Wireless Robotics With Full Duplex Communication Computer Science Essay

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Introduction:

This project is developed in the view of making future prospects of such a design more efficient to serve the purpose of automation in security. This project deals with wireless robot with full duplex communication. In this project the robot monitors various industrial conditions such as accidents, due to fire in coal mines or nuclear reactors where human beings cannot go. The main features of this project are, the robot is small enough to reach into regions so the microcontroller on the robot imparts intelligence to the robot due to the advantage of embedded system technology. In this project the circuit complexity is very less and can also be designed for rugged use. The system uses high RF frequency, which implies the remote surveillance through long distance is made very easy. He microcontroller used in this project is AT895C1, which has extra features such as power saving modes and memory lock facilities, which are very handy in these situations.

The surveillance is done through a small camera is mounted on the top of the robot, which can be adjusted for its focal length to be long or short. The software's used in this project are UMPS, ORCAD, and KEIL micro vision.

2. Literature Review:

In 18th century, mechanical puppets were first manufactured in Europe for entertainment purpose. And these puppets were described as robots since their components were driven by cams and linkage and controlled by rotating drum selectors. Joseph Maria Jacquard in 1801 introduced the next big change and came up with the automatic draw loom. The draw loom was used for punching cards and was used in the lifting of thread in fabric industries and was first to store a program and control a machine. (UK Robot. 2001)

The word robot was originated from the Czech word robota which means required slave or labor. It was introduced in 1923 and gained popularity in 1929. "The word robot has been referred as a machine which performs job to support people or job that humans find complicated or adverse."(MSN Learning & Research. 2002). In 1941, Isacc Asimov first used the word "robotics" to explain the technology of robots and also predicted prevailing robot industry.

In the late 50's and early 60's George Devol and Joe Engelberger developed the first industrial robots which were called as UNIMATES. In 1956, the first patents were developed by Devol but Engelberger created Unimation which was the first market robots. So Engelberger has been known as the "father of robotics". In 1963, the first artificial robotic arm was designed and controlled by computer.

The study of the science and technology of robots, their design, creation, and application is called robotics. It includes knowledge of software, electronics and mechanics. A person working in this field is called robot cist. Although its appearance and abilities vary vastly, all robots share the features of a mechanical, movable structure under some form of control. The formation of a robot is mostly mechanical and can be called a kinematic chain (its functionality is similar to human skeleton). The chain is made of joints, actuators (its muscles) and links (its bones) which allows more than one degree of freedom. However, the need of such arrangement in robots is an interesting area of research like "biomechanics".

In 1995, 700,000 robots were introduced in the industrial world and over 500,000 were used in Japan.  About 60,000 in the United States and 120,000 in Western Europe and many of them were performing dangerous and unpleasant tasks for humans. GMC (General Motors Corporation) uses robots for machine loading, painting, parts transfer, spot welding and assembly. (MSN Learning & Research, 2000)

Robotics produces lower cost and higher quality in manufacturing industries.

(MSN Learning & Research. 2002) Robotics plays an important role in the production line and takes away jobs performed by humans and this is less cost to the industry but this is great lost jobs for paid workers. (Doyle, Joshua, 2000)

"Perhaps in future the most changes in robots will begin from their growing ability to reason. The field of artificial intelligence increased rapidly from laboratories to industries, and machines are developed to perform cognitive tasks, such as learning from experience and strategic planning. Progressively more, identification of failures in satellites or aircraft, the organization of a battlefield, and to control a large factory will be carried out by intelligent computers."(MSN Learning & Research. 2002.)

Earlier, industrial robots used to handle radioactive material in atomic labs and were known as master/slave manipulators. They were linked together with mechanical connections and steel cables. Remote arm manipulators can now be moved by joysticks, switches or push buttons. Current robots have highly developed sensory mechanism which process information and appear to mimic as human brains. Actually, their "brain" is a form of computerized artificial intelligence (AI). Artificial Intelligence allows a robot to identify conditions and choose an action based on those conditions.

The International Federation (IFR) of Robotics Statistical Department recently published the 2007 World Robotics survey. This annual study focuses on the robots worldwide and foretells the future patterns. According to the IFR study, there are almost a million functional robots in worldwide. In Asia, half of the robot population is located, one third in Europe, and 16% in Northern America. Africa and Australia each account for 1%. World Robotics 2007 also expected 10% increment in industrial robot sales in 2007. The total number of robots is likely to be increased 4% each year and reach 1000,000 till 2010. IFR assumes that robotic assistants for the aged and disabled people will become increasingly common in the coming decade. The survey estimated domestic robot numbers would increase to 1.34 million by the end of 2010.

