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Safety and Health of the workforce is significant feature of the firms efficient and smooth operation. Effective and efficient safety and health makes sure free from injury cases at business environment. Knowledge on industrial safety and health practices still requires enhancements substantially in India. Firm's still didn't identify the appropriate measures and practices for attaining extensive OS&H efficiency since they focus on other potential aspects of their trade operations. An efficient reported industrial health and safety organization manual facilitates the form to devise the set of objectives and policies by considering the legal obligations and data regarding key risks and hazards. On which the firm could monitor and above which it could be anticipated to have an impact and to safeguard its workforce as well as other individuals of whose safety and health might be adversely influenced through the practices of the firm.
Hence, this paper intended to evaluate the role and responsibilities for management in organizing the health and safety at workplace against the accidents and incidents of injuries. The main theme of this study is to analyze in what way the management or employers must protect the workforce and contributes towards healthy and safety working environment. This thesis core intension will be achieved by means of undertaking research methodology in which both primary and secondary surveys are involved. Outcomes and findings of the research process will enables in deriving desired conclusions in such a way that the identified research issues are resolved and defined objectives are fulfilled.
By conducting this project, a rich knowledge on significance of occupational health and safety management system in the firm will be gained. Also, in what way this management system benefits the organization will be perceived. By learning this project, one can clearly understand about the crucial role played by the employers and necessary responsibilities to undertake in implementing efficient industrial health and safety management system. Also, this project provides the information about the reasons for implementing OSH at the workplace and on what aspects of the business are impacted by this management. The current thesis acts as future reference for the organizations of any sector as it creates complete awareness about the roles and liabilities for the management concerning to the application of occupational safety and health organization.
Concept of health and safety management system:
A safety and health organization comprises the incorporation of procedures developed for reducing the incidents like illness and injuries within the workforce functions. Efficient execution of the system needs administration commitment towards the system, efficient provision of resources and extreme contribution level of the workforce or employees. The complexity and scope of safety and health organization system will differ in accordance with type and dimension of work environment. Various fundamental components comprised in health and safety organization system are hazard recognitions, assessment and monitor, program control, work site verifications, organizing leadership and company commitment, staff training and capability, urgent response scheduling and event examination and reporting (Gupta, 2010).
Under the evaluation of health and safety organization system, workforce involvement within partnership programs conduct reviews in regular intervals concerned to safety and health management systems by means of annual audits. Inspections are performed by authorized auditors utilizing partnerships standard audit devised and instruments that comprise the fundamental components pertaining the safety and health management system and need the employ of people interviews, revision of documentation and observation at work environment like data collection mechanisms (Torpa and Moenb, 2005).
Occupational Safety and Health management system:
Occupational Safety and Health management system is defined as the amalgamation of scheduling and revising the organization firm arrangements in the integrated manner for enhancing the performance of health and safety at the workplace. They vary from conventional mechanism in numerous approaches. Primarily, they make such activities across the work environment in more responsible manner for the purpose of industrial safety and health. However, this activity is released by an incorporated organization system instead of ad hoc prescription and structures. In other means, OHS refers to the cross-disciplinary location with regard to safeguard the individual benefits, safety and health in employment. Its main objective is to promote a healthy work environment in the organization (Gonco, 2009).
Another intension is it safeguards the employers, nearest communities, vendors, co-workers, consumers, family members and other individuals of the society who are influenced by means of business environment. It might indulge relation between several locations comprising industrial hygiene, chemistry, industrial medicine, ergonomics, society health, toxicology, safety engineering, healthy physics, community policy, epidemiology, social law, industrial healthy psychology, social law, occupational sociology and labor law. Occupational health and safety management system be indebted towards the legacy of common systems theory, which recommends that there must be four common needs for industrial health and safety systems, even though how such needs are satisfied in application that permits for substantial diversity (Ezzedine, 2002). Four common requirements are presented below:
Different set of system objectives in terms of legal, financial, ethical and business goals.
Design of system components and coordination between them irrespective of having identical components.
Illustrating the association of OHSMS with the other management and regulatory system as well as technology and institutions.
Needs for internal or external maintenance of the system that assists best activities of OHS (Gonco, 2009).
Major causes for OHS:
Reasons for performing effective industrial safety and health practices are often recognized as follows:
Moral: A workforce must not expose to death or hazard injury at the workplace as well as the other individuals shouldn't concern with the workplace in the organization.
Economic: Inefficient OHS leads to the high cost to the state for instance, through prices for health treatments and the employability loss of the employee. Also, utilizing firms uphold the prices in the accident incidents at workplace for example compensatory damages, production loss, lawful payments, examining time, inefficiency from the workers, clients and from wider society. Lack of skilled and trained employee's leads to loss of production since the new joiner's would require training for improving their skills furthermore. Also, healthy employee would safeguard the firm towards disaster and accidents.
Legal: Constitutional needs for the purpose of health and safety might be strengthened through law or act. It is acknowledged that with no additional motivation of possible regulatory litigation or activity, several firms wouldn't operate on their oblique moral requirements (CCH, 2009).
