What Is Fully Homomorphic Encryption Computer Science Essay

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Transferring files between machines (and users) is a common daily occurrence although the confidentiality of the data is a basic condition. Now problem was how to secure them from inadvertent addressee from observing the data, which are supposed to confidential and likely on risk if prepared well-known to negligent parties. In each of these cases, it's important to know what options are available to get your file from point A to point B and to comprehend whether the technique you choose provides sufficient security given the sensitivity of the data being transferred.

Cryptography is ability of secret text, or more precisely of stock up resource (for a long or shorter period of time) in a shape which allows it to be revealed to those you wish to see it yet hides it from all others. A cryptosystem is a technique to accomplish this. Cryptanalysis is to put into practice to overcome such endeavors to hide information. Cryptology comprises of both cryptography and cryptanalysis.

The unique information to be hidden is called "plaintext". The concealed information is called "ciphertext". Encryption or Decryption is any modus operandi to convert plaintext into ciphertext.

A cryptosystem is designed so that decryption can be consummated only under certain conditions, which usually means simply by persons in control of both a decryption engine (these days, generally a computer program) and a meticulous piece in sequence, called the decryption key, which is supplied to the decryption engine in the course of decryption.

Plaintext is transformed into ciphertext by process of an encryption engine (again, generally a computer program) whose operation is fixed and determinate (the encryption method) nevertheless which functions in practice in a way dependent on a piece of information (the encryption key) which has a major effect on the output of the encryption process.

The main purpose was to make sure privacy while you transferring your private data from one place to another place do not matter electronically or via users. There were many scheme but very complicated to follow them and most important less security.

So time by time many scientists discover different techniques but Gentry's technique "Fully Homomorphic Encryption" got a tremendous value against all technique. All others techniques were performing well but with restriction but Gentry's scheme user can perform unlimited action.

Objective

Cloud computing

Literature review

"Homomorphic encryption is a paradigm that refers to the ability, given encryptions of some messages, to generate an encryption of a value that is related to the original messages. Specifically, this ability means that from encryptions of k messages (,…,), it is possible to generate an encryption of = f(,…,) for some (efficiently computable) function f. Ideally, one may want the homomorphically generated encryption of to be distributed identically (or statistically close) to a standard encryption of . We call schemes that have this property strongly homomorphic. Indeed, some proposed encryption schemes are strongly homomorphic w. r. t some algebraic operations such as addition or multiplication." (Rothblum R, 2010).

"An encryption method is presented with the novel property that publicly revealing an encryption key does not thereby reveal the corresponding decryption key. This has two important consequences:

1. Couriers or other secure means are not needed to transmit keys, since a message can be enciphered using an encryption key publicly revealed by the intended recipient. Only he can decipher the message, since only he knows the corresponding decryption key.

2. A message can be "signed" using a privately held decryption key. Anyone can verify this signature using the corresponding publicly revealed encryption key. Signatures cannot be forged, and a signer cannot later deny the validity of his signature. This has obvious applications in "electronic mail" and "electronic funds transfer" systems." (Rivest et al, 1978)

"Homomorphic encryption enables "computing with encrypted data" and is hence a useful tool for secure protocols. Current homomorphic public key systems have limited homomorphic properties: given two ciphertexts Encrypt (PK, x) and Encrypt (PK, y), anyone can compute either the sum Encrypt (PK, x+y), or the product Encrypt (PK, xy), but not both." (Boneh et al, 2006)

ARMONK, N.Y 25 Jun 2009: "An IBM Researcher has solved a thorny mathematical problem that has confounded scientists since the invention of public-key encryption several decades ago.  The breakthrough, called "privacy homomorphism," or "fully homomorphic encryption," makes possible the deep and unlimited analysis of encrypted information data that has been intentionally scrambled without sacrificing confidentiality." (IBM, 2009)

"We propose the first fully homomorphic encryption scheme, solving a central open problem in cryptography. Such a scheme allows one to compute arbitrary functions over encrypted data without the decryption key i.e., given encryptions E() ,…, E() of ,…., one can efficiently compute a compact ciphertext that encrypts f(,….,) for any efficiently computable function ƒ. This problem was posed by Rivest et al. in 1978." (Gentry C, 2009)

