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Fresh Fruits Company should do warehouse planning which can meet the new requirements of the customers. They have to store and keep them in a way that won't harm their products. Also company can have ergonomic environment within the warehouse to make effectiveness of the work.
Basically the warehouse planning should be done according to the following procedure.
Defining the objective
First of all the company should have a clear idea of the company's objective. Here there main objective is to provide fresh fruits and vegetables to Denmark in a quality manner. So the warehouses have to be maximized and they should have hygiene factors. Warehouse planning should be done in a way that warehousing costs will be reduced.
Planning the layout of the warehouse
Then the layout of the floor has to be planned including doors, height restrictions, and racks. Basically this is with regards to the receiving, storing and shipping the goods..
Determining the shelving and goods
Here we have to identify how the shelving should be done in order to store goods in the warehouse. When determining the shelves the company should leave enough space to move goods.
When creating storage area to keep goods company should store them in a way that easy to find and also keep it cleanly. So here the company has to think about the hygiene factors of the warehouse. The warehouses should be cleaned enough to stock fresh foods. They should have high freeze refrigerators to keep the products fresh till the distribution. Also there must be a forklift for truck deliveries and there should be ample of space around the dock to move.
Also there should be separate spaces for shipping and distributing goods with large sturdy worktables in the warehouse.
Company should post safety signs and notices near the warehouse
Company can maintain a separate area in the warehouse to recycle the used packing materials
The above mentioned facts should be considered by the company when planning the warehouse layouts to meet the customer quality requirements.
09. Warehouse Layout of the Company
For new requirement for customers Fresh Fruits Company should do warehouse planning. This fresh fruits have keep in a safety situation hence if it will harm they have to face different types of problems. So the fresh fruits ware house planning should be done according to the following steps
Defining the objective
Fresh fruits' main objective is providing quality fruits for customers. So according to this main objective they have to come up with a standardize warehouse plan.
Planning the layout of the warehouse
They have to plan how safety place should arrange.
Determining the shelving and goods
In this step they have to identify how the shaving should be done. Hence they have to store goods in the ware house.
Here's how to plan your storage areas in order to reduce clutter and increase efficiency. Use clear storage bins that fit the shelf or cupboard to contain small or like objects such as parts, wires, collections, ornaments. Then clearly mark all boxes and items if it's not immediately obvious what it is. When sorting through items to store, evaluate it.
Post safety and notices near the warehouse
9.0 Warehouse Layout and Production Facilities
The company will situate new warehouses and buildings in order to storage of raw materials, packaging materials and finished products. So according to our research we have identified that these buildings should have enough space to store all the packs of fruit and to carryout all the operational activities. We know that the investment should be appropriate to the size and expected profitability of the enterprise to reduce start-up capital, the size of any loans taken out and depreciation and maintenance charges. To build these new buildings we got some advices from a chief architect who was the designer of all the warehouses of CIC Srilanka. Following there are some of his suggestions to build up the best warehouse and all the suggestions are included in his own words.
Roofs and ceilings
In tropical climates, overhanging roofs keep direct sunlight off the walls and out of the buildings. This is particularly important when processing involves heating, to make working conditions more comfortable. Fibre-cement tiles offer greater insulation against heat from the sun than galvanised iron sheets do. High level vents in roofs both allow heat and steam to escape and encourage a flow of fresh air through the processing buildings and warehouses. The vents must be screened with mesh to prevent insects, rodents and birds from entering these areas. If heat is a serious problem, the entrepreneur could consider fitting electric fans or extractors, although this clearly increases capital and operating costs.
As a minimum requirement, all internal walls should be rendered or plastered with a good quality plaster to prevent dust forming in the processing buildings and warehouses. An experienced plasterer should be used to ensure that no cracks or ledges remain in the surface finish, which could accumulate dirt and insects. The lower area of walls, to at least 1.08 metres (four feet) above the floor, is most likely to get dirty from washing equipment, from product splashing etc. and special attention should be paid to ensure that this area is easily cleaned.
