Windows networking features

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Task 1

Task 1.1

Windows Networking Features

  1. Internet Connection Firewall (ICF)
  2. Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) Enhancements
  3. Network Bridging Support
  4. Quality of Service (QoS) Enhancement for Home Networks
  5. Network Setup Wizard
  6. UPnP Client Support
  7. Network Location Awareness and Winsock API Enhancements
  8. Wireless LAN Enhancements
  9. IPv6 Development Stack
  10. Remote Access uses Credential Manager “Key Ring”
  11. Connection Manager (CM) and Connection Manager Administration Kit (CMAK) Updates
  12. PPPOE Client
  13. PVC Encapsulation - RFC 2684
  14. NDIS 5.1 and Remote NDIS
  15. Internet Protocol over IEEE 1394 (IP/1394)
  16. Improved Network Media Support
  17. IrCOMM Modem Driver for IrDA
  18. TAPI 3.1 and TAPI Service Providers (TSP)
  19. Real Time Communication (RTC) Client APIs

Linux Networking Features

  1. The inetd Super Server
  2. The tcpd Access Control Facility
  3. The Services and Protocols Files
  4. Remote Procedure Call
  5. Configuring Remote Login and Execution

Task 1.2

Both Ubuntu and Windows do TCP/IP. Ubuntu can do Windows networking, means a Ubuntu computer can appear on a network of Windows computers and share files and printers. Ubuntu machines can participate on a Windows based network and vice versa.

  1. Ubuntu encourages interoperability by integrating (OpenChange) and (Microsoft Exchange).
  2. Ubuntu also has extended hardware compatibility features that ensure it easier for users to deploy it for their needs such as sharing of files and printers and so on.
  3. OEMs can pre-install by own default first-boot configuration of Ubuntu. The configuration can replicate across all the Ubuntu servers in the organization.
  4. Ubuntu on Amazon EC2 makes it happen for businesses to deploy services to external clouds.
  5. Ubuntu also comes with new mail server features that include shared user authentication and enhanced spam protection.

Task 1.3

First of all, get a copy of latest Ubuntu from ( The common way to get Ubuntu is to download from the ( and burn it to a CD. After downloading, it's still ISO disc-image file and the problem is Windows XP and Windows Vista doesn't know how to burn ISO disc-image files, but using Alex Feinman's free ISO Recorder which is compatible with Windows. Right-Click on downloaded Ubuntu ISO files and choose Copy image to CD. After that, it can also be copied to large USB Pen drive using techniques from Ubuntu documentation Web site.

There are three options to install Ubuntu CD.

  1. Windows-based Installation
  2. Live CD Installation, Keeping Windows
  3. Live CD Installation, without Windows

Options No.2 Live CD Installation, Keeping Windows

To keep the existing Windows partition along with the new Ubuntu partition, the system must be needed to boot from the Ubuntu Live CD and then double-click on the Install icon on the desktop. After that, enter the correct time, zone and location only when it's prompted to do, and it will appear itself on the “Prepare Disk space' screen, if Windows partition detected by Ubuntn, Ubuntun will set the partition method to Guided - resize.

Option No.3 Live CD Installation, Without Windows

This method of installation, install Ubuntun without Windows partition, just need to select the Guided-use entire disk on the “Prepare disk space” screen.

Ubuntu does a great job to browse Windows Work group, access sharing of folders, and share Ubuntu folders with any other computers on the network that can access Windows sharing files and folders.

When it is connected to a network with Windows with shared files or printers go to Places, Network, and click the Windows Network icon. If there are shared files, then it's set. If not, follow the following steps

If Ubuntu doesn't support the network shares right away, it can be seen shared Windows by typing the path of the server in the Windows Network browser window's Location field--for example, smb://fileserver, it will display all of the file server's shares.

To connect with Windows shares directly, choose Places, Connect to Server; choose Windows share in the ‘Service type' drop-down list; enter the server and share names in the corresponding fields; and end by clicking Connect.

To share a folder with on the Windows network, right-click on folder to share (choose Places, Home Folder to try this one with one of the folders in Home directory) and choose Sharing Options. Check (Share this folder), and then click (Install) service in the dialog box that suggests to install the Windows networks sharing service. After the software installs, log out of Ubuntu, and then log back in. Finally, right-click on a folder and choose Sharing Options again to share it with computers on Windows network.

Print Server is the Ubuntu computer which is directly connected to the printers.

1. On server machine where the printer is attached to open printer manager by going to the System in the top toolbar panel, Administration and Printing. That will open the Printer Configuration window.

2. Now, Select Server in the menu bar, and then go to Settings.

3. It will then open the Basic Server Settings window. If the computer serves as a Print Server only that is does not need access to a printer connected to another computer select the second box:

o Publish shared printers connected to this server

If the computer performs as both Print Server and client, it will need to access to a printer connected to another computer), select the first two boxes

o Show printers shared by other systems

o Publish shared printers connected to this system

4. Then, Select the OK button.

5. Right click on the printer you want to share and select properties

6. Click on Policies.

File Sharing in Windows

File sharing in windows is pretty easy, just right on the file or folder than choice share option and configure group privacy and it's done.

Task 1.4

There are various costs association with the Ubuntu such as performance, security, support, and maintenances of the Ubuntu within the bank.

