This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
Control over fire is one of the most important discoveries ever made by mankind, with applications ranging from cooking food to the internal combustion engine. And well as fire can be a very destructive force which can easily claim lives of people, burn buildings and other structures to the ground and damage material things. Therefore fire safety has become a necessity in the present world of busy lives. As a solution, a centralized fire security system can be implemented in order to make sure that people, properties and the buildings are safe from fire.
The past several years have witnessed a rapid growth of wireless networking. However, up to now wireless networking has been mainly focused on high-speed communications, and relatively long range applications such as the IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) standards. The first well known standard focusing on Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) was Bluetooth. However it has limited capacity for networking of many nodes. There are many wireless monitoring and control applications in industrial and home environments which require longer battery life, lower data rates and less complexity than those from existing standards. For such wireless applications, a new standard called IEEE 802.15.4 has been developed by IEEE. The new standard is also called ZigBee. Under this project, it is expected to develop a model fire detection system using a Zigbee development kit where centralized monitoring can be implemented.
1.2 Aim and Objectives
The primary aim of this project is to design a wireless centralized security system to an office or a building using zigbee protocol where centralized monitoring is required, using wireless sensor nodes.
The main objective of this project is to implement a proper security system which can manage security matters and provide safety and protect people and well as their buildings and offices.
2.5. Zigbee Nodes
Basically there are three types of nodes which exist in a Zigbee network. They are coordinator, router and end device. Devices can be classified according to their functionalities,
Full Function Devices (FFD) implement the full IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee protocol stack
Reduced Function Devices (RFD) implements a subset of the protocol stack.
2.5.1 ZigBee Coordinator (ZC)
One for each ZigBee Network;
Initiates and configures Network formation;
Acts as an IEEE 802.15.4 Personal Area Network (PAN) Coordinator
Acts as ZigBee Router (ZR) once the network is formed
Full Functional Device (FFD) - implements the full protocol stack If the network is operating in beacon-enabled mode, the ZC will send periodic beacon frames that will serve to synchronize the rest of the nodes. In a Cluster-Tree network all ZR will receive beacon from their parents and send their own beacons to synchronize nodes belonging to their clusters
2.5.2 ZigBee Router (ZR)
Participates in multi-hop routing of messages in mesh and Cluster-Tree networks; Associates with ZC or with previously associated ZR in Cluster-Tree topologies
Acts as an IEEE 802.15.4 PAN Coordinator
Full Functional Device (FFD) - implements the full protocol stack.
2.5.3 ZigBee End Device (ZED)
Does not allow other devices to associate with it
Does not participate in routing
Just a sensor/actuator node
Can be a Reduced Function Device (RFD) - implementing a reduced subset of the Protocol stack
5.1 Hardware Overview
5.1.1 JN5139 Evaluation kit
For this project JN5139 EK010 evaluation kit was used. Jennic's evaluation kit provides a complete environment for the rapid development of wireless connectivity applications based on the JN5139 wireless microcontroller. The evaluation kits comprise the following hardware components, and are numbered to name them as follows.
Figure JN5129 Evaluation kit [getting started]
One controller board
Four sensor boards (two with an SMA connector and other two with integrated antennas)
2 high power plug in modules
3 SMA connector antennas
2 USB to serial (FTDI) cables
One pack of 10AAA batteries to power the sensor boards
CD ROM containing the user guide documentation 
5.1.2 JN5139 Microcontroller
The JN5139 is a low power, low cost wireless microcontroller suitable for IEEE802.15.4 and ZigBee applications. The device integrates a 32-bit RISC processor, with a fully compliant 2.4GHz IEEE802.15.4 transceiver, 192kB of ROM, 96kB of RAM, and a rich mixture of analogue and digital peripherals.
The cost sensitive ROM/RAM architecture supports the storage of system software, including protocol stacks, routing tables and application code/data. An external flash memory is used to store application code that is bootloaded into internal RAM and executed at runtime.
The device integrates hardware MAC and AES encryption accelerators, power saving and timed sleep modes, and mechanisms for security key and program code encryption. These features all make for a highly efficient, low power, single chip wireless microcontroller for battery-powered applications. 
Figure JN5139 Microcontroller
5.2 Software Overview
In order to develop the applications using the Jennic Zigbee evaluation kit, first of all the Jennic System Developer's Kit (SDK) should be installed. Following are the pre-requisites for wireless network application development.
