Web Applications Through Dotnet Technology Computer Science Essay

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In the past 7 years, new techniques and technologies have been introduced by different companies for developing and designing of Web Applications. Web Applications are processed on web server and transmitted to end user via internet. One of the most popular technologies evolved is Microsoft's AJAX and Silverlight. These technologies are used to develop rich internet applications. AJAX stands for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML(Extensible Markup Language). It is a subset of Java Script and XML. Silverlight is the combination of WPF (Windows Presentation Foundation) and XAML (Extensible Application Markup Language). It is used for creating good graphics, animated displays and various rich interactive applications. This paper explores the past and future trends of website designing and client, server side scripting languages. Also provides advantages of using AJAX and Silverlight in web application and how these technologies are implemented in .Net technologies? What are the disadvantages of Asp.net AJAX? To unveil evolving trends of these technologies and how these are used to enhance the performance and making code executable on all platforms.

Keywords: Web Applications, AJAX, Silverlight, .Net Technologies.

1.Introduction:

In the earlier stage of Internet, HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) is used to transfer data through internet. HTTP functionality is just to open and close connections. Further versions were introduced 1.0 in 1996 and 1.1 in 1999. All web browsers supports Http it does the work assigned to do such as fetching data etc. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) is not a programming language it is built of markup language consist of markup tags. Markup tags are used to describe web pages. HTML is not designed for complex interactive web applications. The association of HTML and HTTP is limited as we said above it is used for retrieving web pages (HTML) from internet. There are various limitations for these combination to overcome this limitations few technologies are developed.

Server-Side Web Technologies are used to activate web server for performing critical operations and object oriented programming etc. PHP is one of most popular language used to execute server side-logic. PHP stands for PHP Hypertext Preprocessor. It is similar to ASP (Active Server Pages). PHP is open source software, Executed on Windows, Linux, Unix etc supports different databases like MySql, Sybase, PostgreSQL.

JavaScript's official name is ECMA Script. JavaScript (Client-Side Technologies) is a scripting language its code is written in normal text and is embedded to html tags to make html pages more interactive and effective. JavaScript is supported by all web browsers. JavaScript is used to validate data, to enable cookies, execute events, input dynamic text such as header etc. According to the market trends new techniques and technologies like PHP, JavaScript, HTML, ASP evolved. The problem from the above page execution is, when user makes any request to server, each time page is reloaded and data is send from server after single execution. For each request from client server must execute page and reload page and then send data to client it proved to be waste of time. This is Clearly explained in below section. To avoid this problem AJAX and Silverlight is used to reduce the processing time, good animations, Rich Interactive applications(Randy Connolly, 2007).

The aim of this paper is to define how Ajax and Silverlight with Asp.Net technologies are useful in creating web applications and advantages of using these new technologies and what are the future trends in developing web applications.

In this example we can easily identify the problem in before versions of techniques like JavaScript, Asp, Xml etc which had a problem in page execution.

2. Results:

Example for Email id validation using JavaScript:

<html>

<head>

<Script Language = "JavaScript">

Function f1()

{

S=f.t1.value

P1=s.index of("@")

P2=s.index of(".")

P3=s.index of(" ")

D=p2-p1

If(p1==0|| p1==-1||d<=1|| p3!=-1)

{

Alert("invalid Email")

f.t1.focus()

}}

</script>

</head>

<body>

<form name="f">

Email id:<input type= "text" name= "t1" onblur= "f1()>

<br>

Password:<input type="password" name="t2">

</form>

</body>

</html>

In this example browser will wait until user enters all the data after entering data in all fields browser sends a request to server to execute submitted page. Server responds to client request and process the page and sends output as valid or invalid. If the data is invalid user should enter data in all the fields once again. This is very time consuming process this problem can be solved using Asp.Net AJAX.

As we have discussed about the problems in page execution in Introduction, by using Asp.NetAjax we can overcome that problem because, while user is entering data browser makes a hidden request to server for execution of data entered by user this process is hidden and it will not interrupt user by page reloads etc. According to user new trends and new techniques are developed. In future Web Application will become user desktop Application.

WEB SERVER

WEB CLIENT

Client Request

Client Response

W

E

B

S

E

R

V

E

R

W

E

B

C

L

I

E

N

T

JavaScript Code Makes Invisible call to Server

Server Replies sending desk

JavaScript updates the web pages using data

Above figure depicts hidden Page execution of Asp.Net Ajax.In the figure, below part denotes hidden page execution to server without disturbing user with page reloads and above part is normal page execution.