"Searching databases is usually done in the clear. And even if the query is encrypted, it has to be decrypted (revealing its contents) before it can be used by a search engine. What's worse is that databases themselves are stored as plaintext, available to anyone gaining access. The smarter way to handle sensitive information would be to encrypt the queries, encrypt the database and search it in its encrypted form. Impossible until now, IBM's T.J. Watson Research Center (Yorktown Heights, N.Y.) recently described a "homomorphic" encryption scheme that allows encrypted data to be searched, sorted and processed without decrypting it.  Fully homomorphic encryption schemes theoretically allow ciphertext to be manipulated as easily as plaintext, making it perfect for modern cloud computing, where your data is located remotely." (Johnson R C, 2009)

Body

History of Cryptography

In earliest era communications or correspondence among recipient and correspondent were only possible through extremely safe and sound way like loyal pigeon, physically or any other source but must be trusted. That was a time when it was very tough to believe or trust on available sources. There was a little doubt and big risk for the sender was if transporter discloses the information then any one can harm them. Progressively a newly ideas came with world called Cryptography/Encryption" means this is a technique in which the sender encrypts the communication using proper key and it's only possible for receiver to decrypt it if he possessed the key.

Key based Encryption.

In key based encryption keys are the most important part of creating new ciphertext. A sequence of small piece used generally in cryptography, letting people to encrypt/decrypt facts and the same key can be used to carry out additional mathematical business as well. Specified a secret message, a key established the connection with the sequence to the ciphertext. 

The key we use for a special cryptosystem has worth so whenever this key used to ciphertext, always lets the encrypted communication to be decrypted and always doing reverse like encrypt the plaintext.

In ancient era because calculation was very hard so they prefer to use not lengthy keys in respect of bits but on the other hand it's safe to use longer key. Communications also one can encrypt in n-bit blocks. It is true that the longer a key is, more difficult for one to break the encrypted message. Encryptions consist of two categories.

â-  Private Key or Symmetric Key Encryption

â-  Public Key or Asymmetric Key Encryption

Private Key / Symmetric Key Encryption

This was thousands of years ago when Julian Caesar used this scheme to send his communication to his military. He used very simple key based classic cryptographic algorithm in which he just shifted each letter with preplanned key number 4. In his algorithm key varies so that's why we cannot guess what number he will use next. Let's take said number 4 which means "A" will swap with "D" and "B" will swap with "G" and so on "X" will swap with "A" etc.

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

DEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZABC

The same letter changing technique was useful to small case correspondence and also covering around the letters as well. (S. Tewksbury).

Cryptography history is very old so we can divide it in to two categories.

â-  Classic era Cryptography â-  Computer era Cryptography

In classic era there was no computer or any electronic machine to solve this problem so people were used pen and paper to unreveal the truth of letters. Julian Caesar technique is classic era practice. Until WWII all cryptography techniques are none as classic era cryptography. After WWII development of machine made cryptography life very complex and that time was very easy to break all classic time encryptions mostly called key based techniques. Key word was very important in these practices and because of the key it was very easy to break through encryption algorithm. ROT13 is the best practice of encryption algorithm which we know its famous name Caesar cipher and this is extension of Julian Caesar scheme. The most useful technique was ROT13 in which they used fix key 13 to encrypt the letters. This algorithm was very famous in the beginning of computer era and anyone wants to use ROT13 scheme, both side parties must use the same key to encrypt and decrypt the code. This key called secret key. The development of the machine set a stander in respect of key codes and then everyone prepared a code book to share as a key code book.

For example in ROT13 simply they rotate the letters by 13 places. Application of this scheme is very easy like Julius Caesar technique where he swapped letters with fix key 4 and now in ROT13 with key 13 and wrapping around like "a" become "n" and "m" become "z" and wrapping continue if necessary but the problem was user can play only English alphabet. The beauty of this technique was it made its function its own inverse like for any text x we can write its function mathematically inverse of ROT13(x) or ROT13 (ROT13(x)) where x is belong to a character which one wants to encrypt.

