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Over the past years GISc become the extensiveness of the increase growing field of geography. Beginning with the theoretical framework developed in 1950's into computerized system over the decades. Technologies such as global positioning system (GPS), GIS and remote sensing have significantly enhanced our capability of gathering, storing and analysing data. GISc or as known the science of GIS, is concerned with geographic concept, the basic components used to describe, analyse, model and make better decision on feature distributed on the earth's surface.(see figure 3)Relationship between GISystem &GIScience
GIS is largely viewed as a subsection of geographical science outside the discipline of geography. Despite the fact that geography is small, unequally represented discipline, many literatures discussed the uncertainties about its legitimacy in the academy. As GIS rapidly growing and its association with the discipline has increased discernibility in the academy. Additionally, GIS is related with clear physical image,therefore, if someone is unfamiliar with the subject it is easy for them to think of "doing GIS" rather than "doing geography".
GISc is said to be the analysis of the important issues elevated by using GIS in geography and other discipline. In many debates there was a focus on whether GIS is a unique and important to geography and whether one have to do GIS as well as science. However, this debate to some extent flawed because it suggests that GIS widely more efficient than nowadays is, as it ignores the essential restrictions of present GIS in dealing with time. Arguably, some see GIS as a device or method in the same reason when they described remote sensing as a technique. For this viewpoint, we can see that GIS is implicated with the application of knowledge which is used by scientists not the science itself.
Many geographers defined GIS as a unique visual that is capable of creating explicit and implicit features of data. On the other hand, the scientist viewed the science of GIS as a subdiscipline of geography or computer science. Goodchild has argued that GIS abbreviation is science and not system as he believes that GIS has done a lot to eliminate the traditional separation between the fields of remote sensing, photogrammetry, cartography, geodesy, surveying, computer science, geography and other disciplines that focuses in the generic problems of spatial data. He further, adds that these are the disciplines of GISc. Finally the debate whether GIS is a tool or a science will continue and remain the major subject in the geography literatures.
Future predictions of GIS
GIS tools will be downloadable like Java applets for specific tasks.
Data collection which will be effected by GPS.
There will be additions function of GIS.
Data storing will end to be an issue.
New education and products will be advanced.
GIS will enable accessing internet data to be quicker and easy.
For more useful information
Geographic Information Systems and Science Longley, Paul A. Goodchild, Michael F. Maguire, David J.
An introduction to Geographical Information systems Heywood. I, Cornelius, S. Carver, S.
Geographic Information Systems
Geographic Information Science
Guidance for Geography teachers
C:\Users\Dell\Desktop\leaflet GIS\GIS Logo\main.jpg
The learned society & professional body for geography & geographers.
GIS is not new even though some people have not heard about it. Millions of people throughout the world use GIS in many different applications on a daily basis. As geography teachers, you already heard about it and are accustomed with geographic information and geography. This gives you a basic foundation to start with GIS.
What Is GIS
Geographic information system (GIS) is a tool used in collecting, storing, analyzing, transforming and displaying spatial data from the real world. In other words GIS helps us to produce a map from special data for specific purposes which we can then decide how the data will be displayed.
So GIS display a simplified view of the world, for instance, if you are looking for transport networks to find shortest and easiest routes for KFC delivery it might be impossible to input every detail of road network (such as surface type and conditions, road marking, road edge). A simplified view, possibly comprising speed limit, road category and known overcrowding points might be all that is needed for input data.
GIS is a unique system that is capable of transforming several aspect of society through increased ability to make decisions and solve problems. In recent years GIS has been developed in order to use and study geographic information, therefore, geography helps in understanding GIS.
How does it work?
GIS is a powerful system as it has the ability to link different information in a spatial context and leads to good decision making. For example, when rainfall data is gathered its vital to locate where the rainfall is happening by using a location reference system such as longitude and latitude.
GIS stores data about the world as a gathering of thematic layers which can be related together by geography. It is very influential and multipurpose concept in solving many real-world issues from modeling global atmospheric circulation, to predicting rural land use, and observing changes in rainforest ecosystems.
GIS is used to map hurricane events and the spread of disease outbreak as well as physical locations (i.e. cities, rivers, roads etc.). Also organizations use GIS to map their demographic information in order to enable them to carry studies about their consumers.
GIS Data and Resource
There are a variety of data sources and one of the main elements of GIS is data. It incorporates spatial data with other data resources and also uses database management system which is mainly used by major businesses to monitor and maintain their data. Spatial data or known as geographical data are categorized by information about position, connections with other objects and details of non-spatial characteristics (i.e. wind speed and directions, temperature, the amount of snowfall etc)(see figure 1)
There are some components that are necessary for GIS operation.
Processing with suitable power to run the software.
Memory for storing large amount of data.
High-resolution and good quality for colour screen.
Data input tools such as scanners and digitizers.
Data output tools such as a large, high-quality printers and plotters.
Similarly, there is some specialist software that helps the users to input, manage, store, analyze, transform, output and handling data. The most popular software that is recommended to use is Arc GIS 10 which is the latest version produced by
Environmental Systems Research, Inc. (ESRI).
Additionally, this software is used to integrate different layers to find the relationships and patterns. In order to analyses the data layer one or more layers must be merged physically. For instance, when we analysis the urbanization of an area, an overlay might integrate data on land use, soil type, building, utility streets etc. (see figure 2)
Who Uses GIS?
In the past years not many people were skilled to use GIS only few companies were using it in order to solving problems and make better decisions. However, nowadays it become so popular and many industries spend multi-billion dollars in employing and training thousands of people worldwide. All education sectors (i.e. universities, colleges and schools) are teaching GIS. As a result of increasing the awareness of GIS advantages the numbers of internet users are incredibly growing.
GIS helps us to monitor the Earth