Particularly, in steel industry the enhancements of working circumstances must be done in systematic manner. In perspective of acquiring environmentally sound stipulations of industrial safety and health, it is essential to inspect in undying setups for constant revising, scheduling, executing, analyzing and action. It is possible by means of incorporating the OSH organization system. It must be particular to the provisions and proper to their dimension as well as the nature of practices. Their model and implementation at state and provision levels must be directed through ILO guidelines upon the occupational health and safety management systems. Various elements involved in OSH management systems are safety and health policy, essential conditions for implementing management that is introducing accountability and responsibility, reports, data and communication, training and competence. Other components contribute for efficient health and safety are scheduling and execution of OSH operations, risks evaluations, analysis of industrial safety and health performance and operations for enhancement (Geneva, 2005).
Responsibilities required to undertake by the employers for industrial health and safety are sufficiently introduce, educate and manage the workers to make sure safe occupational safety and health activities are comprehended and maintained by each and every team players, discuss with each and every worker while making any decisions pertaining to the health and safety at the work environment. Other responsibilities are offering every proper individual protective device needed for ensuring the staff could accomplish or fulfill their task in safe manner, control and analyze the health and safety systems as well as processes for ensuring that the workforce are sufficiently safeguarded from the hazards of the workplace. In addition, employers of the firm must offer sufficient abilities and skills for achieving the employee benefits (Ronald, Cary and Sharon, 2011).
It encloses all aspects that are from offering the appropriate toileting provisions till to performing risk estimation upon processes and plant, and should create awareness for the employees or the workforce regarding the employer's lawful commitment underneath OHS (Occupational health and safety) Act 2000 as well the OHS regulation 2001 and achieving those requirements out of the whole (Gupta, 2010).
Additionally, underneath the common duties of the health and safety Act, employers must have the obligations for the purpose of ensuring the safety, health and benefits of their workforce at the workplace. Such roles and responsibilities are presented below:
Upholding the locations of work beneath their control in safe circumstances and ensure safe access and exists;
Performing the set ups to ensure the safe and effective utilization, holding, transporting and storage of resources and plant;
Offering and maintaining the work systems and workplaces as safe and free from hazards and threads to health;
Offering the data, guidelines, training and managing which are essential for ensuring better health and safety of the workforce in the organization;
Offering sufficient and useful provisions for workforce welfare.
Besides, employers should make sure the industrial health and safety of individuals visiting or operating at their workplaces, the persons who doesn't belongs to its firm by means of not exposing them towards hazards and risks (Ezzedine, 2002).
Effective implementations of OHS benefit the firm by safer work environment, moral, cost reduction, efficient training, well-monitoring, integrated and shareholder confidence. This system facilitates the firm to recognize the risks, perform assessment and employ proper countermeasures against the risks in the case of accidents. As a result, the workforce will get motivated results to efficient and productive. Less number of accidents implies less cost in turn enhance the insurance liability ruling. It greatly assists in constant monitoring and enhances the performance H&S. Integration of different management systems becomes flexible and ensures the stakeholders that the firm satisfying the statutory and lawful obligations that in turn improve their confidence (Ronald, Cary and Sharon, 2011).
As per the gained knowledge from the background study, it is observed that there is a necessitate to undertake a survey upon the roles and responsibilities for the employer's in the activity of managing the health and safety of the workplace as OHS plays a leading role in the business and acting as one of the major contribution factors towards the business development and growth. The survey on this concept could be ultimately achieved by means of appropriate data collection approaches like literature review and interview survey. Literature review provides rich knowledge on the concept that selected for conducting the survey and supports while conducting the research process. Interview survey in which interviews are scheduled for the concerned respondents or authorities assists in providing practical evidence that enables the successful achievement of the study. This study also facilitates in identifying the contribution and effort spends by the management in securing and protecting the work environment against the risk incidents (Gonco, 2009).
In general, methodology is the strategic process of conducting the research by which the guidance for conducting the survey on chosen concept is provided to the investigator that in turn assists in resolving the identified research issues. It comprises of research objectives, design, data collection process, evaluation and findings (Ranjit, 2005). These aspects concerned to the current thesis are described in clearly and comprehensible manner in the below:
Research aim and Objectives:
The following shows the aim and set of objectives that intended to achieve the project successfully:
The core intension of the thesis is to evaluate and examine the role and responsibilities of workforce in organizing the functions of industrial health and safety by conducting a case study in TATA steel limited.
To study the basics of health and safety management in the organizations in terms of significance.
To review the need and benefits of occupational health and safety operations at the workplace.
To evaluate the role and responsibilities of the employers in organizing occupational safety and health operations by conducting primary survey.
To derive the desired conclusions and present the feasible recommendations for effective management of occupational health and safety in the organizations.
What is the contribution of health and safety management in the organization?
What are the responsibilities required to undertake by the managers for making the work environment healthy and safety in the firm?
