Windows Linux And Mac Os Research Computer Science Essay

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There are three operating systems vying for control of your computer. These are Windows XP, Linux and Mac OS X. Research the three operating systems. Write a 1 or 2 page paper contrasting each OS. Include strengths and weaknesses of each operating system. Suggest when one OS is preferred over another OS. Find impartial statistics describing the extent of use.

OPERATING SYSTEM: An operating system (os) is a software, consisting of programs and data that runs and computers hardware and provides common services for efficient execution of various application software. For hardware function such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between application programs and the computer hardware.

1Windows xp: Microsoft windows are a family of proprietary operating system most commonly used on personal computer. It is most common family of operating system for the personal computer, with about 90% of the windows family is windows xp released on October 25, 2001. The newest version is windows 7 for personal computer and windows server 2008 R2 for serververs.

Windows is also used on servers, supporting applications such as web servers and data base servers. In current years, Microsoft has spent significant marketing and research and development money to demonstrate that windows is capable of running any enterprise application, which has resulted in consistent price and performance records TPC and significant acceptances in the enterprise market. However it is usage in servers is not a wide spread as personal computer.

Digital media support: users of XP take advantage of digital broadcast support, as well as video and audio rendering for multimedia.

Advance network communication: windows xp can take advantage of universal plug and play support.

2 Linux: Linux is the generic name for a UNIX-like operating system that can be used on a wide range of devices from supercomputers to wristwatches. The Linux kernel is released under an open source license, so anyone can read and modify its code. It has been modified to run on a large variety of electronics. Although estimates suggest it is used on only 0.5-2% of all personal computers, it has been widely adopted for use in servers and embedded systems (such as cell phones). Linux has superseded Unix in most places and is used on the 10 most powerful supercomputers in the world.

The GNU project is a mass collaboration of programmers who seek to create a completely free and open operating system that was similar to UNIX but with completely original code. It was started in 1983 by Richard Stallman, and is responsible for many of the parts of most Linux variants. For this reason, Linux is often called GNU/Linux. Thousands of pieces of software for virtually every operating system are licensed under the GNU General Public License. . In 1991, Torvalds began work on it, and posted information about his project on a newsgroup for computer students and programmers. He received a wave of support and volunteers who ended up creating a full-fledged kernel. Programmers from GNU took notice, and members of both projects worked to integrate the finished GNU parts into the linux kernel in order to create a full-fledged operating system.

Mac OS X; Mac OS X is a line of partially proprietary graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc., the latest of which is pre-loaded on all currently shipping Macintosh computers. Mac OS X is the successor to the original Mac OS, which had been Apple's primary operating system since 1984. Unlike its predecessor, Mac OS X is a UNIX operating system built on technology that had been developed at NeXT through the second half of the 1980s and up until Apple purchased the company in early 1997.

The operating system was first released in 1999 as Mac OS X Server 1.0, with a desktop-oriented version (Mac OS X v10.0) following in March 2001. Since then, six more distinct "client" and "server" editions of Mac OS X have been released, the most recent being Mac OS X v10.6, which was first made available on August 28, 2009. Releases of Mac OS X are named after big cats, the current version of Mac OS X is "Snow Leopard".

The server edition, Mac OS X Server, is architecturally identical to its desktop counterpart but usually runs on Apple's line of Macintosh server hardware. Mac OS X Server includes work group management and administration software tools that provide simplified access to key network services, including a mail transfer agent, a Samba server, an LDAP server, a domain name server, and other.

Question No. 2

Write a one-page paper contrasting hubs and switches.

Answer: is a "dumb" multi-port repeater. When HUB receives a packet on one port, it sends out a copy of that packet to all other ports.

In contrast, a network switch is capable of inspecting data packets as they are received, determining the source and destination device of every packet. A network switch forwards packets between the specified sender and receiver ports only.

HUB device is very helpful, when you need to record a voip call.

MiaRec uses packet sniffing technology for recording calls.

It sniffs all network packets, which are destined to the phone, decode them and save on disk.

Assignment No. 2

Question No. 1

Wireless Internet Hot Spots are a common feature in many coffee shops, restaurants, malls and parks. Find a list of Hot Spots in your area. Print the list and submit it to your instructor.