• A machine with the following specification:
Windows Vista, XP or 2000 operating system
At least 240 MB of hard disk space available
• Administrator rights on the machine
• The following SDK installers from the evaluation kit CD or the Jennic web site:
5.2.1 SDK Toolchain
This installs the Jennic software tools that require for preparing the wireless network applications. These utilities include development, compiler and Flash programming tools. Components that can be installed from SDK Toolchain can be listed as follows ,
Needed for applications that use Jenie
JenNet stack software
Needed for applications that use Jenie or AT-Jenie
ZigBee APIs and stack software
Needed for applications that use ZigBee
IEEE 802.15.4 API and stack software
Needed for all implementations
Table 5 Toolchain Components
5.2.2 SDK Libraries
This installs the Jennic software libraries that will help streamline the application development. These libraries include Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) for the Jenie, ZigBee and IEEE 802.15.4 protocols, as well as a parser for the AT-Jenie command set. Components that can be installed from SDK Libraries can be listed as follows ,
This is the Cygwin CLI (Command Line Interface) which emulates Linux.
This is the JN51xx Flash Programmer that you will need to download your compiled applications to the Flash memory of the 5139 device.
This is where the application program is built and compiled. This is a full-featured, open source IDE (Integrated Development Interface).
Jennic Compiler Tool
These tools include the JN5139 compiler and the linker, where are always needed.
Table 5 Libraries Components
6.1 Hardware Implementation
To implement this project several hardware components were used such as smoke detectors, Jennic Zigbee evaluation kit, PCB boards, a PC, and transistors (2N2222). An Ionization smoke detector was used for this project since the network completely based on the smoke detection. Below is the description of the smoke alarm used for the project.
6.1.1 Product Description
The Ei100L is an Ionization Smoke Alarm that runs on a 9V battery (supplied with the alarm). Ionization smoke alarms operate on the principle that electrical current flowing between electrodes in an ionization chamber is reduced when smoke particles enter. Ionization technology gives a rapid response to fast flaming fires.
Figure : Ei100L Ionization Smoke Alarm with Escape Light
184.108.40.206 Main Features and specifications
High intensity light beam powered by alkaline battery
High sensitivity - responds to all standard fires
Dual ionization chamber - quick response to fast flaming fires
Battery powered - 9 volt (supplied)
Built in sounder to give a minimum sound output of 85dB(A) at 3m
Bleeps every 40 seconds when battery needs replacing
Test Button simulates smoke - use to check performance at least monthly
Operation temperature - 0c- 40c (32 ° F - 104 ° F)
Ambient humidity - 10- 90%
Alarm level- 85Decibels at 3 meters
The smoke detector will activate the built in sounder upon sensing smoke particles. In parallel the bright emergency light turns on. The voltage to the escape light bulb here was varied from 0.8 V to 8.5V. A voltage divider was used to bring down the voltage around 2.5V since the input voltage to the Zigbee module should be between 0V to 3.3V.Output voltage from the voltage divider was supplied pin 10 and pin 38 of the module which represents input and ground receptively. It was noticed that when there is no smoke detected, there is a small voltage of 0.6V when the batteries are inserted to the smoke detector. There for power transistor (2N2222A) was integrated to the circuit because it can act as a switch. This passes all the voltages above 0.7V. Therefore when no smoke is detected no voltage across the transistor and it is 'OFF' and when smoke is detected the output voltage of 0.8V to 8.5V will make the transistor turn 'ON' by having a voltage of 2.5V across the two pins and a current flow through the transistor from collector to emitter.
6.1.2 Module Pins
The positive output from the transistor is connected to the pin 10 while the negative output from the smoke detector is connected to the pin 38 which is grounded. Pins that can be used are listed as follows,
Table Expansion Connector Pin outs
6.1.3 Circuit diagram
The voltage divider consists of two resistors in series respectively xxxx and xxxx. Since the input voltage to the Zigbee module should be between 0V to 3.3V, below formula was used to calculate the resistor values.
Figure Circuit diagram
6.2 Software Implementation
6.2.1 C programming coding and functions used in the coordinator
Each module in the Evaluation kit is programmed to carry out its own functions once they are switched on. Following table shows the functions which are programmed for coordinator to accommodate its specific functions.
Initialises system and runs main loop.
Initialises Zigbee stack and hardware. Final action is to start BOS.
Transmits node data (address and sensor readings) to host via serial port
Gets called by a BOS timer and toggles LED1 to indicate we are alive
Called regularly by the task scheduler. This function reads the hardware event queue and processes the events therein. It is important that this function exits after a relatively short time so that the other tasks are not adversely affected.
Called when a hardware event causes an interrupt. This function is called from within the interrupt context so should be brief. In this case, the information is placed on a simple FIFO queue to be processed later.
Called by Zigbee stack during initialisation. Sets up the profile information and starts the networking activity
Called when a MSG transaction has been received with a matching endpoint.
Called by Zigbee stack to pass an event up to the application.
Table Programming coding and functions
11.1 Cost Analysis
Cost per one component (£)
Total cost (£)
Zigbee evaluation kit(Jennic-JN5139)
Smoke detector with the escape light
Wires(red, black, brown and yellow)
Total cost 317.27
Table 1-1 Cost calculation table