This characteristic furthermore called an involution in arithmetic and a give-and-take code in cryptography. This scheme work as below

ABCDEFGHIJKLM ↔ abcdefghijklm

NOPQRSTUVWXYZ ↔ nopqrstuvwxyz

In this scheme problem was again if someone steel or rob your data then it is very easy to decode it. This is not reasonable cryptographic proposal even though it's known as secret key cryptosystem.

If we observe closely the ROT13 is partially homomorphic particularly with respect to the concatenation function because it has a reciprocal property. Let's write a function to prove its homomorphic property using secret key 13, in this function we encrypt the text using said algorithm and we will add the encrypted text to see its homomorphic property and then finally decrypt the result.

Java ROT13 Code.

import java.util.*;

public class ROT13

{ static int x,y,n,fx,l,m;

public static void main(String[] args)

{

Scanner sc=new Scanner(System.in);

System.out.println("Enter your text");

String t = sc.nextLine();

int j=0;

int key=13;

for (int i=0; i< t.length(); i++)

{

char ch1 = t.charAt(j);

if (ch1 >= 'a' && ch1 <= 'm') ch1 += key;

else if (ch1 >= 'n' && ch1 <= 'z') ch1 -= key;

else if (ch1 >= 'A' && ch1 <= 'M') ch1 += key;

else if (ch1 >= 'A' && ch1 <= 'Z') ch1 -= key;

System.out.print(ch1);

j++;

}}}

OUTPUT

Enter your text

HelloWorld

UryybJbeyq

The above algorithm is very uncomplicated algorithm to illustrate how ROT13 scheme works and in above output "Uryyb Jbeyq" is encrypted cipher formed with above algorithm. To check its homomorphic property now anyone can break this cipher text and then apply a concatenation (addition operator) to this text. After getting a new text anyone can apply ROT13 algorithm to decode it to see if he/she is getting the original text.

import java.util.*;

public class ROT13

{

static int x,y,n,fx,l,m;

public static void main(String[] args)

{

Scanner sc=new Scanner(System.in);

System.out.println("Enter yout text");

String t = sc.nextLine();

int j=0;

int key=13;

for (int i=0; i< t.length(); i++)

{

char ch1 = t.charAt(j);

if (ch1 >= 'a' && ch1 <= 'm') ch1 += key;

else if (ch1 >= 'n' && ch1 <= 'z') ch1 -= key;

else if (ch1 >= 'A' && ch1 <= 'M') ch1 += key;

else if (ch1 >= 'A' && ch1 <= 'Z') ch1 -= key;

System.out.print(ch1);

j++;

}

System.out.println();

System.out.println("Enter yout 2nd text");

String t1 = sc.nextLine();

int j1=0;

int key1=13;

for (int i1=0; i1< t1.length(); i1++)

{

char ch2 = t1.charAt(j1);

if (ch2 >= 'a' && ch2 <= 'm') ch2 += key1;

else if (ch2 >= 'n' && ch2 <= 'z') ch2 -= key1;

else if (ch2 >= 'A' && ch2 <= 'M') ch2 += key1;

else if (ch2 >= 'A' && ch2 <= 'Z') ch2 -= key1;

System.out.print(ch2);

j1++;

}

System.out.println();

System.out.println("Enter the 1st encrypted result=");

String a=sc.nextLine();

System.out.println();

System.out.println("Enter the 2st encrypted result=");

String a1=sc.nextLine();

String con = a+a1;

System.out.print(con);

System.out.println();

int j2=0;

int key2=13;

for (int i2=0; i2< con.length(); i2++)

{

char ch3 = con.charAt(j2);

if (ch3 >= 'a' && ch3 <= 'm') ch3 += key2;

else if (ch3 >= 'n' && ch3 <= 'z') ch3 -= key2;

else if (ch3 >= 'A' && ch3 <= 'M') ch3 += key2;

else if (ch3 >= 'A' && ch3 <= 'Z') ch3 -= key2;

System.out.print(ch3);

j2++;

}}}

OUTPUT

Enter the 1st encrypted result=Uryyb

Enter the 2st encrypted result=Jbeyq

UryybJbeyq

HelloWorld

Explanation of Output

Text a = Encrypt (13, "Hello"); a = Uryyb

Text b = Encrypt (13, "World"); b = Jbeyq

Text c = Concat (a,b); c = UryybJbeyq

Text d = Decrypt(13, c); d = HelloWorld

As we can see clearly that we used an addition (concat) property to encrypt the text but after this we got the same result as we got without using concat. This property demonstrates that ROT13 is partially homomorphic scheme with respect of addition.

