Widely-installed operating system

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Chapter # 1



DOS (Disk Operating System) was the first widely-installed operating system for personal computers. It is a master control program that is automatically run when you start your PC. DOS stays in the computer all the time letting you run a program and manage files. It is a single-user operating system from Microsoft for the PC. It was the first OS for the PC and is the underlying control program for Windows 3.1, 95, 98 and ME. Windows NT, 2000 and XP emulate DOS in order to support existing DOS applications. To use DOS, you must know where your programs and data are stored and how to talk to DOS.

Chapter # 2


UNIX operating systems are used in widely-sold workstation products from Sun Microsystems, Silicon Graphics, IBM, and a number of other companies. The UNIX environment and the client/server program model were important elements in the development of the Internet and the reshaping of computing as centered in networks rather than in individual computers. Linux, a UNIX derivative available in both "free software" and commercial versions, is increasing in popularity as an alternative to proprietary operating systems.

UNIX is written in C. Both UNIX and C were developed by AT&T and freely distributed to government and academic institutions, causing it to be ported to a wider variety of machine families than any other operating system. As a result, UNIX became synonymous with "open systems."

UNIX is made up of the kernel, file system and shell (command line interface). The major shells are the Bourne shell (original), C shell and Korn shell. The UNIX vocabulary is exhaustive with more than 600 commands that manipulate data and text in every way conceivable. Many commands are cryptic, but just as Windows hid the DOS prompt, the Motif GUI presents a friendlier image to UNIX users. Even with its many versions, UNIX is widely used in mission critical applications for client/server and transaction processing systems. The UNIX versions that are widely used are Sun's Solaris, Digital's UNIX, HP's HP-UX, IBM's AIX and SCO's UnixWare. A large number of IBM mainframes also run UNIX applications, because the UNIX interfaces were added to MVS and OS/390, which have obtained UNIX branding. Linux, another variant of UNIX, is also gaining enormous popularity.

Chapter # 3


Windows is a personal computer operating system from Microsoft that, together with some commonly used business applications such as Microsoft Word and Excel, has become a de facto "standard" for individual users in most corporations as well as in most homes. Windows contains built-in networking, which allows users to share files and applications with each other if their PCs are connected to a network. In large enterprises, Windows clients are often connected to a network of UNIX and NetWare servers. The server versions of Windows NT and 2000> are gaining market share, providing a Windows-only solution for both the client and server. Windows is supported by Microsoft, the largest software company in the world, as well as the Windows industry at large, which includes tens of thousands of software developers.

This network effect is the reason Windows became successful in the first place. However, Windows 95, 98, ME, NT, 2000 and XP are complicated operating environments. Certain combinations of hardware and software running together can cause problems, and troubleshooting can be daunting. Each new version of Windows has interface changes that constantly confuse users and keep support people busy, and Installing Windows applications is problematic too. Microsoft has worked hard to make Windows 2000 and Windows XP more resilient to installation problems and crashes in general.

Chapter # 4


The Macintosh (often called "the Mac"), introduced in 1984 by Apple Computer, was the first widely-sold personal computer with a graphical user interface (GUI). The Mac was designed to provide users with a natural, intuitively understandable, and, in general, "user-friendly" computer interface. This includes the mouse, the use of icons or small visual images to represent objects or actions, the point-and-click and click-and-drag actions, and a number of window operation ideas. Microsoft was successful in adapting user interface concepts first made popular by the Mac in its first Windows operating system. The primary disadvantage of the Mac is that there are fewer Mac applications on the market than for Windows. However, all the fundamental applications are available, and the Macintosh is a perfectly useful machine for almost everybody. Data compatibility between Windows and Mac is an issue, although it is often overblown and readily solved.

The Macintosh has its own operating system, Mac OS which, in its latest version is called Mac OS X. Originally built on Motorola's 68000 series microprocessors, Mac versions today are powered by the PowerPC microprocessor, which was developed jointly by Apple, Motorola, and IBM. While Mac users represent only about 5% of the total numbers of personal computer users, Macs are highly popular and almost a cultural necessity among graphic designers and online visual artists and the companies they work for. In general, Mac users tend to be enthusiasts.

Chapter # 5


Windows Mobile is a compact mobile operating system developed by Microsoft, and designed for use in smartphones and mobile devices.

It is based on Windows CE 5.2, and features a suite of basic applications developed using the Microsoft Windows API. It is designed to be somewhat similar to desktop versions of Windows, feature-wise and aesthetically. Additionally, third-party software development is available for Windows Mobile, and software can be purchased via the Windows Marketplace for Mobile.

Originally appearing as the Pocket PC 2000 operating system, most Windows Mobile phones come with a stylus pen, which is used to enter commands by tapping it on the screen. Windows Mobile has been updated multiple times, with the current version being Windows Mobile 6.5. The next major revision, Windows Mobile 7.0, is expected to be released in Q4 2010 , and is also expected to make Windows Mobile a much more serious competitor to today's other mobile platforms.

Windows Mobile's share of the Smartphone market has fallen year-on-year, decreasing 20% in Q3 2009. It is the 3rd most popular smartphone operating system for business use (after BlackBerry and iPhone), with a 24% share among enterprise users. In overall sales, it is the 4th most popular smartphone operating system, with a 7.9% share of the worldwide smartphone market.

Windows Mobile for Pocket PC carries these standard features in most of its versions:

  • Today Screen shows the current date, owner information, upcoming appointments, e-mail messages, and tasks. (Is now Home screen in later WM6.5 builds)
  • The taskbar shows the current time and the volume.
  • Office Mobile a suite of Mobile versions of Microsoft Office applications
  • Outlook Mobile comes with Windows Mobile.
  • Internet Explorer Mobile is an Internet browser developed by Microsoft for Pocket PC and Handheld PC that comes loaded by default with Windows Mobile and Windows CE for Handheld PC.
  • Windows Media Player for Windows Mobile.
  • Client for PPTP VPNs.
  • Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) which in mobile phones allows attached computers to share internet connections via USB and Bluetooth.
  • Coherent file system similar to that of Windows 9/Windows NT and support for many of the same file types.
  • Ability to multitask.