Windows and doors
Window sills should be made to slope for two reasons: to prevent dust from accumulating and to prevent operators from leaving cloths or other items lying there, which in turn can attract insects. Windows allow staff to work in natural daylight, which is preferable to and cheaper than electric lighting. However, in tropical climates there is a natural inclination for workers to open windows to allow greater circulation of fresh air. This provides easy access for flying insects, which can readily contaminate the product. Windows should therefore be fitted with mosquito mesh to allow them to be left open.
It is essential to ensure that the floors of processing buildings and warehouses are constructed of good quality concrete, smooth finished and without cracks. In Srilanka, it is possible to buy proprietary floor paints or vinyl based coatings, but these are usually very expensive. Generally, it is not adequate to use the red wax floor polishes that are commonly found in households, as these wear away easily and could contaminate either products or packages. Over time, spillages of acidic fruits react with concrete and cause it to erode. Attention should therefore be paid to cleaning up spillages as they occur and to regularly monitor the condition of the floor.
Product layout involves locating the machines and equipment so that each product follows a pre-arranged route through a series of processes. The products flow along a line of processes, which is clear, predictable and relatively easy to control. It is possible to automate the handling and transfer of items between processes by means of a conveyor belt, robots or similar devices. Product layout is preferred when production is continuous, part variety is less, production volume is high and part demand is relatively stable and for standardized products, which have quite stable demand in near future.
An example is automobile assembly, where almost all variants of the same model require the same sequence of processes.
Advantages of product layout are
Less work in process (WIP) inventory, as the flow of material is continuous along a line.
Compared to process layout, it requires less space for same volume of production.
The through-put time (or product cycle time) is less as compared to process layout. This is due to less chance of congestion and less waiting time on machine.
Simple production planning and control and better coordination of different activities may be achieved.
The flow of material is smooth and continuous.
Limitations of Product Layout are
Change in product design is difficult to accommodate.
Product variety is very much limited.
Breakdown of a particular machine in line halts the production output.
Capital investment in machines may be higher as compared to process layout as duplication of machines in line may be needed.
The flexibility to increase the production capacities is limited.
Process layout is also called as functional layout. Process layout is used for small and changing product volumes and by subcontractors offering a service based on a particular process. Similar machines or similar operations are located at one place as per the functions. For example, all milling operations are carried out at one place while all lathes are kept at a separate location. Grinding or finishing operation is kept at a separate location. This functional grouping of facilities is useful for job production and non-repetitive manufacturing environment. Different products will follow different routes around the factory.
Process Layout is suitable for non-standardized product, low volume, high variety manufacturing environment, frequent change in product design, job-shop manufacturing, and very expensive machines like milling.
Advantages of Process Layout
Initial investment in process layout is low.
Varied degree of machine utilization may be achieved in process layout as machine is not dedicated to a single product.
Greater flexibility and scope of expansion exist in this layout.
Disadvantages of Process Layout
There is high degree of material handling. Parts may have to backtrack in the same department.
Large work in-process inventory is common. This may lead to more storage area.
Workers are more skilled. This is because of variety in products and difference in design. Therefore, labor cost is higher.
Total cycle time is high. This is due to waiting in different departments and longer material flow.
Inspection is more frequent which results in higher supervision cost.
The production planning and control is relatively difficult.
Cellular manufacturing is a type of layout where machines are grouped according to the process requirements for a set of similar items (part families) that require similar processing. These groups are called cells. Therefore, a cellular layout is an equipment layout configured to support cellular manufacturing.
Processes are grouped into cells using a technique known as group technology (GT). Group technology involves identifying parts with similar design characteristics (size, shape, and function) and similar process characteristics (type of processing required, available machinery that performs this type of process, and processing sequence). Cellular layout is based on the group technology (GT) principle. Therefore, it is also called as group layout. This layout is suitable for a manufacturing environment in which medium variety of products are needed in small volumes (or batches). Cellular layout allows batch production to give economical advantages similar to those of mass production with additional advantages of flexibility.