The problem start with this technique when machine came in to being and it was easy to break secret code and even drawback of this scheme was numbers because user only were to able to encrypt alphabetic. Then gradually, ROT47 new scheme introduced and this scheme was derived from ROT13 as-well. Inside this scheme there was a big border for its users so now they were able to play with numbers and special characters. ROT47 exercise a larger alphabet, resulting from a regular character programming well-known as American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII).

The ASCII is a 7-bit code to correspond to English alphabet structure and these codes are in practice to symbolize data which includes numbers used in central processing unit, interactions technology and additional associated mechanism. The first publication of this standard code was in 1967 then afterward restructured and produced as "ANSI X3.4-1968", at that time as "ANSI X3.4-1977" and at last as "ANSI X3.4-1986". It is given that, it is a seven-bit code and it preserves the largest part symbolizing 128 characters. It presently characterize 95 printable characters together with 26 upper-case letters (A to Z), 26 lower-case letters (a to z), 10 numbers (0 to 9) and 33 special characters as well as arithmetic signs, punctuation marks and space character. . (Maini A K, 2007)

However ROT13 introduced with new values of its alphabets separately both capital and smaller. Unlike ROT13, ROT47 was also not able to protect your text at all. This scheme is also having homomorphic property like addition. If closely observe the both scheme then we will be able to see that there is only little difference in both schemes. Both working pattern is same, both dealing with alphabets but ROT47 got advantage because this scheme deal with numbers and individual characters. In this method ASCII cipher connect to trade letters or numbers during encryption/decryption. Knowledge of ASCII codes to one lead to revel the facts. So here this scheme becomes the same like ROT13, so failure of this scheme once again involvement of the secret key.

Is Symmetric Key Encryption Secure?

ROT13 encryption scheme is not secured at all because the code of this scheme you can decode very easy. This was the disadvantage of this scheme.

The reason we encrypt our transcript is to make it protected from illegitimate access however this scheme only consist of 26 characters which is very simple to decipher even from side to side a common person who have an access to the written text.

For example: Anyone wishes to encrypt "atotaa", after that the cipher we will achieve "ngbgnn" which is very effortless to work out through repetition of "a & g".

ROT47 was novel encryption scheme derived from ROT13 and also another example of symmetric key encryption but bit difficult. In ROT47 moving the basic letter swiftly like ROT13 with given substitute of ASCII. In this scheme one can take care of numbers and many other special characters as a substitute of the basic 26 letters however awareness of ASCII codes can show the way to one to search out the facts. Consequently, at this point this scheme turn into insecure category like ROT13, so failure of this scheme was once again its own typical contribution of the ASCII codes.

Public Key or Asymmetric Key Encryption

An important contribution in the peak field that time named "public-key cryptography" fulfilled by Whitfield Diffie, Martin Hellman and Ralph Merkle in 1976 when they introduce an elegant cryptosystem for a public-key. The major difference as compare to prior scheme was one extra key named as public key. The public key assume to be used for encryption and then private key will use to decryption.

Cryptography has been a derivative security entirety once a secure channel exists along which keys can be transmitted, the security can be extended to other channels of higher bandwidth or smaller delay by encrypting the messages sent on them. The effect has been to limit the use of cryptography to communications among people who have made prior preparation for cryptographic security.

(W Diffie and M Hellman, 1976)

ABOVE NOT COMPLETE YET

RSA respected the idea of Diffie et al and in 1978 they introduced first public key algorithm in public at MIT by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman. They illustrate what is predetermined by a trapdoor cipher, but how do you construct one? One usually used of the secret message of this type is called RSA encryption, wherever RSA are the initials of three initiators which are Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman.

It is based on the idea below; it is simply multiply numbers together, particularly with the help of computers reason, factorization of this numbers could be difficult.