Answer: A hotspot is a site that offers Internet access over a wireless local area network through the use of a router connected to a link to an Internet service provider. Hotspots typically use Wi-Fi technology

1 .Avari Towers,

2. Pearl Continental Hotel

3. Marriott Hotel

4.Sheraton Hotel and Towers

5.Hotel Mehran

6. Regent Plaza

7. Beach Luxury Hotel

8.Costa Coffee

9.Evolution

10.Espresso

11.Basement Café

12.Hot Spot

13.Mcdonald's (Clifton)

14.Dunkin' Donuts (Tipu Sultan Road)

15.Time Out (The Forum)

16.Park Towers (Food court)

17.Royal Rodale Club,

18.Synergy

19.Uniplaza Jinnah Terminal

20.Karachi Bro

Question No. 2

Crystal Reports is a program that produces extremely complicated reports from databases. Research Crystal Reports and write a one-page paper describing the most current release.

Answer: Crystal Reports is a business intelligence application used to design and generate reports from a wide range of data sources. The most recently released OLAP.

OLAP stands for Online Analytical Processing, which enables business users to quickly identify patterns and trends in their data while reporting against multiple dimensions at once. Examples of dimensions for analysis include time, geographic region, product line, financial measure, customer, supplier, salesperson, and so on. Crystal Reports provides powerful OLAP-based formatted reporting capabilities. OLAP is an analysis-oriented technology that enables rapid analysis of large sets of aggregated data. Instead of representing information in the common two-dimensional row and column format of traditional relational databases, OLAP databases store their aggregated data in logical structures called cubes. Designers create OLAP cubes around specific business areas or problems. Cubes contain an appropriate number of dimensions to satisfy analysis in that particular area of interest or for a specific business issue. OLAP is a technology that facilitates data viewing, analysis, and navigation. More than a particular storage technology, OLAP is a conceptual model for viewing and analyzing data.

Assignment No. 3

Question No. 1

Internet2 is the next generation of the Internet. Research and write a paper describing the process to convert from the existing Internet to Internet2.

Answer: When we first began to install our network, our engineers started with the assumption that we should find technical ways of prioritizing certain kinds of bits, such as streaming video, or video conferencing, in order to assure that they arrive without delay. For a number of years, we seriously explored various "quality of service" schemes, including having our engineers convene a Quality of Service. As it developed, though, all of our research and practical experience supported the conclusion that it was far more cost effective to simply provide more bandwidth. With enough band width in the network.

The network development should be on continuation of the Internet's simplicity, coupled with an investment focus on bandwidth expansion, including construction of a fiber-based infrastructure that can be very cost-effectively upgraded over time.

We would argue that rather than introduce additional complexity into the network fabric, and additional costs to implement these prioritizing techniques, the telecom provider's .should focus on providing an abundance of bandwidth - and the quality problems will take care of themselves.

For example, if a provider simply brought a gigabit Ethernet connection to your home, you could connect that to your home computer with only a $15 card. If the provider insists on dividing up that bandwidth into various separate pipes for telephone and video and internet, the resulting set top box might cost as much as $150. Simple is cheaper. Complex is costly.

On a future where, once a basic fiber network is in place, bandwidth could be increased by an order of magnitude every five years for a per-port cost of $30-$50 per year.

It does not cost all that much, relatively, to upgrade a network once the basic wiring is in place -- that's the big original cost.  For example, a university campus in the Midwest that serves 14,000 students and faculty, recently estimated it would cost about $150 per port (per end user) to replicate their current 100 Mbps network for a five year period, or about $30 a year per user. To upgrade to 1000 Mbps (1 gigabit) it would cost $250, or about $50 per year.

Innovation, says another factor that favors the open, standards-based, "neutral-core/intelligent-edge" Internet model.  He also points out that very little of the Internet's steady flow of innovation has come from either telephone or cable companies.  

A simple design is not only less expensive: it enables and encourages innovation...The original Internet grew so fast, and spurred so many new uses, in part because of the way it was designed. It was designed to have an agnostic, neutral "core" whose job was to pass packets back and forth and not to discriminate or examine the packets themselves. This allowed the network to be very cost efficient and economical. It also allowed all of the "intelligence" in the network to be at the "edge," that is, in the hands of the user.

 

This was very important to the evolution of the Internet. The network provider did not have control, the user did. As long as the user utilized the standardized protocols, he could expect to send and receive packets to anyone else on the network in a completely understandable, predictable manner. That allowed the user to experiment with new programs, new applications, slightly tweaked applications, and even new devices -- and the user would know that the network would treat the packets all exactly alike.

Innovation was possible and could happen very quickly at "the edge" because you didn't have to re-architect or re-build the entire network in order to make a tweak or improvement in an end-user technology (such as improving a web search engine or developing a new video encoding program).

