# Using Network Topologies To Create A Network Computer Science Essay

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Investigate the possible network topologies and media that could be used to create the in-house network

(LAN) for the Fire Department.

a) Explain how the topologies operate.

c) Provide a recommendation for which topology and medium to use including reasons for this recommendation.

## Problem Decomposition:

Bus, star, hub, hybrid, mesh, tree topologies and network physical design. In Computer Networking "topology" refers to the layout or design of the connected devices. Network Topologies can be physical or logical. Hear I will illustrate on the different types of the topologies, and how it operate.

Computer network topologies can be categorized in the following categories.

â€¢ Bus

â€¢ Star

â€¢ Ring

â€¢ Mesh

â€¢ Tree

## Bus topology.

Bus networks (not to be confused with the system bus of a computer) use a common backbone to connect all devices. A single cable, the backbone functions as a shared communication medium that devices attach or tap into with an interface connector

## Star Topology

Many home networks use the star topology. A star network features a central connection point called a "hub" that may be a hub, switch or router. Devices typically connect to the hub with Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Ethernet.

## Ring Topology

In a ring network, every device has exactly two neighbors for communication purposes. All messages travel through a ring in the same direction (either "clockwise" or "counterclockwise").

## Mesh Topology.

Mesh topologies involve the concept of routes. Unlike each of the previous topologies, messages sent on a mesh network can take any of several possible paths from source to destination

## Tree Topology

Tree topologies integrate multiple star topologies together onto a bus. In its simplest form, only hub devices connect directly to the tree bus, and each hub functions as the" root" of a tree of devices.

Fig: Tree Topology

## Bus Topology

It is easy to handle and implement.

It is best suited for small networks.

The cable length is limited. This limits the number of stations that can be connected.

This network topology can perform well only for a limited number of nodes.

## Ring Topology

The data being transmitted between two nodes passes through all the intermediate nodes. A central server is not required for the management of this topology.

The failure of a single node of the network can cause the entire network to fail.

The movement or changes made to network nodes affects the performance of the entire network.

## Mesh Topology

The arrangement of the network nodes is such that it is possible to transmit data from one node to many other nodes at the same time.

The arrangement wherein every network node is connected to every other node of the network, many of the connections serve no major purpose. This leads to the redundancy of many of the network connections.

## Star Topology

Due to its centralized nature, the topology offers simplicity of operation.

It also achieves an isolation of each device in the network

The network operation depends on the functioning of the central hub. Hence, the failure of the central hub leads to the failure of the entire network

## Considerations When Choosing a Topology

It is difficult to define recommendation for which topology and medium should be establish, When Choosing a Topology. Following things should be keep in mind before establish a network topology. More ever every topology has some weak ness, beside advantages.

Fire department need a random access and power network .Because information is very important hear. So better should be keep on an eye the the matter of Scalability and reliability. If we think about that mater then star topology is good as per my thinking.

Another reason is that, this network is easy to install, and make configuration. Robust as failure of one link does not affect the entire system. The remaining system will be active

## Problem Statement:

Investigate the Internet connection requirements for the Fire Department.

a) Describe the Internet services that may be required.

b) Explain the connection speeds that are suitable for these requirements.

c) Find examples of Internet Service Providers (ISPs) that can meet these requirements in your country.

d) Make a recommendation to use one ISP based upon the services offered and price charged.

## Internet connection requirements for the Fire Department.

Broadband Internet Connect \wire less connection

Router \ Wireless router \Antenna

Network Interface Card \ wireless Interface card.

Ethernet Cable

## Internet services that may be required are given bellow.

VOIP

WWW

FTP

Internet Fax.

Video chat\ video conference.

Instant messaging

## Problem Decomposition b

According to the previous point it doest need to need more then 8 Mbps, for the fire department.

## My expiation is goes hear.

Fire can be explore everywhere at a same time in different different place.

So people who are wanted so send the report or news to the fire department are

Continuous sending the news from different ways. Such as phone call, video call.

Fax, Voip, etc. To avoid line busy it should provide a smooth Internet connection, for

Easy access. That all the people can get the line at one chance to send the message.