To get them, one needs to factor N, which seems to be an extremely complex problem. But exactly how is N used to encode a message, and how are p and q used to decode it? Below is presented a complete example, although there will be used minute prime numbers so it is easy to follow the arithmetic.

Actually in RSA encryption scheme they used very big prime numbers. As per them it makes scheme more secure because in their algorithm they need to factorize the number to get the result. If someone using small number then it's easy to factorize the number but it is not the same with big number. Therefore, they in their algorithm they used key size 768-bit for ordinary use and they suggest 1024-bit key size for commercial use but for highly important information key size should be double (2048-bit) as compare to business key size just for mind satisfaction regarding security threat.

RSA advised to one and all concerning their scheme that how scheme work to get own encryption and decryption key if any want using their method. First step decide two separate prime numbers like p, q. Later than multiply integers pq and make n = pq public. Exposing n in public will help one to hide original integers like q & q and now it will be very difficult for illegitimate person to find original integers p & q because factorization will be very hard for big prime numbers. This achievement will help to hide the value of multiplicative inverse d and the way derived from co-prime e. Choosing big integer d but d must comparatively prime with φ ((p-1).(q-1)) and must fulfill the condition of greater common devisor gcd (d, (p-1)(q-1)). Finally one can compute the integer e "1 < e < φ (n)", from p, q and d will be the multiplicative inverse. Following above tedious method one can decrypt or encrypt.

Mathematically Implementation of RSA algorithm

RSA algorithm steps below

â-  Two prime integers p=61 and q=53

â-  Multiply both prime integers n = pq = 61.53=3233. The value of n afterward used as modulus for public and private key.

â-  Calculate φ(n) = (p-1).(q-1) = 3120. Where φ is Euler's totient function.

â-  For the value of e = 17 select any integer from 1 < e < φ(n) and chosen integer must satisfy this condition where gcd (e, φ(n)) = 1.

â-  One can conclude d = mod φ(n). The value of d = 2753 will be using in private key exponent so supervision of this key is essential. Extended Euclidean algorithm helps to determine the d.

â-  The public key will be (n = 3233, e = 17) and for text m the encryption function is mod φ(n).

â-  The private key is (n = 3233, d = 2753) and for the encrypted text c decryption function will be mod φ(n).

For example: Encrypt m = 65, we compute

c = 6517 (mod 3233) = 2790.

For decrypt c = 2790, we calculate m = 27902753 (mod 3233) = 65.

Using the above boring however easy for a computer to calculate, One can decode other's message and obtain the original message m = 65.

Java Code for RSA Algorithm:

public class RSACode

{ static long x,y,n,fx,l,m;

static int p,q,e,tn;

public static void main(String[] args)

{ Scanner sc=new Scanner(System.in);

System.out.println("Please enter ist prime no P");

p =sc.nextInt();

System.out.println("Please enter 2nd prime no q");

q =sc.nextInt();

n=p*q;

System.out.println("p*q = n "+n);

//Totient of n

tn=(p-1)*(q-1);

System.out.println("Totation of tn(pq) = "+tn);

int k=tn;

for (int i=1; i<tn; i++)

{ int fi= (int)(Math.pow(2, i)+1);

l=fi;

while (tn % fi !=0)

{

int r = (tn % fi);

tn = fi;

fi = r;

} if (fi==1)

System.out.println("GCD Of"+"["+k+","+l+"] is"+fi+"Recommended for you");

}

System.out.println("So please use "+l+" as e");

System.out.println("Enter number to exponent e");

e=sc.nextInt();

for (int d=1;d<k;d++)

if ((e*d)%k==1)

System.out.println("The value of e^-1 mod n= d =="+d);

System.out.println("Enter the above valu of d");

int d1=sc.nextInt();

System.out.println("Enter number to encrypt");

m=sc.nextInt();

//encryption function is c = (m ^ e)/n;

double encryption = (Math.pow(m, e)% n);

System.out.println("encryption Key ="+ encryption);

System.out.println("The value of d= e^-1 mod n =="+d1);

double decrypt = (Math.pow(encryption, d1) % n);

System.out.println(encryption +"to decryption is =" + decrypt);

OUT PUT

Please enter ist prime no P

5

Please enter 2nd prime no q

7

p*q = n 35

Totation of tn(pq) = 24

GCD Of[24,5] is1Recommended for you

GCD Of[24,9] is1Recommended for you

So please use 9 as e

Enter number to exponent e

5

The value of mod n= d ==5

Enter the above value of d

5

Enter number to encrypt

9

encryption Key =4.0

The value of d= mod n ==5

4.0to decryption is =9.0

The above java code works fine on small prime integers with small exponential power and small value of d (multiplicative inverse).

