What Are Server Roles Computer Science Essay

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In Windows 2003 Server introduced a new concept to simplify server setup, which consisted in the fact that the individual, often found the group operations are divided into so-called. roles. Each role corresponds to the typical application server, allowing an administrator - who want to use Windows 2003 Server to print and as a DHCP server - choosing two respective roles of the server.In this way, the basic server configuration will be greatly simplified - you can say that will be limited to a few clicks and choose the appropriate options. If necessary, the inclusion of the role, Windows 2003 Server doinstalowuje needed files.

At the same time was introduced by a central "station manager" server. The administrator can run a specific page - the Management server, and then move on to the appropriate program manage the role server.Of course, all the time are relevant to the MMC snap - as in the case of Windows 2000 - which allow you to configure every aspect of Windows 2003 Server.

File Server

The file server allows you to create a central repository for files with the appropriate level of access control. If the server to share files - as a place for exchange of data or as a central repository (such as a disk) - you add the role of "file server".

Print Server provides users with access to the network. If the server is to be attached printer (or additional hardware print servers), then it's worth, the administrator added that the role of a "print server".

After configuring the print server, you can:

·        through the browser to manage printers and print jobs,

·        install a new, standard printer port adapted to handle most printers using TCP / IP

·        easy to administer through the WMI interface, all the printers connected to print servers; Print WMI Provider allows you to create any administrative scripts in VBScript or Jsript;

·        set up a special site that will allow it to install the printer on the client computer on the intranet enough to click on the appropriate link

·        client computers running Windows XP can connect to the printer via a URL.

The application server is a basic element of infrastructure, which allows you to run advanced applications using the power of your server. In Windows 2003 Server, there are many ingredients of a modern, efficient and secure application server.

If the server is designed to run Web pages, and if it is to be installed on the part of an extensive three-tier applications, you may want to install the application server role. However, if it be only a file server or domain controller for example, when installing this role is not indispensable.

Windows 2003 Server with active role of the "application server" is an ideal platform for running distributed applications, systems based on Web and Web services.Among the features that has an application server based on Windows 2003 Server, it is worth mentioning:

·        Ability to create a pool of resources - for example, depending on the estimated number of simultaneous requests, or available memory, you can specify in which creates new situations, objects, and when they are used from the pool.

·        Managing distributed transactions (mainly DatabaseGear)

·        Asynchronous communication - using queuing technologies, such as Microsoft Message Queue (MSMQ)

·        Model business objects automatically activate when someone wants to use them.Thanks unused objects do not consume server resources unnecessarily,

·        Automated creation of Web interfaces that allow access via an XML business object that is installed on the server,

·        Failover mechanisms, where in the event of failure of service or is re-booted, or service the customer is automatically transferred to another server,

·        Advanced options for monitoring - so the administrator can view a list of business objects that occupy the most memory, for example, which often cause trouble, etc.

·        Integrated security - each element of application server uses the same security model and in the same manner to determine its rights,

·        A new model of security based on roles - perfect for the modern business facilities

After installing the application server role installed include services related to the Web server, or Internet Information Services (IIS) 6.0, together with selected elements such as ASP or ASP.NET. Windows 2003 Server includes an integrated, secure and scalable web server, which can be used both to run complex web applications designed for Intranet, as well as to start-simple, informational web sites. IIS is also the ideal platform for running Web services. IIS is also a good choice when you need to create a communication platform - and it is worth remembering that they are part of the IIS components to facilitate the publication of documents (such as WebDav or even FrontPage Server Extension) and the superior technology of ASP.NET. 

IIS 6.0 is a platform, which also contains many elements of the so-called support. hosting solutions, where a single physical server can be found alongside a number of sites (eg, - belonging to different operators.)

Mail Server


To create a mail server, you can use components that support POP3 (Post Office Protocol 3) and SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol). The easiest way to configure them, adding the role of "mail server" for Windows 2003 Server.


POP3 allows you to read the e-mail client programs (like Microsoft Outlook). You can also use them to define mailboxes, define their limits, etc. SMTP is a protocol for exchanging e-mails from other mail servers.


If the server is to serve as a place for exchange of electronic mail, the role of "mail server" may prove to be useful.

It is worth noting that in previous versions of Windows, the SMTP server is part of IIS. Currently, it can be installed independently of the web server.


Server Terminal Services


With Terminal Services server, many users can remotely work on Windows 2003 Server. Customer wishing to use the services of a terminal server can use any version of Windows (including 3.11) and MS-DOS. The access application may also be available via a special Web site, which will install the appropriate client control.


Terminal Services allows administrators to centrally manage applications - install it (just) on a single computer. At the same time working remotely from the customer is assured that he worked on the same version of the application and has access to appropriate programs. With these changes, for as much as the operating system kernel, the Terminal Services server can support hundreds of users simultaneously, clustered systems, etc.


After adding the role of the "Terminal Services server," the administrator within 120 days from first use of the service must install the license server (and download the appropriate licenses).


Note that the Terminal Services server can be used for computer administration, is therefore an excellent tool for the administrator who from anywhere in the world can carry out the necessary administrative operations. It does not require configuration, however, the role of the "Terminal Services server" mechanism is sufficient to use Remote Desktop for Administration (specifically - Termnial Services in Remote Administration mode). It is enough to unlock the remote access to the server. You can then use up to 2 remote session and special session of the console. However, if you need more simultaneous connections, control license or load balancing, etc. - you need to install the role of "Terminal Services server.