So it would be better to use 8Mbps for the fire department.

## There are Some ISP company provides 8Mbps. They are,

Bangla lion ,(Gulshan)

Bijoy. (Gulshan)

Bracnet(Mohakhali Dhaka)

Daffodils online.(Dhanmondi)

NB. Bangla lion is one of the fastest internet (WiMax) service providers in Bangladesh.

1

128 Kbps

600

Unlimited

2

256 Kbps

1000

Unlimited

3

512 Kbps

800

5 GB

4

512 Kbps

1250

Unlimited

5

512 Kbps

1450

10 GB

## Problem Statement:

Investigate the methods the Fire Department could implement for two-way voice

Communications. As a minimum include the following information:

a) How each method works (frequencies, full/half duplex, etc)

b) Details of the legal requirements for operating the system in your country (e.g. allocation of Frequencies, licensing requirements, etc).

c) Costs of setting up and operating the system, including licensing costs, equipment costs, etc.

d) Limitations of each method (interference, range, etc).

e) Provide a recommendation for how voice communications should be set up and run including reasons for this recommendation.

Problem Decomposition: a

## Frequencies:

A radio wave is an electromagnetic wave propagated by an antenna. Radio waves have different frequencies, and by tuning a radio receiver to a specific frequency you can pick up a specific signal.

## Half duplex:

A half-duplex system provides for communication in both directions, but only one direction at a time (not simultaneously). Typically, once a device receiving a signal, it must wait for the transmitter to stop transmitting, before replying antennas are of trans-receiver type in these devices, so as to transmit and receive the signal as

Fig: Half duplex.

## Full Duplex:

Full duplex, allow both callers to speak and be heard at the same time. A good analogy for a full-duplex system would be a two-lane road with one lane for each direction.

Full duplex allow this happen simultaneously

## The Details legal requirement for Licensing is given bellow.

As per decision of Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission, all Domestic Data Communication Service Provider (DDCSP) Licenses have been converged with Nationwide Internet Service Provider (ISP) Licenses.

Under the new Nationwide Internet Service Provider (ISP) License, the Licensee shall be authorized to build, maintain, operate and provide Internet Service and Domestic Data Communication Service of point-to-point Domestic Data Circuit (excluding Voice Communication) throughout Bangladesh, subject to applicable laws as well as the terms and conditions of the new Nationwide Internet Service Provider (ISP) License.

All the DDCSP Licensees and DDCS User Permission Holders are exempted from making payment of any charge or license fee to the Commission in relation to the aforementioned convergence and/or their previous DDCSP License and DDCS User Permission.

## Allocation of frequency

Power

Telephone

Rotating generators

Musical instruments

Voice microphones

Twisted pair communication

Co-axial cable communication

Television

Electronic tubes

Integrated circuits

Cellular telephony

Terrestrial transmission

Satellite transmission

Microwave

Microwave antenna

Infrared

Laser

Visible light

Optical Fiber

102

103

104

105

106

107

108

109

1010

1011

1012

1013

1014

1015

ELF

VF

VLF

LF

ME

HF

VHF

UHF

SHF

EHF

Infrared Lasers Guided missiles Rangefinders

Visible light

Optical

fiber

Power and telephone

Rotating generators

Musical instruments

Voice microphones

twisted pair

Electronic tubes

Integrated circuits

Cellular telephony

Coaxial cable

and TV

Microwave

Microwave antennas

Magnetrons

Terrestrial

and satellite

transmission

Wavelength 106 105 104 103 102 100 1 0-1 10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 10 -6

in space

(Meters) ELF = Extremely low frequency ME + Medium frequency UHP = Ultra high frequency

VF = Voice frequency HF = High frequency SHF = Super high frequency

VLF = very low frequency VHF = very high frequency EHF = Extremely high frequency

Lf = Low frequency

## Costs of setting up and operating the systems,

Licensing costs, 1000000 .00 Taka

Equipment costs 500000.00 Taka.