OUT PUT

Please enter ist prime no P

61

Please enter 2nd prime no q

53

p*q = n 3233

Totation of tn(pq) = 3120

GCD Of[3120,17] is1Recommended for you

So please use 17 as e

Enter number to exponent e

17

The value of mod n= d ==2753

Enter the above value of d

2753

Enter number to encrypt

65

encryption Key =887.0

The value of d= mod n ==2753

887.0to decryption is =NaN

The same java code work perfect on big numbers but there you need different data types to adjust the output value the error NaN means data type mismatch.

Practically Implementation

An "RSA operation" whether encrypting, decrypting, signing, or verifying is fundamentally a modular exponentiation. This computation is executed with a sequence of modular multiplications.

In practical uses, it is general to select a small public exponent for the public key. In reality, entire group of users preserve to use the matching public exponent, every one through a different modulus. However there are few boundaries on the prime factors of the modulus when the public exponent is set. For the reason of this it creates encryption more rapidly than decryption and verification quicker than signing. Through the typical modular power algorithms used to put into practice the RSA algorithm, public-key operations take O(k2) steps, private-key operations take O(k3) steps, and key generation takes O(k4) steps, where k is the number of bits in the modulus. (RSA 2010)

Is RSA Work Secure?

This scheme is not fully secure on the basses of following attacks

Elementary attack

Low private exponent attack

Low private exponent attack

Implementation attack

Boneh et al Homomorphic Encryption

(Boneh D, 1999) examined the RSA cryptosystem, was original exposed in the 1977-1978 topic of "Scientific American". The cryptosystem is mainly generally in practice for offering confidentiality and certification validity of digital data. In those days RSA was positioned in many big business organizations. It is used by web servers and browsers to safe web transfer, it is used to make sure confidentiality and legitimacy of correspondence, it is used to safe remote login phase, and it is at the heart of electronic credit-card payment method. However, RSA is commonly take part in meanings anywhere safety of digital data is on risk.

In view of the fact of first publication, the RSA scheme evaluates meant for weakness through a lot of examiners. However since 1977 to 1999, examiner have direct to a many interesting attacks but not any of them is critical. They typically demonstrate the risk of offensive use of RSA. Definitely, protected execution of RSA is a nontrivial job.

Twenty years of research into inverting the RSA service created various perceptive attacks, other than no shocking attack has ever been discovered. The attacks exposed so far mostly demonstrate the drawbacks which one can avoid once applying RSA. Currently comes into view that correct applications can offer assurance to afford protection in the electronic globe.

Open attacks on RSA scheme:

Chosen chipper attack is very famous in cryptography in it attacker gathered information in pieces and then process it. This attack claimed against RSA in 1998 by Y. Desmedt and A. M. Odlyzko.

According to RSA choose two prime numbers to calculate n then use φ(n) for modulus in encryption and decryption but if any enemy used brute force attack on their public key (N, e) to find the factorization and as well as their φ(n). On the other hand if we assume that only big prime number only allowed in RSA then it will affect the speed of the scheme because performance depend on n-bit key.

While encrypting with not big encryption supporter e = 3 and small values of the m like m <  the effect of  is firmly less than the modulus n. In this case, ciphertext can be simply decrypted by taking the eth root of the ciphertext over the integers.

Another attack was if sender send a plain clear message to e or more beneficiary after encrypted and the recipients distribute the similar exponent e, except different integers p, q, and n, in that case it is simple to decode the plaintext using the Chinese remainder theorem. Håstad J become aware of that, this attack is achievable still if the plaintexts are not identical, however the attacker recognize a linear relation among them. Afterward Don Coppersmith enhanced this attack which was low exponent.