As a result of this remarkable design, sometimes called "end-to-end architecture," an explosion of new Internet technologies were developed over the past decade, many of them on university campuses or by recent graduates. The World Wide Web, the Web browser, the search engine, instant messaging, and many other technologies were innovations by users of the network.  Not one of these innovations was developed by telephone or cable companies.

Question No. 2

Perform research on scanners to answer the following questions. What features should a buyer look for? Describe the most important specifications for a scanner. What is the price range for common scanners? Who are the main manufacturers of scanners? Write a 1-page paper detailing your findings.

Answer:

Features: A desktop scanner has increased in popularity as more people want to share their photos. There are several features to look for when purchasing a desktop scanner. Some of these features are discussed below.

1. Speed: You will want a scanner that is high speed. This means that it can scan a picture in less than a few seconds. If you have several pictures to scan, you will not want a scanner that takes minutes to scan a picture. While you want speed, you will want quality to go along with the speed.

2. Information: A scanner that extracts key information is a necessity when looking for a desktop scanner. If it scans a picture and focuses on the background (and leaves the focus of the picture with less than amazing results), you may not like the scanner. Be sure that the scanner can scan at a high resolution.

3. Picture Size: Be sure that the scanner you purchase is able to identify the photo size and image quality. If a photo is just 4x6, it is pointless for a scanner to scan the entire length of the scanner. Not only will this make the image look odd when viewed on a computer, it will waste a great amount of time.

Specification:

Resolution

The purpose of greater scanning resolution is to create more pixels, to create a larger image size

CCD or CIS sensors

Most scanners conventionally use CCD sensors (Charge Coupled Device). These units use an optical lens, often like a fine camera lens, and a system of mirrors, to focus the image onto the CCD cells. The CCD is an analog device, also requiring an A/D converter chip (analog to digital). All this adds substantial expense and size, but most flatbeds do use a CCD sensor for best image quality (low noise, good dynamic range, and color uniformity).

2400 dpi flatbeds

Current consumer flatbeds over 1200 dpi build the CCD differently than others. These may not be exactly the same as "true" resolution either.

36, 42 or 48 bits

This factor is less important today, the price of technology has come down. 30 bits wasn't enough, but we have reached 36 bit technology, and most scanners are 42 or 48 bits now.

Dynamic Range

This is very important for scanning film, and it is largely a question of price. Dynamic range is not much concern for flatbeds scanning prints, the scanners today can handle the range of any photo print. Reflective photo prints don't have much dynamic range to be concerned about. But film, especially slides, needs lots and lots of this. Honest dynamic range is extremely important for scanning film, especially slides.

Price range: 3500-20000

S:no

Scanners

price

1

FUJITSU SEMIENSE SCANSNAP S1300

47500

2

HP G2410 FLATBED PHOTO

5300

3

HP G2710 FLATBED PHOTO

7500

4

HP G3110 FLATBED PHOTO

9500

5

HP G4010 FLATBED PHOTO

13900

6

HP G4050 FLATBED PHOTO

18500

7

HP G5590 FLATBED PHOTO

19000

8

MUSTEK 1200 CU PLUS II SCANNER

3500

9

PLUSTEK MOBILE OFFICE S400

6800

10

PLUSTEK OPTICPRO ST64 PLUS

10300

11

PLUSTEK OPTICBOOK 3600 PLUS

18500

12

PLUSTEK OPTICFILM 7300

21800

13

PLUSTEK SMART OFFICE PL1530

31500

Assignment No. 4

Question No. 1

Produce a report contrasting dot-matrix, laser, dye-sublimation and thermal wax printers. In particular, contrast performance specifications, prices and common uses. 

Answer:

1 A dot matrix printer: A dot matrix printer or impact matrix printer is a type of computer printer with a print head that runs back and forth, or in an up and down motion, on the page and prints by impact, striking an ink-soaked cloth ribbon against the paper, much like the print mechanism on a typewriter. However, unlike a typewriter or daisy wheel printer, letters are drawn out of a dot matrix, and thus, varied fonts and arbitrary graphics can be produced. Because the printing involves mechanical pressure, these printers can create carbon copies and carbonless copies.

Each dot is produced by a tiny metal rod, also called a "wire" or "pin", which is driven forward by the power of a tiny electromagnet or solenoid, either directly or through small levers (pawls). Facing the ribbon and the paper is a small guide plate (often made of an artificial jewel such as sapphire or ruby pierced with holes to serve as guides for the pins. The moving portion of the printer is called the print head, and when running the printer as a generic text device generally prints one line of text at a time. Most dot matrix printers have a single vertical line of dot-making equipment on their print heads; others have a few interleaved rows in order to improve dot density.