## Limitation of the wireless internet Security concerns

It is simple to set Wi-Fi network but keeping it secure takes much more effort, Access points of Wi-Fi do not deploy encryption methods. It is required to be done as network is enabled. Secure Wi-Fi network can be easily attacked by hackers to steal private information.

Limitation of interference WiFi concern

Wi-Fi transmits data at 2.4 GHz making susceptible to interfere Bluetooth enabled devices, mobile phones, cordless, Microwaves and other communication devices, closer the interfering devices are the poor communication will be and vice versa.

## Noise:

In common use, the word noise means any unwanted sound. In both analog and digital electronics, noise is an unwanted perturbation to a wanted signal; it is called noise as generalizations of the audible noise heard when listening to a weak radio transmission.

## Echo

In audio signal processing and acoustics, an echo is a reflection of sound, arriving at the listener some time after the direct sound. Typical examples are the echo produced by the bottom of a well, by a building, or by the walls of an enclosed room. A true echo is a single reflection of the sound source. The time delay is the extra distance divided by the speed of sound.

## Problem Statement: e

Provide a recommendation for how voice communications should be set up and run including reasons for this recommendation.

## The process of setting up voice communication.

1 Setup Computer, install Operating systems, General Physical Network Connection

2. Choosing IP Addresses for Machines

3. Configuring TCP/IP, Configure Router, Hub, Modem, And Wireless Antenna.

4. Testing the TCP/IP Connection

5. Install the wireless Antenna

6. Check the Antenna.

7. Install Microphone, Head set, PABX, Land phone.

8. Install others necessary Software /OS

## Problem Statement:

Investigate telephone systems available in your country for single-site organizations like the Fire

Department. Pay particular attention to:

a) The main equipment that would be installed.

b) The features available with each system.

c) The cost of equipment and installation.

d) The cost of operating the system.

e) Provide a recommendation for which systems to purchase including reasons for this recommendation

## Problem Decomposition:

After investigate a single site organization for the telephone systems I found some,

Necessary Equipment, that are use to run a telephone systems. Which is listed bellow?

PBX

Telephone

## Communication system with Feature:

A small office PBX phone system is incorporated with all the complex features of a traditional PBX system so as to provide the organization the image of a big corporate. The callers are greeted with professional sounding greeting messages.

The features incorporated are auto attendant, voicemail, fax to email, caller ID, find me follow me call forwarding, call queuing, web administration and many more to help administer the calls in a proficient manner. The system is also provided with a menu of options such as dial by name, dial by extension and zero out to live operator. The facility to route calls to other phone numbers of the employees, including their cell phones, helps to answer the calls regardless of their geographical location.

## No need to install costly equipment:

The main advantage of having a small office phone system with PBX features is that it is possible to maintain multiple extensions with a single telephone connection. The small office phone system with PBX features does not require any new equipment to be installed in your office as in the case of the other conventional phone systems. The service providers maintain all the equipments at their site and offer PBX services through a hosted server at fixed monthly rents.

## Establish a virtual office with local phone number:

With the PBX featured small office phone system, creating business presence in any desired location is rather effortless. Introducing branches in all locations is expensive and consumes considerable time, so it is best to establish a virtual presence by availing of local phone numbers. Through this, the callers are able to make long distance calls at local rates. If required, you can further enhance your business with toll free numbers as well.

## Land phone feature:

The main feature of landline phones is their ease of use. Anyone can pick up a receiver, punch seven numbers and connect to one's friends, colleagues and business partners within seconds. Old phones used to have dials and people used to despite this cumbersome procedure but they have long since given way to modern phones with digital dialing options. Voice dial is now widely available on these phones so you do not have to worry about punching numbers and exerting pressure on your fingertips.

