-5), where one represented 'not important' and 5 represented 'extremely important', as the case might be. The questions were of the 'close-ended' type aimed at simplifying completion, thus enhancing the response rate, as suggested by (Dlakwa, 1990). The results were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software.
3.5 SECONDARY DATA SOURCES
3.6 LOCATION OF RESEARCH
3.7 METHOD OF PRIMARY DATA COLLECTION (research strategy)
3.8 VALIDITY, GENERALIZABILITY AND RELIABILITY
3.8.1 VALIDITY OF THIS STUDY
Descriptive research is low in terms internal validity and high in term \s of external validity. Descriptive research allows for limited control over the research variables and the research setting. Control over sample selection is however possible and it is necessary to involve a large representative sample to enhance external validity (Brink & Wood, 1998). External validity is defined as the degree to which the research results can be generalized to other people and other research settings (Brink, 2000).
A quantitative, descriptive research will conduct to determine the views of critical success factors in government based construction projects due to project completion that significant relation with human factor. The four dimension group of government, contractor, consultant and client was involved in this research. Data was collected by means of a structured questionnaire comprising mainly of closed ended question and a Likert scale. The raw data was submitted to descriptive statistical analysis to measure the relationship between the independent and dependent variables.