Web Services Platform Elements Computer Science Essay

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A Web Service is a software component that is described via WSDL and is capable of being accessed via standard network protocols such as but not limited to SOAP over HTTP.

2. Provider

Technology Provider Roles are used to capture a Technology Provider (Technology Product or Technology Product Build) playing the role of a Technology Component.

3. Requester

The requester of a service is the entity (controller or component controller) which asks for the execution of the web service.

4. Web service description (WSD)

The mechanics of the message exchange are documented in a web service description (WSD). The WSD is a machine-processable specification of the web service's interface, written in WSDL (XML based language for describing the web services and how to access them).

5. Semantics

The semantics of a Web service is the shared expectation about the behavior of the service, in particular in response to messages that are sent to it. In effect, this is the "contract" between the requester entity and the provider entity regarding the purpose and consequences of the interaction.

b)

1. How does a web service distinguish itself from a web application?

Web service is a programmable unit of software that can be accessed over the Internet and used remotely. It can be used internally by a single application or exposed externally over the Internet for use by multiple applications.

Where as Web Applications can be defined as all the Web pages (.aspx, .jsp,

and HTML files), handlers, modules, executable code, and other files (such as

images and configuration files) that can be invoked from a Web server.

2. What are Web Services platform elements?

Web Services have three basic platform elements: SOAP, WSDL and UDDI.

SOAP is an XML-based protocol to let applications exchange information over HTTP.

SOAP stands for Simple Object Access Protocol

Communication protocol for accessing a Web Service

Platform and language independent

WSDL is an XML-based language for locating and describing Web services.

WSDL stands for Web Services Description Language

Used to locate and describe Web services

UDDI is a directory service where companies can register and search for Web services.

UDDI stands for Universal Description, Discovery and Integration

Directory for storing information

Communicates via SOAP and built into the Microsoft .NET platform

3. The features which distinguish WSDL (Web Services Description Language) from UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery and Integration).

WSDL defines the XML grammar for describing services as collections of communication endpoints capable of exchanging messages.

UDDI is a specification designed to allow businesses of all sizes to benefit in the new digital economy. There is a UDDI registry, which is open to everybody. Membership is free and members can enter details about themselves and the services they provide.

4. How UDDI Services are used inside an organization?

UDDI Services provides easy discovery of Web services and other programmatic resources inside an organization. Two common scenarios for UDDI Services inside an organization are Developer Reuse and Dynamic Application Configuration.

Developer Reuse: At design time, developers search UDDI Services for Web services and other programmatic resources to reuse in building new applications.

Dynamic Application Configuration: At run time, an application queries UDDI Services to discover the current binding information for the services it needs, and then connects directly to those services.

5. How UDDI Services can be managed?

IT administrators can easily manage access to UDDI Services functions such as searching and publishing information by assigning users to one of four roles that define the level of interaction a user is allowed in UDDI Services: User, Publisher, Coordinator, or Administrator.

6. What is SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol)?

SOAP is a simple protocol for exchange of information. It is based on XML and consists of three parts: a SOAP envelope (describing what's in the message and how to process it); a set of encoding rules, and a convention for representing RPCs (Remote Procedure Calls) and responses.

Task 2

Introduction

By using MMC I have to accomplish the task as requirements of the question.

It is basically the activities of windows system that is shown clearly.

To open the MMC, there should be going through few steps which are given below:

-> Start Menu

-> Run

Figure: 1

->Type mmc to text box on run

-> Ok

Figure: 2

mmc is opened in figure: 3

Figure: 3

To open computer management snap-in

-> File in Console 1

-> Add/Remove Snap-in (Ctrl+M)

Figure: 4

-> Add to Add/Remove Snap-in

-> Add to Add Standalone Snap-in to Computer management

Figure: 5

-> Computer Management window will come checks the radio button of Local computer.

-> Finish

Figure: 6

-> Select the Computer Management (Local) of Add/Remove Snap-in

-> Ok

Figure: 7

-> After finishing this process Computer Management is added on the console1 and it could be manage the local computer

Figure: 8

a) Manage services

Service applications typically provide features such as client/server applications, Web servers, database servers, and other server-based applications to users, both locally and across the network. Manage services must have the appropriate permissions to start, stop, pause, restart, and disable services.

Figure: 9

Figure: 10

b) Monitor Your System

Event Viewer helps users to monitor events which are recorded in the Application, Security, and System logs:

For help with specific tasks

For general background information

For problem-solving instructions

Fig: 11

c) Manage Storage

From manage storage we can use the default tools to manage the properties of storage devices. Tools are

Removable Storage,

Disk Defragmenter, and

Disk Management.