One can also use the memory function of the phone to save numbers. The person will simply have to browse through the memory and dial that number. Caller identification is now considered an old feature of these phones although it is still used widely. It is handing for avoiding particular calls or screening the calls you choose to answer

## Some others feature.(Modern phone)

Remote supervision of the entire system

Automatic call accounting

Speed dialing

Caller ID

## The coast of the equipment

PBX 30000 TK (quantity 1) (model, Aastra 5000)

Land phone: 25000 (quantity =15)

Installation 2000 TK (some time free depending on company policy)

## The coast of the operating systems

Employee coast 15000 Taka

Security coast 5000 Taka

Maintained 2000 Taka

Office rent 10000 Taka

## Problem Statement:

The Fire Department needs to remain operational in the event of a serious incident such as a major Terrorist attack or war. Explain the measures you would put in place that would allow the Fire Department to operate in the event of Newtown having no electrical power and fixed telephone lines being broken.

## Problem Decomposition:

According to above Problem, It will be best to establish Live Broad casting systems for the victim area (war\terrorist attack) this is the best way to communicate that kind of situation. It is less expensive but very effective.

Live television refers to television broadcast in real time. Today it is used mostly for programs such as Today, CNN This Morning, and local television news.

Live television is today most common in television news, where news programs are generally broadcast live, presenting recorded and edited news stories. Events that networks and stations decide most viewers will want to or should know about as soon as possible are broadcast live, often interrupting regularly scheduled programming, as news bulletins, and if they are quickly changing and developing, with coverage as they unfold as "breaking news" stories. There is usually a 75-90 second delay between what is actually being filmed and what is being broadcast;

In general live television was more common for broadcasting content produced specifically for television in the early years of the medium, before technologies such as videotape recording appeared.

## 2. Wireless Internet Access

Wireless Internet access makes mobile email access and Web searching possible from phones and roaming mobile computers. Wireless Internet services have been available for years but are now becoming easier to find and more affordable. The term mobile broadband refers to high-speed wireless Internet connections and services designed to be used from arbitrary locations. Mobile broadband technologies include EV-DO, HSPA, WiMax and LTE. Beside phones, Internet and network access using these technologies is increasingly being incorporated into laptop computers, automobiles and public transportation.

## 3. Satellite InternetÂ Access

Using a small dish antenna and satellite modem, satellite Internet access is available in almost all rural areas not serviced by other technologies Satellite Internet is a form of high-speed Internet service. Satellite Internet access runs over telecommunications satellites in Earth orbit to provide wireless connectivity to residential and business consumers.

Satellite Internet service covers areas where DSL and cable access is unavailable. Satellite offers less network bandwidth compared to DSL or cable, however. In addition, the long delays required to transmit data between the satellite and the ground stations tend to create high network latency, causing a sluggish performance experience in some cases. Network applications like VPN and online gaming may not function properly over satellite Internet connections due to these latency issues.

## 4. Cellular InternetÂ Access

Cellular technology provides wireless Internet access through cell phones. Cell phones can be used as modems to connect computers to the Internet. Cellular cards and routers also exist. Cell connections can be a convenient way to get online while traveling but are typically slower than other forms of broadband Internet. WAP - Wireless Application Protocol - supports development of Web-based applications that run over wireless networks. Cellular modems are an alternative to these other types of network modems. They enable computers and other devices for Internet access. Instead of connecting to some cable that serves as the network pipe, though, cellular modems communicate over wireless links to the Internet via cell phone towers. Using cell modems offers several benefits over other modems

## Problem Statement:

Create a comprehensive, professional report describing your network recommendations. This should include the details of Tasks 1 - 5, have estimates of cost throughout and have an executive summary at the start giving the key points.

## Problem Statement:

.Network topology is the layout pattern of interconnections of the various elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a computer network. Network topologies may be physical or logical..

Bus

Star

Ring

Mesh

Tree.

## Bus Topology:

A single cable, the backbone functions as a shared communication medium that devices attach or tap into with an interface connector. A device wanting to communicate with another device on the network sends a broadcast message onto the wire that all other devices see, but only the intended recipient actually accepts and processes the message.

It is easy to handle and implement.

It is best suited for small networks.

The cable length is limited. This limits the number of stations that can be connected.

This network topology can perform well only for a limited number of nodes.

## Star topology

In local area networks with a star topology, each network host is connected to a central hub. In contrast to the bus topology, the star topology connects each node to the hub with a point-to-point connection. All traffic that traverses the network passes through the central hub. The hub acts as a signal booster or repeater. However, the entire network also fails.)