RSA has the property that the multiplication of two encrypted text is the same to the encryption of the product of the individual plaintexts. That is "m_1^em_2^e\equiv (m_1m_2)^e\pmod{n}." since of this multiplicative property a chosen ciphertext attack is possible. For example an attacker, who needs to identify the decryption of a ciphertext c = (mod n) possibly will request the owner of the private key to decrypt an innocent appearing ciphertext c' =  c (mod n) for random r selected by the attacker. For the reason that of the multiplicative property c' is the encryption of (mod n). Thus, if the attacker is unbeaten with the attack then he will be able discover (mod n) and then he will develop the message m by multiplying  with the modular inverse of r modulo n.

These above most recent attacks demonstrate that a study of the fundamental mathematical arrangement is inadequate.

In response of factorizing N is very easy Rivest at el discarded Dan Boneh argument. He said it does not mean that if RSA algorithm using small e=3 or e=17 can make easy calculation for small number but it is not representing that RSA problem is easier. He also added that professional method still not discovered.

On recovering private key using public key at this time he said it is still on risk and he recommended that, if client will catch large factors then opponent cannot compute his private key.

However he also said that the objection on low public exponent can be avoided because in corporate it is not conceder. Padded scheme is available for those who concerns and for digital signature small e does not make any difference. He also code CCA claimed in 1998 which he replied that to overcome chosen ciphertext attacks, scientists twisted their self to probably arbitrary "padding" method that convert a plaintext before encryption. (Rivest et al, 2003).

Kocher claimed a new attack against RSA called time attack where he said recovering RSA private key process depend on calculating R = mod n, in which n is open and y can be created through spy. The attacker's object is to find x, the underground key. For this purpose, the sufferer has to work out mod n for some values of y, where y, n, and the calculation time must recognized to the attacker. If a fresh undisclosed exponent x is preferred for every action, then the attack will not work. The essential information and timing gift power needs to be achieved through reflexively spying on an interactive protocol, because an attacker will record the communication acknowledged by the victim and work out the amount of time in use to reply to every y. The attack thinks that the attacker recognize the graph of the target structure, while in exercise this could possibly be incidental from timing information. (Kocher P C, 1995)

Timing attacks are typically used to attack feeble calculation of machines like smartcards. They illustrate that timing attacks affect to common operating systems. Intentionally, they work out a timing attack against OpenSSL. Their work demonstrates that they can take out personal keys from an OpenSSL base web server operating on a system in the limited network. They develop and execute a timing attack against OpenSSL; document usually used for web servers and extra SSL requests. Their purposed trial explains that, start to finish addiction the timing attack is useful when accepted among devices separated via many routers. Moreover, the timing attack is successful among two tasks over the same machine and two Virtual Machines on the same computer. Consequence of this effort, some crypto libraries, together with OpenSSL, currently applies blinding by default in their software. (Boneh D and Burmley D, 2003).

One method to avoid these attacks is to make sure that the decryption actions will get an equal amount of time for every ciphertext.

sttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttttt

According to Boneh the values being encrypted lie in a small range as is the case when encrypting bits. These homomorphic properties enable us to evaluate multivariate polynomials of total degree 2 given the encrypted inputs. We described a number of applications of the system. Most notably, using our encryption scheme, we (i) reduced the amount of communication in the basic step of the Kushilevitz Ostrovsky PIR, (ii) improved the efficiency of election systems based on homomorphic encryption, and (iii) implemented universally verifiable secure computation. We hope this scheme will have many other applications.

He ends up with a couple of open problems related to our encryption scheme: n-linear maps. The multiplicative homomorphism was possible due to properties of bilinear maps.

We note that an n-linear map would enable us to evaluate polynomials of total degree n rather than just quadratic polynomials. This provides yet another motivation for constructing cryptographic n-linear maps.

Message space there scheme was limited in the size of message space due to the need to compute discrete logarithms during decryption. An encryption scheme that allows for a large message space would enable more applications, such as an efficient shared RSA key generation.