Fig: 12

d) Manage hardware settings

To manage the hardware setting we have to go to the Device Manager from MMC. Device Manager provides a graphical view of the hardware that is installed on computers. We can use Device Manager to update the drivers (or software) for hardware devices, modify hardware settings, and troubleshoot problems.

Fig: 13

e) Monitor utilization of operating system resources.

To monitor utilization of operating system resources we have to go to the performance logs and alerts. It supports detailed monitoring of the utilization of operating system resources.

Fig: 14

f) Manage users and groups

To manage users and groups we have to go to local users or groups which is an account that can be granted permissions and rights from computers. Domain or global users and groups are managed by the network administrator and add local users, global users, and global groups to local groups.

Fig: 15

g) Configure data counter logs, trace logs and alert logs.

h) Show IIS in installed on your machine. If not do so.

IIS is not installed in my computer. To install IIS Xp cd and cd/dvd-rom is needed. The following steps are given below -

-> Input Windows Xp cd in to cd/dvd-rom

-> Install windows component

-> check the IIS and next

-> Click the finish

->After finish the installing IIS, Administrative tools window show IIS icon

-> IIS is installed successfully

i) Ping your server IP address as well as by name.

For ping server IP address we have to follow some steps that are given below.

To ping IP address

->Run

-> Type cmd

-> Command window will shown

-> Type ipconfig

-> The followings windows shows the IP address, subnet musk and Default gateway (Server IP)

-> Ping the server IP address

-> Here is the following window with IP address

j) Showing that "Start" and "Stop" works for ISS.

-> To stop the IIS right click on default web site of IIS and click Stop.

-> The IIS is stopped

-> To start IIS just click Start .

TASK 3

1) Domain Name System (DNS)

The DNS translates Internet domain and host names to IP addresses. DNS automatically converts the names we type in our Web browser address bar to the IP addresses of Web servers hosting those sites.

2) Internet Protocol (IP) address

An Internet Protocol (IP) address is a numerical identification of logical address that is assigned to devices participating in a computer network utilizing the Internet Protocol for communication between its nodes.

IP classes are given below:

Class A 1-126 (127 reserved for local computer)

Class B 128-191

Class C 192-223

Class D and E reserved for special purposes such as multicast.

3) IP version 4 addresses

IPv4 only uses 32-bit (4-byte) addresses, which limits the address space to 4,294,967,296 (232) possible unique addresses. However, many are reserved for special purposes, such as private networks (18 million addresses) or multicast addresses (270 million addresses). IPv4 addresses are usually represented in dotted-decimal notation (four numbers, each ranging from 0 to 255, separated by dots, e.g. 147.132.42.18). Each range from 0 to 255 can be represented by 8 bits, and is therefore called an octet.

4) DNS name server

A domain name server is similar to a phonebook. It tells the Internet programs where to go by translating the domain name into an Internet (IP) address. Every Internet Service Provider (ISP) has its own DNS servers.

5) Resolver

The client-side of the DNS is called a DNS resolver. It is responsible for initiating and sequencing the queries that ultimately lead to a full resolution (translation) of the resource sought, e.g., translation of a domain name into an IP address.

6) DNS Infrastructure

DNS infrastructure consists of DNS servers that run the DNS Server service and DNS clients that run the DNS Client service.

DNS is a system for naming computers and network services that is organized into a hierarchy of domains. DNS naming is used in TCP/IP networks, such as the Internet, to locate computers and services with user-friendly names.

7) Fully qualified domain name (FQDN)

A fully qualified domain name (FQDN) is the complete domain name for a specific computer, on the Internet. The FQDN consists of two parts: the hostname and the domain name. If, mymail.somecollege.edu is FQDN, the hostname is mymail and domain name is somecollege.edu

8) Network ID

The network ID is the network portion of an IP address. For a class A network, the network address is the first byte of the IP address. For a class B network, the network address is the first two bytes of the IP address. For a class C network, the network address is the first three bytes of the IP address. In each case, the remainder is the host address.

9) SUBNET MASK

An IP address has two components, the network address and the host address. A subnet mask separates the IP address into the network and host addresses (<network><host>). Subnetting further divides the host part of an IP address into a subnet and host address (<network><subnet><host>). It is called a subnet mask because it is used to identify network address of an IP address by perfoming bitwise AND operation on the netmask.

b) Briefly discuss the common vulnerabilities of DNS

DNS is responsible for translating host names to IP addresses and is critical for the normal operation of internet-connected systems. DNS cache poisoning is an attack technique that allows an attacker to introduce forged DNS information into the cache of a caching nameserver. The following are examples of these vulnerabilities:

Insufficient transaction ID space

Multiple outstanding requests

Fixed source port for generating queries

C) What measures can be taken to secure DNS

The measures that can take to secure DNS are given below:

Security objectives for each DNS component are developed on the basis of analysis of the operating environment and associated threats.