Due to its centralized nature, the topology offers simplicity of operation.

It also achieves an isolation of each device in the network.

The network operation depends on the functioning of the central hub. Hence, the failure of the central hub leads to the failure of the entire network.

## Ring topology

Ring topologies typically utilize a token passing scheme, used to control access to the network. By utilizing this scheme, only one machine can transmit on the network at a time. The machines or computers connected to the ring act as signal boosters or repeaters which strengthen the signals that traverse the network. The primary disadvantage of ring topology is the failure of one machine will cause the entire network to fail

The data being transmitted between two nodes passes through all the intermediate nodes. A central server is not required for the management of this topology.

The failure of a single node of the network can cause the entire network to fail. The movement or changes made to network nodes affects the performance of the entire network.

## Mesh Topology:

Unlike each of the previous topologies, messages sent on a mesh network can take any of several possible paths from source to destination. (Recall that even in a ring, although two cable paths exist, messages can only travel in one direction.) The value of fully meshed networks is proportional to the exponent of the number of subscribers, assuming that communicating groups of any two endpoints, up to and including all the endpoints

No traffic problem as there are dedicated links.Â  Robust as failure of one link does not affect the entire system. Security as data travels along a dedicated line. Points to point links make fault identification easy.

Mesh topology wiring which is difficult. To manage. Installation is complex as each node is connected to every node

## Tree topology:

The type of network topology in which a central 'root' node (the top level of the hierarchy) is connected to one or more other nodes that are one level lower in the hierarchy with a point-to-point link between each of the second level nodes and the top level central 'root' node.

## The internet service that that required:

VOIP : Voice over Internet Protocol (Voice over IP, VoIP) is a general term for a family of methodologies, communication protocols, and transmission technologies for delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet

## WWW:

The World Wide Web, abbreviated as WWW and commonly known as the Web, is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a web browser, one can view web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia and navigate between them by using hyperlinks

FTP File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to copy a file from one host to another over a TCP/IP-based network, such as the Internet. FTP is built on a client-server architecture and utilizes separate control and data connections between the client and server

The use of the terms downloading often implies that the data sent or received is to be stored permanently. In contrast, the term downloading is distinguished from the related concept of streaming, which indicates the receiving of data that is used near immediately as it is received.

When there is a transfer of data from a remote system to another remote system, the process is called "uploading". This is used by some online file hosting services.

## Internet Fax:

Internet fax uses the Internet to receive and send faxes. Internet faxing (or "online faxing") is a general term which refers to sending a document facsimile using the Internet, rather than using only phone networks (traditional faxing) with a fax machine. .

Depending on the specific method/implementation (see below), advantages of using the Internet can include.

## Video conference.

A videoconference or video conference (also known as a video teleconference) is a set of interactive telecommunication technologies which allow two or more locations to interact via two-way video and audio transmissions simultaneously. It has also been called 'visual collaboration' and is a type of groupware.

## Instant messaging:

Instant messaging (IM) is a form of real-time direct text-based communication between two or more people using personal computers or other devices, along with shared software clients. The user's text is conveyed over a network, such as the Internet. More advanced instant messaging software clients also allow enhanced modes of communication, such as live voice or video calling.

1

128 Kbps

600

Unlimited

2

256 Kbps

1000

Unlimited

3

512 Kbps

800

5 GB

4

512 Kbps

1250

Unlimited

5

512 Kbps

1450

10 GB

## ISP Licensing requirement :

As per decision of Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission, all Domestic Data Communication Service Provider (DDCSP) Licenses have been converged with Nationwide Internet Service Provider (ISP) Licenses.

Under the new Nationwide Internet Service Provider (ISP) License, the Licensee shall be authorized to build, maintain, operate and provide Internet Service and Domestic Data Communication Service of point-to-point Domestic Data Circuit (excluding Voice Communication) throughout Bangladesh, subject to applicable laws as well as the terms and conditions of the new Nationwide Internet Service Provider (ISP) License.