3 .Net Technology:

There are several problems before .Net towards different types of application development (Jon Arking and Scott Millett, 2009):

3.1 Platform Dependency: The application targets particular operating system is platform dependency. The solution for this problem under .Net is generating platform Independent code called IL code (Intermediate Language Code).

3.2 Error Handling: Before .Net Different Languages have got different approach for error handling this is called Unstructured error handling. The solution in .Net is Structured Error Handling called Exception Handling this support cross language error handling.

3.3 Language Interoperability: Code produced by one language is used by other language is called language interoperability. This can be solved in .Net using Assemblies.

3.4 Distributed Technology: Before .Net this technology is implemented using DCOM. DCOM have few problems while implementing. They are, it supports communication between Microsoft applications under windows. DCOM supports intranet based implementation. The Solution under .Net is Remoting, web services, Windows Communication foundation.

3.5 Web Based Application: Before .Net dynamic web pages with server side coding can be created using ASP. Asp supports server side coding with JavaScript/Vb Script. These are scripting languages based on interpreter. Scripting Languages doesn't provide good performance and proper memory management because they don't have any datatypes.

The solution in .Net is ASP.Net. In Asp.Net we can write error free code.

3.6 Mobile Application Development: Before .Net Mobile Applications are developed using VC++. Its internal programming is very complex and time consuming. Before .Net Mobile Web applications development is not possible. The solution under .Net for offline application is Smart Device Application development. It supports Application Development towards different devices which support windows, pocket PC, Smart Phone. The solution for web based online application is MMIT (Microsoft Mobile Internet Toolkit). This makes developer job easier and faster. (Jon Arking and Scott Millett, 2009)

The first version of .Net Beta is released in the year 2000. The actual release RTM (Release To Manufacturer) is in the year 2002. According to the market trends and requirement of user more .Net version has released.

2002-- .Net 1.0

2003-- .Net 1.1

2005-- .Net 2.0

2006-- .Net 3.0

2007-- .Net 3.5

2008-- .Net 4.0 Beta Version

2010-- .Net 4.0

4. Asp.Net:

Asp Objects + .Net Services is Asp.Net. It supports Asp Objects like Response, Request, Session, Application, Server and services like Vb.net, C#.net, Base class libraries etc. Asp.Net is a technology which provides group of specifications for building web based applications. It supports web based application like: Normal Web Application, Mobile Application, Web Services, AJAX Web application. (George Shepherd, 2008)

The current version of .Net is 4.0 released in April 2010. It has new features such as, AJAX, Linq, Silverlight, WPF, WCF, WF. Microsoft is providing Asp.net Silverlight for Rich Internet Application Development. Asp.Net Silverlight is similar to Abode Flash. Before release of .Net 4.0 Version Silverlight is not integrated in .Net 3.5 version it is provided as separate download product by Microsoft. According to the trends in IT, Silverlight is been integrated in .Net 4.0. In Asp 3.0 the developer should mix html tags with server side code to display database values with controls. This will be complex part for developer no clarity into coding and maintenance wil not be easier. The solution for this is Asp.Net Server Side Controls it makes developer job easier and makes maintenance better

4.1 AJAX with Asp.Net:

AJAX stands for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. AJAX is "empowered JavaScript" (George Shepherd, 2008), it provide techniques for client side JavaScript to execute backend server calls and fetch data when required, update few aspects in the webpage without making full page reloads.

Consider a real time example: Assume some web form where user is requested to enter data such as username, password, email etc. it is to be validated before going into tier. If we don't use AJAX in this process. There are 2 types of techniques, one is to allow user type all the information needed after that allow user to submit the page and at last validation is left to server. In this case user may face dead time for waiting of new page to load. The best alternative is to verify at client but it's not possible. If we use AJAX enabled webpage, Web Application can verify the inserted information by user and simultaneously it will make server calls in the background as user enters data i.e., as user inputs data in the required field in the background web application executes validation of the user inserted data and simultaneously user enters data in the remaining field.

Few examples of applications that use AJAX are Gmail, Yahoo mail, Hotmail, Google Maps.