Generally, an efficient research design leads a crucial role for accomplishing any research survey in successful manner. Besides, a definite stimulus and validations of the selected approaches must be provided (Sekaran, 2006). To pursue the current survey, the 'onion' process of research is applied. Therefore, a broader exploration is required to implement for selecting the definite relevant research design for the accomplishment of the project. For the current thesis, the research philosophy "positivism" is selected and employed since it extensively supports in the accumulation of real time proceedings empirically and make the evaluation reliable and consistent.
In addition, qualitative research strategy is implemented for this survey as it aids in interpreting the relevant information in concerned with the roles and responsibilities of employer's for managing the health and safety at industrial workplace. Also, it enables in attaining the high level of reliability upon the collected information because of proscribed statistics and completes profitably (Babbie, 2010).
Data collection method:
Data accumulation process is the crucial segment for enriching the relevant data for any type of project. It comprises two types of techniques such as primary and secondary survey. This project will be conducted through both secondary and primary data accumulations methods by considering the devised objectives and research issues to be answered (Dawson ad Catherine, 2002).
Semi-structured interview are selected and scheduled with the health and safety managers of TATA steel limited known to the investigator for collecting the information under the primary survey. This survey assists in attaining real data within expected time and budget. Also, in this survey there is a chance of interference of personal opinions.
Together with primary, large amount of data is also accumulated from varied sources such as books, articles, web articles, journals and other related study papers published by proficient's under the process of secondary survey. This method greatly supports in attaining huge volume of data within less time. But while summarizing the huge data into valid data, difficultly may occur.
After the data collection process through literature survey, semi-structured interviews are planned to conduct by the researcher in which questions are well-formulated by considering the devised objectives and focusing on research issues and core intension of the project. In the project, undertaking the personal interviews will fill the gap between untreated data to attaining desired conclusions. This survey will be conducted for adequate number of samples and will be explored real information that assists in satisfying the research objectives and aim. The survey will be well managed and conducted in the ethical manner.
Reliability, validity and credibility:
Validity refers to the scope to which a designed instrument computes what it is supposed to computer and conducts since it is developed to conduct. Particularly, validation comprises accumulating and evaluating the data for assessing the instrument accuracy which is also termed as content validity. Reliability refers to the consistency in which the collected data which is evidenced from both primary and secondary survey are assessed whether it consistently fulfills the research intension or not. Credibility is the discussions and the procedures essential for making the individuals trust the investigation outcomes (Joppe, 2000). These three aspects plays crucial role in data collection process and while acquiring the desired outcomes. Through pilot testing maintain the reliability, validity and credibility is possible which will be followed in the current project.
For conducting the interview survey in the current project as a part of primary research, around 10members are chosen as sample population to retrieve the primary data as practical evidence. But, out of the 10 samples, 8 managers concerning to health and safety department of TATA steel limited are available to participate in the survey due to the busy work schedules.
In the current thesis, the pilot survey is scheduled before the main primary survey for verifying whether the prepared interview set is precise and consistent for accomplishing the project. Here, the investigator asked the formulated set of semi-structured questions to the other individuals who are familiar to chosen subject. From this process, final set of questions intended to retrieve the opinions of chosen sample on selected subject are structured for the actual investigation.
Data evaluation and synthesis is the subsequent phase of the research process in which the collected data which is outcome of secondary and primary sources are summarized and aggregated in alignment with the support of literature in order to draw the desired findings and ultimate conclusions of the current study (Bryman et al, 2009).
The data accumulated directly from the actual individuals are evaluated as per the priorities wise and satisfies the main objectives of the project.
The study is conducted in extremely ethical way and the summarized information must not be misused beneath any conditions and if the data is private it should demolish soon after performing required tasks. Intimating the respondents about the purpose behind the data accumulation is the crucial task to be performed by the investigator.
Few ethical concerned associated with the investigator:
Care is required to determine impartial making of decisions within the process of choosing required number of sample population. Research taken care for assuring regarding impartial move towards religion and regional pertained concepts of the thesis.
Ethical concerned concerning to the respondents:
Making certain guarantee with respondent's data and inputs. The study will not be disturbed except study resources or materials. Certainly don't ask individuals to represent their names upon the researches and if needs inform them about the utility way for the rationale of study merely with no revealing it anyplace. In the agreement, research will be taken care for not to exposing the collected or aggregated information to other parties.
Limitations of the research:
Any study will experience with some obstacles or difficulties while accomplishing the project. Likewise, in the current study, few difficulties might occur while research process. The expected concerns are the scheduled time frame for project completion might be disturbed due to getting appointments from authorities for conducting interviews and the data collection process by means of literature survey becomes complicated as the chosen subject is crucial. The findings of the research completely depend upon the views of limited sample which may influence the consistent and reliability of outcome since only interview survey is scheduled.
Time plan of the project:
Identifying the research area
Formulate research questions
Formulate research strategy, research design and select methods
Write research proposal
Write first draft
Write second draft
Write final draft
Various secondary resources required to conduct the survey on the chosen concept are web articles, journals, published research papers etc are revised to retrieve the information. Other significant resources are time and budget which plays a crucial role in successfully accomplishment of the project.