All the DDCSP Licensees and DDCS User Permission Holders are exempted from making payment of any charge or license fee to the Commission in relation to the aforementioned convergence and/or their previous DDCSP License and DDCS User Permission.

## Noise:

In common use, the word noise means any unwanted sound. In both analog and digital electronics, noise is an unwanted perturbation to a wanted signal; it is called noise as generalizations of the audible noise heard when listening to a weak radio transmission.

## Echo

In audio signal processing and acoustics, an echo is a reflection of sound, arriving at the listener some time after the direct sound. Typical examples are the echo produced by the bottom of a well, by a building, or by the walls of an enclosed room. A true echo is a single reflection of the sound source. The time delay is the extra distance divided by the speed of sound.

## Set up process voice communication

Broadband Internet Connect \wire less connection

Router \ Wireless router \Antenna

Network Interface Card \ wireless Interface card.

Ethernet Cable

## The ISP Company:

Brac Net.(Mohakhali)

Bijoy.(Gulshan)

Banglalion(Gulshan)

Daffodils online(Dhanmondi)

Banglalion (Gulshan)

## Frequencies, half duplex, full duplex.

A radio wave is an electromagnetic wave propagated by an antenna. Radio waves have different frequencies, and by tuning a radio receiver to a specific frequency you can pick up a specific signal the period is the duration of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. For cyclical processes, such as rotation, oscillations, or waves, frequency is defined as a number of cycles per unit time. In physics and engineering disciplines, such as optics, acoustics, and radio, frequency is usually denoted by a Latin letter f or by a Greek letter v (nu)

## A half-duplex

System provides for communication in both directions, but only one direction at a time (not simultaneously) In automatically-run communications systems, such as two-way data-links, the time allocations for communications in a half-duplex system can be firmly controlled by the hardware. Thus, there is no waste of the channel for switching. For example, station A on one end of the data link could be allowed to transmit for exactly one second, and then station B on the other end could be allowed to transmit for exactly

One second. And then this cycle repeats over and over again.

## Full- Duplex:

A full-duplex, or sometimes double-duplex system, allows communication in both directions, and, unlike half-duplex, allows this to happen simultaneously. Land-line telephone networks are full-duplex, since they allow both callers to speak and be heard at the same time. A good analogy for a full-duplex system would be a two-lane road with one lane for each direction. Examples: Telephone, Mobile Phone, etc.

## Detailed requirement for ISP licensing:

As per decision of Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission, all Domestic Data Communication Service Provider (DDCSP) Licenses have been converged with Nationwide Internet Service Provider (ISP) Licenses.

Under the new Nationwide Internet Service Provider (ISP) License, the Licensee shall be authorized to build, maintain, operate and provide Internet Service and Domestic Data Communication Service of point-to-point Domestic Data Circuit (excluding Voice Communication) throughout Bangladesh, subject to applicable laws as well as the terms and conditions of the new Nationwide Internet Service Provider (ISP) License.

All the DDCSP Licensees and DDCS User Permission Holders are exempted from making payment of any charge or license fee to the Commission in relation to the aforementioned convergence and/or their previous DDCSP License and DDCS User Permission.

## Explain my opinion\measure, that I take action to allow a fire department to operate the event of a town having no electricity also broken telephone line.

Live television refers to television broadcast in real time. Today it is used mostly for programs such as Today, CNN This Morning, and local television news.

Live television is today most common in television news, where news programs are generally broadcast live, presenting recorded and edited news stories. Events that networks and stations decide most viewers will want to or should know about as soon as possible

## Wireless Internet Access

Wireless Internet access makes mobile email access and Web searching possible from phones and roaming mobile computers. Wireless Internet services have been available for years but are now becoming easier to find and more affordable. The term mobile broadband refers to high-speed wireless Internet connections

## Conclusion:

Completing this work I have a good idea and experience about researching, creating reports, solving problems, using network topology diagram ,communication diagram, pricelist ,etc. diagram On art gallery I was required to complete for my assignment. During the completion of the work, I have to face many problems and I think I have tried my best to overcome these problems