Advantages of cellular layout
Cost. Cellular manufacturing provides for faster processing time, less material handling, less work-in-process inventory, and reduced setup time, all of which reduce costs.
Flexibility. Cellular manufacturing allows for the production of small batches, which provides some degree of increased flexibility.
Motivation. Since workers are cross-trained to run every machine in the cell, boredom is less of a factor. Also, since workers are responsible for their cells' output, more autonomy and job ownership is present.
Limitations of Cellular layout
Difficulty, faced during initial planning and implementation.
High cost in layout.
Difficult to bringing too many or too often changes.
Difficult to produce new part or non-standardized part.
Too much dependence on GT curtails flexibility of the cellular manufacturing system.
Fixed Position Layout
In fixed position layout, the main product being produced is fixed at a particular location. Resources, such as equipment, labor and material are brought to that fixed location. This type of layout is useful when the product being processed is very big, heavy or difficult to move. Fixed Position Layout is used for manufacturing very large assembled products on a one-off or very small volume basis. Some examples of fixed position layout are shipbuilding, aircraft assembly, wagon building, etc.
Advantages of Fixed Position Layout
Easy for products which are difficult to move.
Flexibility for change in design, operation sequence, labor availability, etc., exists in this layout.
This layout is very cost effective when many orders of similar type are existing in different stages of progress.
Large project types of jobs such as construction are suited in this layout.
Disadvantages of fixed position layout
High capital investment due to long duration to complete a product.
Space requirement for storage of material and equipment is large.
It requires careful project planning and focused attention on critical activities otherwise confusion, delay and conflict may arise
The best layout method for customized cement blocks manufacturing organization
I think the suitable layout option for the customized cement block manufacturing organization is cellular layout because it suits the types of operational activities which have to be performed in a customized cement block manufacturing organization.
If we take product layout, it involves locating the machines and equipment so that each product follows a pre-arranged route through a series of processes. The products flow along a line of processes, so it is clear that this layout option is very much suitable to continuous flow operations where the same products are produced with the same specification, so this is not a suitable option since in customized cement block manufacturing has different customized products according to the customers' requirement.
If we take a process layout they will go according to a particular process and only one process is done in a particular place and the next process will be done in another place or in other machine according to the process, but if we take the cellular layout it will consider the types of process the particular order has to go according to the customer requirement and they will arrange the machines according to the order or the process the production of particular good has to go which is very important and suitable to customized cement manufacturing organization because the design or the size of the order can be varied according to the customers' requirement.
This type of layout locates together all of the processes required for a set/batch of products, so the each orders the company get can be considered as set/batch in customized cement block manufacturing. Cells should be relatively small and will usually deal with a medium number of related products sharing some common processes, this is also more suitable to customized cement block since the output quantity will be medium and the verities will be lower or the same product sharing some common process will be produced in cement block manufacturing. In cellular layout it enables a short throughput time and good control since the whole set of processes for a product is done within the cell, this is very important for customized cement manufacturing because the cement blocks should be able to manufactured in quick process to meet the deadline of the customer and the manufacturing process should be done in the same place without doing each process in different places thus in a cell.
If we take fixed position layout, the main product being produced is fixed at a particular location. Resources, such as equipment, labor and material are brought to that fixed location which has nothing to do with the customized cement block manufacturing since trials are brought to the place where the manufacturing process are done and it need very costly machines which are not suitable to cement block manufacturing process.
If we take a customized cement manufacturing organization it will be relatively a small or a middle size organization where reducing the cost will be very important for them, f we take the cellular manufacturing it provides for faster processing time, less material handling, less work-in-process inventory, and reduced setup time, all of which reduce costs. So the cost perspective cellular layout suits the customized cement block manufacturing organization.
So the above explained factors shows that the best layout method for customized cement manufacturing is cellular layout since other layout options are not suitable with the manufacturing process of customized cement block manufacturing.