Advantages of robot:

The advantages of the robot's are

They produce efficient work.

Reduce manual involvement.

Fatigue is not found in robots.

They can be assembled and reprogrammable for different purposes depending upon various applications.

Multi tasking and multi handling of equipment is possible.

According to given commands from the pc, robot will perform different actions. The range of the distance covered by the robot is 200 ft from its place. It is having 4 degrees of freedom namely left, right, forward and reverse. TV tuner card is interfaced to pc which detects the movement of robot through the small camera attached to the robot .The display of the movement of the robot is observed on the pc. The robot is attached with fire sensor, i.e photo diode which can detect fire at any place within the range of 200 ft. If the sensor detects the presence of fire or fire molecules, the alarm is activated and buzzer is on. The robot is interfaced with wireless communication network which gives a feedback to the pc , which enhances the robot to move in the direction of the fire particles. It is also used to detect bombs, gas etc in the given range of distance.

2.1 Overview of communication system:

This includes brief idea of communication systems and its elements:

Communication is the basic process of exchanging information. The purpose of the communication system is to transmit the information-bearing signals from the source, located at one point in space to a user destination located at another point. As a rule, the message produced by the source is not electric in nature. Accordingly, an input transducer is used to convert the message generated by the source into a time-varying electric signal. By using another transducer at the receiver, the original message is recreated at the user destination.

The elements of communication system:

All electronic communications system have the basic Components Transmitter, a communication channel or medium, and a receiver. In most system , a human generates a message that we call the information or intelligence signal .This signal is inputted to the transmitter which then transmits the message over the communication channel .The message is picked up by the receiver and is relayed to another human .Along the way, and noise is added to the message signal in the communication channel. "Noise" is a term applied to any interference that degrades the information transmitted.

Fig: Model of an Electrical Communication System

Transmitter:

Transmitter is an electronic device which is used to generate and amplify the carrier signal and modulates with a message signal which is derived from the source and radiates that signal from antenna.

Communication channel:

The communication channel is the medium by which the electronic signal travels from one place to another. The communication medium may also be a ''light pipe'' or fiber-optic cable that carries the message on a light wave. Radio uses of the electromagnetic spectrum where signals are transferred from one point to another by converting them into electric and magnetic fields that propagates readily over long distances.

2.2.3 Receiver:

The receiver is another set of electronic devices and circuits which accepts the transmitted message from the communication channel and converts back to an easy form so that human beings can understand. For example it may be a complex electronic receiver or simple earphone.

Noise:

It is random, undesirable electric energy that enters the communication system via the communication medium and interferes the transmitted message .However, some noise is also produced in the receiver .Noise usually comes from the environment, from outer space where various kinds of radiation can interfere the communications.

2.3 Types of electronic communication:

There are two basic types of electronic communications .The simplest is one-way communications, normally referred to as simplex .Two-way communication is known as duplex.

2.3.1 Simplex

In simplex communications, the information travels in one direction only. A common example of simplex communication is Radio, TV and Pagers.

2.3.2 Duplex

It is a two way communication system composed of two connected devices which can communicate in both directions from one point to another point. Duplex systems are set up in mostly all networks, provide a "reverse path" for the remote adjustment and monitoring the device.

2.3.2.1 Half duplex:

It is a system that provides communication in two way directions, but only one direction communicates at a time (not simultaneously). Typically, once the signal is received it waits for the transmitter to stop transmitting before replying

Fig: A simple illustration of a half-duplex communication system

An example of a half-duplex system is "walkie-talkie" style two-way radio, wherein one needs to use "Over" or any previously assigned command to specify the end of transmission, and make sure that only one party can transmit at a time, because both parties share same frequency.

2.3.2.2 Full-duplex

It allows the communication in two ways, and unlike half-duplex both parties can transmit simultaneously. Examples: Telephone, and mobile phone.

.

Fig: A simple illustration of a full-duplex communication system

Wireless Communication:

Wireless communication is the transmission of signals over a distance without the use "wired networks and electrical conductors". The distances may be short or long such as in television remote control or far as radio communications. Wireless is used in telecommunications in which electromagnetic waves rather than some form of wires carry the signal over part or the entire communication path.

Examples of wireless equipments include:-

Cellular phones and pagers

Global Positioning System (GPS)

Satellite television

Wireless technology is a revolution and plays vital role for people across the world. In addition to this large amount of people are relying on wireless technology directly or indirectly.

2.5 Modulation:

The process in which characteristics of a carrier wave varies in accordance with a modulating wave and the result of this process is called the modulated wave.