Secure deployment guidelines for each DNS component are provided through a combination of configuration options and checklists that are based on policies or best practices.

d)

1.

If we choose class C IP address it may require several networks. And it will also need a number of devices to support the networks. So it will be expensive to use class C. Though Class B does not need extra devices as class C, it will be cost effective to use class B in a broad area.

Total PC = 1500

Class = B (IP range 128-191)

Subnet mask = 255.255.0.0

Network ID = b1.b2.0.0

Host ID = 0.0.b3.b4

B1 = (128-191)

B2 = (0-255)

B3 = (0-255)

B4 = (1-254)

IP address = 172.50.0.1

Network ID = 172.50.0.0

Host ID = 0.0.0.1

Network ID = 172.50.0.0

= 172.50.1.0

= 172.50.2.0

= 172.50.3.0

= 172.50.4.0

= 172.50.5.0

Host ID = 172.50.0.1

= 172.50.0.250

= 172.50.1.1

= 172.50.1.250

= 172.50.2.1

= 172.50.2.250

= 172.50.3.1

= 172.50.3.250

= 172.50.4.1

= 172.50.4.250

= 172.50.5.1

= 172.50.5.250

Total PC's = 1500 PC

2

Using www.4domains.com a domain that I check out

www.toughip.com which is available. Here is the screen shot given below,

Shopping Cart of www.toughip.com

Registration process and payment screenshot

3

In this figure a sub netting system of an organization where each and every subnet containing not more than 100 computers that has been shown below.

• Subnet A:

(1-100) PCs

Ip class: Class B

Subnet mask: 255.255.0.0

Network ID: 172.50.0.0

Host ID for pc 1: 0.0.0.1

Host ID for pc 100: 0.0.0.100

• Subnet B:

(101-200) PCs

Ip class: Class B

Subnet mask: 255.255.0.0

Network ID: 172.50.0.0

Host ID for pc 101: 0.0.1.1

Host ID for pc 200: 0.0.1.100

• Subnet C:

(201-300) PCs

Ip class: Class B

Subnet mask: 255.255.0.0

Network ID: 172.50.0.0

Host ID for pc 201: 0.0.2.1

Host ID for pc 300: 0.0.2.100

• Subnet D:

(301-400) PCs

Ip class: Class B

Subnet mask: 255.255.0.0

Network ID: 172.50.0.0

Host ID for pc 301: 0.0.3.1

Host ID for pc 400: 0.0.3.100

• Subnet E:

(401-500) PCs

Ip class: Class B

Subnet mask: 255.255.0.0

Network ID: 172.50.0.0

Host ID for pc 401: 0.0.4.1

Host ID for pc 500: 0.0.4.100

• Subnet F:

(501-600) PCs

Ip class: Class B

Subnet mask: 255.255.0.0

Network ID: 172.50.0.0

Host ID for pc 501: 0.0.5.1

Host ID for pc 600: 0.0.5.100

• Subnet G:

(601-700) PCs

Ip class: Class B

Subnet mask: 255.255.0.0

Network ID: 172.50.0.0

Host ID for pc 601: 0.0.6. 1

Host ID for pc 700: 0.0.6.100

• Subnet H:

(701-800) PCs

Ip class: Class B

Subnet mask: 255.255.0.0

Network ID: 172.50.0.0

Host ID for pc 701: 0.0.7. 1

Host ID for pc 800: 0.0.7.100

Subnet I:

(801-900) PCs

Ip class: Class B

Subnet mask: 255.255.0.0

Network ID: 172.50.0.0

Host ID for pc 801: 0.0.8.1

Host ID for pc 900: 0.0.8.100

• Subnet J:

(901-1000) PCs

Ip class: Class B

Subnet mask: 255.255.0.0

Network ID: 172.50.0.0

Host ID for pc 901: 0.0.9.1

Host ID for pc 1000: 0.0.9.100

• Subnet K:

(1000-1100) PCs

Ip class: Class B

Subnet mask: 255.255.0.0

Network ID: 172.50.0.0

Host ID for pc 1001: 0.0.10.1

Host ID for pc 1100: 0.0.10.100

• Subnet L:

(1100-1200) PCs

Ip class: Class B

Subnet mask: 255.255.0.0

Network ID: 172.50.0.0

Host ID for pc 1101: 0.0.11.1

Host ID for pc 1200: 0.0.11.100

• Subnet M:

(1200-1300) PCs

Ip class: Class B

Subnet mask: 255.255.0.0

Network ID: 172.50.0.0

Host ID for pc 1201: 0.0.12.1

Host ID for pc 1300: 0.0.12.100

• Subnet N:

(1300-1400) PCs

Ip class: Class B

Subnet mask: 255.255.0.0

Network ID: 172.50.0.0

Host ID for pc 1301: 0.0.13.1

Host ID for pc 1400: 0.0.13.100

Subnet O:

(1400-1500) PCs

Ip class: Class B

Subnet mask: 255.255.0.0

Network ID: 172.50.0.0

Host ID for pc 1401: 0.0.14.1

Host ID for pc 1500: 0.0.14.100

4

The range of ip addresses are in two subnet works given below:

• Subnet L:

(1100-1200) PCs

Ip class: Class B

Subnet mask: 255.255.0.0

Network ID: 172.50.0.0

Host ID for pc 1101: 0.0.11.1

Host ID for pc 1200: 0.0.11.100

IP Address of 1101: 172.50.11.1

IP Address of 1200: 172.50.11.100

• Subnet M:

(1200-1300) PCs

Ip class: Class B

Subnet mask: 255.255.0.0

Network ID: 172.50.0.0

Host ID for pc 1201: 0.0.12.1

Host ID for pc 1300: 0.0.12.100

IP Address of 1201: 172.50.12.1

IP Address of 1300: 172.50.12.100

In this Task here I describe the IP addressing and sub netting of 1500 computers

TASK 4

a)

1. The automation (of server management tasks)

Automation may help us making information available as well as fast in time of need. It can perform configuration changes with great precision and can make frequently performed tasks less monotonous.

Automation helps us:

To List the holders of Flexible Single Master Operations (FSMO) roles

To Create DHCP scopes

To Modify DHCP scope options

To Create static DNS records

To Create the print queues and more

2. Search engine

A search engine is a web site that collects and organizes content from all over the internet. Those wishing to locate something would enter a query about what they'd like to find and the engine provides links to content that matches what they want.

Services such as Yahoo!, Google, Msn, WebCrawler, Excite, Alta Vista, or Lycos that will search the web for sites containing specified key words or phrases.

3. www robot

WWW robots, also known as web robots, or simply bots, are software applications that run automated tasks over the internet. Typically, bots perform tasks that are both simple and structurally repetitive, at a much higher rate than would be possible for a human editor alone. Each server can have a file called robots.txt, containing rules for the spidering of that server that the bot is supposed to obey.

4. Uses of robot and search engine

An Internet Bot is a software application that does repetitive and automated tasks in the internet that would otherwise take humans a long time to do. The most common internet bots are the spider bots which are used for web server analyses and file data gathering. Bots are also used to provide the required higher response rate for some online services like online auctions and online gaming.

A search engine works by sending out a spider to fetch as many documents as possible. Another program, called an indexer, then reads these documents and creates an index based on the words contained in each document. Each search engine uses a proprietary algorithm to create its indices such that, ideally, only meaningful results are returned for each query.

b) Interpret the following "/robots.txt" files

Users-agent: * - all robots.

Disallow:/cgi-bin/ - disallows.cgi-bin

Disallow:/Naj/ - disallow Naj

C) Interpret the following "/robots.txt" files

Users-agent: * - all robots.

Disallows: allow all robots.

d)

To schedule the task we have to go through the following steps:

-> Control panel

-> Scheduled Task

Fig: Control Panel

-> After open this Scheduled Task window

-> Click Add Schedule Task (Pointing by the arrow sign)

Fig: Schedule Tasks

-> Then Schedule Task Wizard will open

-> Click Next

Fig: Schedule Task Wizard

-> Select Adobe Reader 9

-> Click Next

-> Click one time only from the options

-> Click Next

-> Select Time and Date

-> Click Next

-> Type User Name, Password of Administrator in the text box

-> Click Next

-> Click Finish

-> Adobe Reader has been successfully created in the schedule task's window

Back up and Disk cleanup task are same as above as the Adobe Reader has been scheduled.

Back up

Back up means keeping record of the overall procedure as of back up of the original files. So that if the original file is removed back up will help to get it back.

Disk Cleanup

It's delete the temporary file and uninstalling programs to make free the hard disk drive. After deleting the unusual files from hard disk it gets more space and work little bit faster.

e)

The way to delete the schedule task back up is given below

-> go to schedule task right click on backup

-> Properties then settings and then select the Delete the task if it is not scheduled it again

The Backup file was deleted after perform the task

f) The task that are automated start on schedule task

g)

Here is the process that the web server will be run at login time.

-> Schedule task then browse

-> Open the Inetpub

-> enter the wwwroot

-> Select the iisstart.asp

-> After finish the web server schedule task, it will start when windows login.

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