Remote Access Server / VPN


If the server is to serve as a tool for remote work, and workers have to connect to the office from anywhere in the world, or when a machine is designed to provide the company access to other networks (including Internet), then you might want to include the role of "remote access server / VPN. "


Services Routing and Remote Access software let you configure the router, which will appropriately redirect information sent on the network. It can also be a tool that will provide the appropriate configuration for remote (via modem) to access Windows 2003 Server. You can also configure secure VPN communication. Available in Windows 2003 Server rountingu mechanisms can be useful both in local area networks (LANs), and wide area networks (WAN) and on the Internet.


Access to the server, enabled the role of "RRAS" is possible from wireless devices, as well as mobile clients, who travel need to have access to data stored in the company. By combining VPN eavesdrop on your traffic, it is virtually impossible. At the same time - from the perspective of a remote client - the work is done as if the computer was connected to a local network, you can easily use the shared files or use the printer and print the report directly to such company.

At the same time the administrator is able to maintain precise control over the operation to which the user can access remotely connecting to the company. For example, can also impose a requirement that the external client must authenticate using a Smart Card.


RRAS can be used simultaneously as a tool to connect remote branch offices - if you need a WAN connection setting.

When connecting to the Internet network, in RRAS in Windows 2003 Server is a powerful mechanism available NAT (Network Address Translation) which allows secure access to all network users to the Internet. Just a single IP address with the so-called. class public and the link (which may be a modem, ISDN, DSL, etc.). You can also easily configure the connection using PPPoE protocols.

The domain controller (Active Directory)


The role of domain controller is to manage a central directory of information about users, domains, or computers and network services.


If the administrator is planning to implement Active Directory (Directory Services), should add the server role "Active Directory domain controller."


Note that the directory tree structure may be many domain controllers. Depending on your needs, install the server can manage a subtree or the entire "forest" connected relationship with another "forest." It can also act as backup server, which in case of trouble takes over other machines.


It is not possible to install a domain controller on a computer that is responsible for the CA (Certification Authority, a special service controlling distribution of keys in PKI systems.) However, you can install the CA service after inclusion of a domain controller.


After you install the domain controller administrator can specify the exact rules of Internet safety. With Active Directory it is possible to distribute a simple safety rules to all clients on the network. At the same time directory stores a lot of information - both user and equipment and computers. With Active Directory you can find the closest example, a printer that can print in color with the desired resolution. More and more applications are added their own information to the directory - for example when you install SQL Server 2000 catalog of recorded information on this server.


Active Directory also provides a very useful possibility of delegation. With the directory tree structure in accordance with the international standard X.500 administrators can customize exactly to the planned network security policy. At the same time preserves the order of AD in the network.


DNS Server


DNS server (Domain Name System) is a standard that allows for recognition and translation of the names on networks based on TCP / IP (including the internet). With DNS you can use a domain name - instead of specific IP addresses of servers. This DNS knows that one of the addresses www.microsoft.com is, through the mechanism of replication of this information is communicated to all DNS servers.


If a network is to be connected to the Internet and has to share certain services, we add the role of "DNS Server". But we also have to remember when installing the server, because right at the start can be given a unique name for the appropriate DNS domain.


In Windows 2003 Server DNS can also be a central way to resolve names on the local network. It can also be integrated with Active Directory, and then, as you add new objects to the directory, there are relevant entries in the DNS server. It is worth to note that in a small LAN DNS server is not needed. May be sufficient mechanism for name resolution mechanism based on NetBIOS and WINS.


After installing the DNS server role, it is worth to the administrator specify a replication policy, sending queries to other servers, or specify the security level (in this example, the required authentication method for modification of the DNS).


DHCP Server


DHCP is an Internet standard that allows for easy distribution of dynamically allocated IP addresses on the corporate network. If the administrator adds this role to a server Windows 2003 Server, does not have to then manually assign IP addresses to individual workstations.

Also, if you intend to carry out multimedia transmission using multicast protocols, we add the role to the server.


After adding the role of DHCP server administrator can:

·        from a central location to manage a pool of IP addresses

·        identify all parameters of TCP / IP connection, which are automatically transmitted to the client stations - for example in the Gateway, DNS servers, etc.

·        through flexible time management, and lease an IP address automatically refresh mechanism - for example, you can adjust the IP numbers to the location of the wireless device.


Streaming media server


Windows Media Services is a service that allows you to carry streaming (eg video distribution). If the server is to be used for training, for example, has to share videos on the Internet, consider that the administrator has added to Windows 2003 Server media server role.


The server contains all the necessary mechanisms to transfer digital audio and video on the web. It can also distribute a number of different formats - adapted to

the client (whether it is a dialup modem or broadband).


At the same time Media Server allows sophisticated control of licensing - depending on the needs of a particular business model.


It is worth noting that the creation of movies available is a special software package Windows Media SDK, and special tools, which can encode any data source in the form of Windows Media - can be downloaded from Microsoft servers.


Videos can be played on any device - from desktop PC, via laptops, mobile devices Pocket PC up to the XBox console


The role of the server is not available in Windows Server 2003 Web Edition, as well as 64-bit variant of Windows 2003 Server.




In the case of a small network implementation of Active Directory, or even a DNS server may be unnecessary. In the case of several computers, it is sufficient to name resolution protocol based WINS (Windows Internet Name Service). Its mission is mapping the IP address of the NetBIOS name of the computer (and the other way round). If the administrator has few clients, it is worth considering whether there is enough to include the role of the WINS server. This allows customers to simultaneously work better equipped with the older versions of Windows, such as Windows 98 or NT.

By installing a WINS server is reduced network traffic associated with name resolution (without a central server is done on the basis of broadcastu). Such a server is useful even if it is not cost effective to install the DNS server for each subnet. You might also add that in Windows 2003 Server can connect to resolve names via WINS and DNS.