Modulation Technique:

There are 2 types of modulation techniques

Analog modulation

Digital modulation

Analog Modulation:

Analog modulation includes:

AM-Amplitude Modulation

FM-Frequency Modulation

PM-Phase Modulation

Digital Modulation:

Digital module includes

ASK-Amplitude shift keying.

FSK-Frequency shift keying.

PSK-Phase shift keying.

MSK-Minimum shift keying.

In our project we are using Amplitude Modulation.

Amplitude Modulation:

Amplitude modulation (AM) is used in electronic communication, for transmitting information via radio carrier wave. AM varies the strength of the transmitted signal in accordance to the information being sent.

Demodulation:

Demodulation is opposite to Modulation. In this the carrier on the receiver side is demodulated to take out the original information signal and transmitted message. Another name for the demodulation process is detection.

3. Block Diagram of Transmitter and Receiver:

3.1 Transmitter:

Fig 3.1: Block Diagram of Transmitter

3.2 Receiver:

Fig 3.2 block diagram of receiver.

In this project PC (personal computer) is used in the transmitter side and in the receiver side MC (micro-controller). The micro-controller used in this project is AT89C51.

4. Micro-controller AT89C51:

The AT89C51 is high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with low-power and 4K bytes Flash Programmable and Erasable Read Only Memory (PEROM). The device is designed using Atmel's high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry standard instruction set and pin out. The program memory can be reprogrammed in-system by on-chip flash or by a nonvolatile conventional memory programmer.

Fig: AT89C51 micro-controller

Aims and Objectives:

The main aim of project is to transmit information from a PC through duplex communication to control the movements of the robot on wheels. A wireless camera is mounted on robot and used in detection of the objects within a specified distance .Several areas of electrical engineering are being mentioned in this the project. The communication between the objects by using dc motors and the movement of the robot is done by dc motor, a step by step process for connecting to a computer communication port and the programming and understanding of micro-controller.

The main objectives of the project are as follows:

To study communication systems and to develop full duplex communication.

To study and implement modulation techniques and wireless communication systems.

Requirement analysis for the project.

Description of source code for the movement of robot.

To build a robot using wireless technology.

Software exposure:

Software's used in this project are, UMPS, ORCAD, and KEIL .UMPS is a microprocessor simulator using which we can understand the exact function of a family of processors. ORCAD is multi-tool software, which helps to design of PCBs. Finally KEIL micro vision is a compiler and a debugger through which we can program the flash memory and run the robot.

Applications:

1. This robot has the advantage of moving into remote locations.

2. Attaching a wireless camera to it makes the robot useful for monitoring industrial locations.

3. Can be used for spying.

4. Can be used to monitor conditions in nuclear reactors.

5. Long distance communication can be done due to use of RF frequencies.

6. Fire accidents can be detected with the help of fire sensors installed in the robot.

Importance of the project:

The importance and purpose of this project is that the robot with wireless camera moving in an arena (about 200ft) and its task is to find out victims as identified by a colour camera mounted on a robot .The camera is used as a security camera and this can detect and capture the surroundings.

This project is applied in the fields of bomb, gas and fire detection and also used in manufacturing poultry processing and nuclear waste inspection and cleanup.

Ethical consideration:

According to the ethical policies, this project will be carried out by following rules and regulations in a university laboratory as it is complete practical work carried out by test and experiments.

Research Question:

Conclusion and future scope:

The robot used in this project performs tasks that are too hazardous for humans, such as cleaning of radioactive waste, or can be used to automate mindless repetitive tasks that should be done with more accuracy by a robot than by a human, like automobile production. Security is a cause of concern in any industry while working with dangerous materials. Thus monitoring such situations is an important function in these industries. These functions, if done by a small, compact automated machine then the factors like human errors can be reduced to a larger extent. Our project is named that way to indicate the same. As seen above the robot is very suited to various industrial conditions and can also be used for confidential purposes. The robot is a model of what can be done if more time and money are invested into such ventures.

The robot can be further equipped with more umber of peripherals and more sophistication can be brought about in the working of the system. The extensions that can be added to the robot can be ones such as a fire extinguisher which obviously needs the size of the robot to be increased. The robot can also be equipped with the remote control so that fire extinguishers farther can be switched on in case the machine cannot reach the accident site in time.

The speed of the robot can be increased using more powerful motors. Intelligence can be imparted to the system so that the system works on its own and no human involvement is required. This can be done by using a better Microcontroller that has more program memory for larger code and more number of ports for connecting more number of peripherals. Research and development in this field taking bounds and leaps and the model presented as this project is a basic model of what can be done to prevent catastrophes and dangerous situations arising due to negligence of a mere employ. Hence a design can be made such that it is both economical and handy to use.

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