2. A laser printer: A laser printer is a common type of computer printer that rapidly produces high quality text and graphics on plain paper. As with digital photocopiers and multifunction printers (MFPs), laser printers employ a xerographic printing process but differ from analog photocopiers in that the image is produced by the direct scanning of a laser beam across the printer's photoreceptor.

A laser beam projects an image of the page to be printed onto an electrically charged rotating drum coated with selenium or, more common in modern printers, organic photoconductors. Photoconductivity removes charge from the areas exposed to light. Dry ink (toner) particles are then electrostatically picked up by the drum's charged areas. The drum then prints the image onto paper by direct contact and heat, which fuses the ink to the paper.

3. dye-sublimation printer: A dye-sublimation printer is a computer printer which employs a printing process that uses heat to transfer dye onto a medium such as a plastic card, paper, or fabric. The sublimation name is applied because the dye transitions between the solid and gas states without going through a liquid stage. Many consumer and professional dye-sublimation printers are designed and used for producing photographic prints.

Most dye-sublimation printers use CMYO (cyan, magenta, yellow and overcoating colors, which differs from the more recognized CMYK colors in that the black dye is eliminated in favour of a clear overcoating. This overcoating (which has numerous names depending on the manufacturer) is also stored on the ribbon and is effectively a thin laminate which protects the print from discoloration from UV light and the air, while also rendering the print water-resistant.

Thermal transfer printer: A thermal transfer printer is a printer which prints on paper (or some other material) by melting a coating of ribbon so that it stays glued to the material on which the print is applied. It contrasts with direct thermal printing where no ribbon is present in the process. It was invented by SATO Corporation around the late 1940s.

Price range: 3500_15000

Question No. 2

Discuss following in detail;

Management Information System

Transaction Processing System

Expert System

Decision Support System

Information Management System

Answer:

1Management information system; Every manager use endless amount of data that hopefully make this job easier and then more efficient. Those using management information system require information on a periodic basis instead of a daily, recurring basis like those using a transaction processing system. Managers also require information on a exception basis. That is they need to know if a production is higher or under their budgets they also need to know about trends instead of straight numbers in old days managers had to perform many functions without aid of technology

Before integrated system, managers received periodic table reports that gave them lots of data but often did not supply information that they could utilize to make timely decision. Planning was sometimes a wasted effort because the information the managers needed just was not there when they needed it

With the integration system up and down the management levels, and through out the corporation, managers can often get needed information in a real time mode. The data are kept on line, the system can gather the precise information managers need to make a decision and the information can be cross integrated into all departments of company.

2-Transaction processing system: The operational level of organization includes various units and is responsible for daily operation. The information system used in this level of the organizational is transactional processing system (TPS), so called because they record the routine transactions that take place in everyday operation. TPS combine data in various ways to fulfill the hundreds of information needs a company require to be successful. The data are very detailed at this level.

.

3 expert system: knowledge work system as an integral part of the overall information system of an organization. Knowledge workers are those who promote the creation of new knowledge and integrate it into the organization. The knowledge work system is the part of the overall company_wide system that incorporates the research finding into the information system maintained by the company so that the other division may take advantage of the data.

4-Dicision support system: It serves the management level of an organization but in a some what different way than an MIS. An MIS uses internal data to supply useful information. A DSS uses internal data but also combines it with external data to help analyze various decision management system must make. Analyzing complex, interactive decision is the primary reason for a company to use a DSS.

Since a company is affected not by what goes on within a company but also by external forces not under its control, decision support system can help upper level management.

The human resource management could use a decision support system to determine if it is better to keep them on the payroll even if they won't be fully utilized for the next months because unemployment rate is low the company will have difficulty hiring new works when it needs them or perhaps the workers have specialized skills that are not easy to find, so the compny will actually save money in the long run by keeping these employees on the books.

5-information management system: Every good organization needs good managers. This real role is to develop business plan by analyzing their organization strengths and weakness. They also determine the competitor's strengths and weaknesses. Their plan may change according to needs and requirements. Employees must know how to take advantage of information system to improve the organization and to leverage the available information into a competitive advantage for the company. An organization can gather and keep all the data about its customer on a hard disk. But if the organization does not take advantage of customer data to create new opportunities then all it has is unless information.

Every group of people is an organization. Organizations are independent entities but they have to share many things in common with other organizations. For example, cricket team, import or export firm school etc. every organization has own structure

A cricket team needs talented, well trained players at different positions. Sometimes the success of the team depends on a good, well informed coach or manager. Same as true with the workplace organization. Business organizations need many kinds of players with various talents, who are well-trained and well-informed, in order to succeed.

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