Conclusion

File system was used to store data before data base system began. In file system as we all know there was limited data sharing, lengthy development time and excessive maintenance. In every field scientist was trying hard to make it better so in computer field they brought the idea to store information somewhere in proper shape where anybody who need information can get easily when needed. This effort was very useful in respect time and cost saving. In this current advance era we managed to discover internet. Internet was a great revolution to overcome time/speed and we as a client/provider start working fast in this society to provide or get better facilities. When they start working on this idea then there was security issue. In security issue how to secure data from those who are not entitle to see personal or private information. It was bit easy to secure data on each personal computer but still not secure for client point of view or where they need to exchange the data with client electronically or manual. Database servers are the most important servers for any company or organization. These servers store client details, financial information, human resource details all the data that keeps company in business and, as such, they need to be secure.

Encryption schemes were introduced time by time and were working successfully in each era and every related scientist tried to make it better and better day by day. But before any encryption scheme all secret messages were used to deliver hand by hand and here they need very reliable person, whom we can trust. To fulfill this trust then scientist start working on it to prove this trust or security. In world war era, scientist introduce word swap scheme which they called ROT13 that scheme was good and easy to use and got a homomorphic property with respect to concat operation but was not secure at all. The other disadvantage was that you only can apply on characters (a-z and A-Z) and also was not secure. The other technique ROT47 which was based on ASCII code discovered but again was not secure because if someone knows about these ASCII code can easily decode your private text and also was very easy to decode.

In 1978 RSA introduced a first algorithm for new encryption technique which is based on secret key and public key. In which the only person personally can decode text otherwise no one will be able to decode. This scheme is very simply to multiply numbers together, especially with computers but it can be very difficult to factories the numbers. This scheme is homomorphic in respect of multiplication. Still we need something where user can use different operation freely. This scheme was secure because they always consider big numbers and to break them it was not easy for unauthorized persons. RSA scheme was depend on secret key and it was a big problem to hand over a secret key to the receiver. In 2006 professor Boneh at el introduced a new homomorphic property in respect to addition and multiplication but user only can use one at a time. Still end-users were not fully option free so in 2009 Craig Gentry contributed his remarkable work in the field of encryption before the security analysis in these prior works was informal, and concrete parameters were either not set at all, or set to trivially breakable values.

The scheme is trivially broken when considered as a cryptographic scheme, irrespective of the choice of parameters. This is justified in their case since the adversary model they considered is very weak. In fact, prior to gentry's work there was widespread belief in the cryptographic community that schemes of this form are inherently insecure, due to the attacks that Gentry describe in his thesis section 5.

Hence, one of the contributions of Gentry's work is to point out that with an appropriate choice of parameters, this simple scheme can be made to resist all known attacks. Secondly, and more importantly, neither of the works mentioned above even considered multiplicative homomorphism, and specific instantiations (when given) did not support even a single multiplication. Thus, another contribution of this work is to observe that not only can this scheme made to support multiplications, but it can be used within Gentry's blueprint to construct a fully homomorphic encryption scheme. Somewhat homomorphic encryption scheme using only elementary modular arithmetic, and use Gentry's techniques to convert it into a fully homomorphic scheme where user can perform unlimited number of operation.

Bruce Schneier (2009) criticized the IBM press release regarding Gentry's work according to his reading, that Gentry's scheme was practical for real applications, today. It isn't; the computational and data storage overheads are far too high. However, this takes nothing away from Gentry's achievement; he has shown that fully homomorphic encryption is actually possible. Indeed, Schneier concludes. This press release could not damage Gentry's victory reputation.

Fully homomorphic scheme starts new era in terms of agility, maintenance, security, cost and reliability in cloud computing field. Microsoft and other global companies are also getting benefits from this technique and cost benefit is no longer a big issue. Encryption was commonly used in protecting information within many kinds of civilian systems. According to Computer Security Institute reported that in 2007, 71% of companies surveyed utilized encryption for some of their data in transit, and 53% utilized encryption for some of their data in storage. Now after the success of Gentry's scheme this can imagine almost all companies using this opportunity to secure their private data in clouds.

Infect this scheme proof and nailed its feature in term to provide security while users busy to compute the information. The outstanding approach of the scheme is that it can protect the confidentiality of communication itself but other techniques are still needed to protect the integrity and authenticity of the communication. This "Fully Homomorphic Encryption" approach inspired most of its users and now it is ruling the world with its tremendous benefits and features.

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.