In the category of performance, there are so many associations for example if the bank has more 100 PC then it obviously need to improve the performance. It might be improving of Ubuntu server or improving of client Windows (OS). The approximate cost is $200 per computer.

As the number of computer increase, there might be a problem with security breaching. It also needs to maintain the security problems. The costs of security maintenance are nearly $400 to $1000.

There are several supports for Ubuntu from here There are also so many services associated with support such as Services for individuals, Training services according to the user needs, it can also be purchased supports. The costs of support are from the range of £ 200 to £ 400.

The maintenance of Ubuntu includes Virus and spyware scanning, defragmenting, and so on. The costs associated with maintenance of the Ubuntu is from £ 140 to £ 300

Task 2

Task 2.1

A virtual private network (VPN) is a private data network that makes use of the public telecommunication infrastructure, maintaining privacy through the use of a tunneling protocol and security procedures. A virtual private network can be contrasted with a system of owned or leased lines that can only be used by one company. A virtual private network (VPN) makes it possible to have the same protected sharing of public resources for data. Companies today are looking at using a private virtual network for both extranets and wide-area intranets.

In a VPN system, data is always transmitted onto two computers over public network equally as a point-to-point link. Data packets are always encrypted at sending end and decrypted at the other end (receiving end). According to encryption and authentication of IP packets sent over the VPN networks, the data is intercepted, and then it is also impossible for hackers (crackers) to decipher without any encryption keys.

VPN technologies maintain not only security but also privacy by using tunnel protocols and security procedures. In VPN networking, VPN LAN can take up various forms by combining different hardware and software technologies.

Hardware requirements


Software Requirements

The latest software for vpn can download from Cisco (

  • Cisco Secure VPN Client versions 1.0 through 1.1a
  • Cisco VPN 3000 Client versions 2.x
  • Cisco VPN Client 3.x and so on
  • Software for client windows
  • Software for server

Task 2.5

Responsibilities that required from an ISP:

  • ISP is responsible for maintaining the modem pool, access servers and internetworking expertise. ISP also eliminates responsibility of managing the enterprise customer's user database.
  • Communication Resource Responsibilities
  • Client Department Responsibilities
  • Maintenance, Performance and Problem Resolutions

Level of Service that required from an ISP:

  • Initial Charges
  • Monthly Recurring Charges
  • Reconfiguration Charges

Task 3 a)

Network Security Issues


               Malwares are also type of malicious software such as computer virus, worms and Trojans. Employees and end users of an organization may unknowingly introduce malware onto the network when they run malicious executable codes such .exe files. Sometime they might receive an email with attachment that include worm and once the user download it, the computer will start to act strange such as deleting files automatically.

Trojan horses

               A program that neither replicates nor copies itself, but it can cause damage or harm the security of any computer. Typically, an individual emails a Trojan Horse is does not email itself but it may arrive in the form of a joke program or software and so on.


A program that makes copies by itself as an example, from one disk to another or by copying itself by using email or another transport mediums. The worm may damage and compromise security of computer. It may arrive in the form of a joke program or software of any kind.


A program or code that replicates mean infects another program, boot sector, partition sector, or document that supports macros and so on, by inserting itself or attaching itself to that medium. Most viruses only replicate and many do a large amount of damage as well.

Types of network security threats

               There are two major types of threats that are logic attacks (logical threats) and resource attacks (physical threats). To explain the term of the logic attacks is that logic attacks are preferred to exploit existing software bugs and vulnerabilities with the intent of crashing a system. One such example of the network security threat is the infamous ping of death where an attacker sends ICMP packets to a system that exceeds the maximum capacity.

               Resource attacks (physical threats) are the second type of network security threats. These kinds of attacks are often intended to be overwhelmed critical system resources such as CPU and RAM. This is usually done by attackers by sending multiple IP packets. An attacker can also launch a more powerful attack by compromising numerous hosts and installing malicious software.

If attackers or hackers can gain access such as physical access to the victims PC or IT assets. Once an attacker reaches to the victim computer, the attacker could do the following things:

  • Use a rogue device to access a weak secured wireless network
  • Engaging is in social engineering with office staffs to learn much about security procedures, office polices
  • Install hardware or software “Keyloggers” that can capture keystrokes such as our usernames and passwords

From the increasingly number of sophisticated malwares to social engineering and to physical threats in networks, there are varieties of ways to fall the victims to security attacks.

Task 3 b)

Network security policy in place in all the networked companies

There should be appropriate Network security in almost every company which has networked computers.

The primary goals of the network security policy are:

  • To establish Companywide policies to protect the Companies' networks and computer systems from abuse and inappropriate usage.
  • To establish mechanisms that will aid in the identification and prevention of abuse of Company networks and computer systems.
  • It can also provide and effective mechanism for responding to external complaints and queries about real or perceived abuses of Company networks and computer systems.
  • Establishing mechanisms that can protect the reputation of Companies and can allow the Companies to satisfy legal and ethical responsibilities of regard to its networks' and computer systems' connectivity to the worldwide internet.


Web Reference,295582,sid14_gci1238092,00.html,289142,sid14_gci1034136,00.html

Book Reference

March'2010 Networking Assignment Page 38