AJAX can create various interactive applications by making transparent calls to server while user is working. It is a type of tool where any developer can create user friendly web applications rather than traditional web applications. AJAX can be executed in all web browsers like Mozilla, Google Chrome etc. XMLHttpRequest object activate JavaScript to run on server so that user can work simultaneously with webpage. A Http file is executed on server, Http requests are easily executable on server it doesn't create any firewall problems (Randy Connolly, 2007).

According to the trends in web application development AJAX is been used in Asp.Net for creating versatile Web Applications. In Asp.Net AJAX communications is done over web services between client and server. Continuous communication is done between client and server in Asp.Net AJAX. A group of Server side controls that enhance client side performance. It also support Cross Browser Platform support (Randy Connolly, 2007).

5. Microsoft Silverlight:

Silverlight is cross-browser-platform technology for designing and development next generation Rich Interactive Application (RIA) and media works for web. It runs in most browsers like Google Chrome, Mozilla, Opera and windows, Apple mac os etc. In Silverlight, buffering video and audio and also improve the clarity and pixel of video from mobile devices to browsers into high definition video format. It includes Graphics like ZoomIn, ZoomOut, Drag etc to user in browser directly (Matthew MacDonalds, 2008).

Silverlight is the combination of all different technologies brought into single development platform so that user can use exact tools, programming language according to needs.

5.1 Features of Silverlight:

Silverlight is combination of Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) and XAML(Randy Connolly, 2007). WPF is used to improve the appearance of browser and to create user interactive applications. Silverlight lets you to create excellent graphics, Layouts, Animation etc. Extensible Application Markup Language (XAML) gives us syntax for elements. Silverlight provide Networking Support to Http over TCP. By this advanced feature user can connect to WCF, Asp.net Ajax and receive XML, RSS data. Silverlight includes Language Integrated Query. (Randy Connolly, 2007). According to the user requirements and user expectations are going on increasing users are expecting Web Application as Desktop Application. Accordingly Microsoft has introduced new technologies and techniques for web applications such as Silverlight, Asp.Net AJAX etc.

6. Discussion:

Microsoft .Net Technologies are well established in market and lot of companies are using for web designing and development. If we consider Altair Global Relocation which is one of the top company in USA.This company has recently replaced its Linux Environment platform to infrastructure with Microsoft Server2003 using Microsoft .Net Framework.

"Because their are so many different distributions of linux the update systems are wide and varied, which dosen't work withus." (Jason Beaudreau, Director, IT, Altair Global Relocation, May 2008)

By the change in Altair Global Relocation infrastructure, companies revenue has been increased by 30percent per annum, increased its ROI by 100 percent, rapid retrieval of database, build a flexible architecture and build a secure business model. In further years Microsoft .Net Technologies plays a vital role.

"Every penny we have put into our solution has come back to us within six months." (Kelly Tepera, Senior Vice President, Information Services, Altair Gloabl Relocation, .May 2008)

6.1 Advantages of Asp.Net AJAX:

AJAX can be integrated into lot of Existing Technologies. AJAX helps us to create Online chat Application without using java Runtime machine and flash. Asp.Net AJAX is helpful to create good and better websites and web application. Using this we create an application so that we can get online or external feedback like RSS (Randy Connolly, 2007).

6.2 Advantages of Silverlight:

Silverlight support Cross Platform, Cross browser applications. Silverlight supports asynchronous calls to server. We can design Tcp Programming for multi user support. Silverlight applications are being able to use with firewall (Matthew MacDonalds, 2008).

Microsoft Asp.NetAJAX and Silverlight helpful to enhance designing and developing web applications. In this generation most of the Web Application designed by Microsoft technologies such as, Asp.Net, C#.net, Asp.Net AJAX, Silverlight, WWF, WPF, WCF these are the technologies widely used in present market because of their excellent features. This Paper also provides Trends in designing web technologies from beginning of internet.

6.3 Research has to be made in the following fields:

We can make Asp.Net AJAX application disable i.e., if we disable javascript at clientside we can Stop functioning of application. In Asp.NetAJAX page BACK button will not be effective if required. Debugging is difficult in AJAX because it doesn't support cross browser application. Exception handling is not up to mark in silverlight because of XAML. In Silverlight no in build controls are available. In future new techniques must evolve to delimit these problems.

According to the expectations of user, new trends in designing and developing web applications are continuously evolving. In future Web applications can be created as desktop application like user friendly desktop application.

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