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CAPTCHAs are short for Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart. They are challenge-response tests to ensure that the users are indeed human. The purpose of a CAPTCHA is to block form submissions from spam bots automated scripts that harvest email addresses from publicly available web forms. A common kind of CAPTCHA used on most websites requires the users to enter the string of characters that appear in a distorted form on the screen. CAPTCHAs are used because of the fact that it is difficult for the computers to extract the text from such a distorted image, whereas it is relatively easy for a human to understand the text hidden behind the distortions. Therefore, the correct response to a CAPTCHA challenge is assumed to come from a human and the user is permitted into the website.
Why would anyone need to create a test that can tell humans and computers apart? It's because of hackers trying to exploit weaknesses in the computers running the websites, their actions can affect millions of users and web sites. For example, a freeÂ e-mailÂ service might find itself bombarded by account requests from an automated program. That automated program could be part of a larger attempt to send outÂ spamÂ mail to millions of people. The CAPTCHA test helps identify which users are real human beings and which ones are computer programs. Spammers are constantly trying to build algorithms that read the distorted text correctly. So strong CAPTCHAs have to be designed and built so that the efforts of the spammers should be defeated. Programs (bots and spiders) are being created to steal services and to conduct fraudulent transactions. Some examples:
Free online accounts are being registered automatically many times and are being used to distribute stolen or copyrighted material.
Spammers register themselves with free email accounts such as those provided by Gmail or Hotmail and use their bots to send unsolicited mails to other users of that email service.
Online polls are attacked by bots and are susceptible to ballot stuffing. This gives unfair mileage to those that benefit from it.
In light of the above listed abuses and much more, a need was felt for a facility that checks users and allows access to services to only human users. It was in this direction that such a tool like CAPTCHA was created.
CAPTCHA technology has its foundation in an experiment called theÂ Turing Test. Alan Turing proposed the test as a way to examine whether or not machines can think or appear to think like humans. The classic test is a game of imitation. In this game, an interrogator asks two participants a series of questions. One of the participants is a machine and the other is a human. The interrogator can't see or hear the participants and has no way of knowing which is which. If the interrogator is unable to figure out which participant is a machine based on the responses, the machine passes the Turing Test. According to Microsoft Research experts Kumar Chellapilla and Patrice Simard, humans should have an 80 percent success rate at solving any particular CAPTCHA, but machines should only have a 0.01 percent success rate .
Of course, with a CAPTCHA, the goal is to create a test that humans can pass easily but machines can't. It's also important that the CAPTCHA application is able to present different CAPTCHAs to different users. If a visual CAPTCHA presented a static image that was the same for every user, it wouldn't take long before a spammer spotted the form, deciphered the letters, and programmed an application to type in the correct answer automatically.
Most, but not all, CAPTCHAs rely on a visual test.Â ComputersÂ lack the sophistication that human beings have when it comes to processing visual data. We can look at an image and pick out patterns more easily than a computer. But not all CAPTCHAs rely on visual patterns. In fact, it's important to have an alternative to a visual CAPTCHA. Otherwise, the Web site administrator runs the risk of disenfranchising any Web user who has a visual impairment. One alternative to a visual test is an audible one. An audio CAPTCHA usually presents the user with a series of spoken letters or numbers. It's not unusual for the program to distort the speaker's voice, and it's also common for the program to include background noise in the recording. This helps thwart voice recognition programs.
Another option is to create a CAPTCHA that asks the reader to interpret a short passage of text. A contextual CAPTCHA quizzes the reader and tests comprehension skills. While computer programs can pick out key words in text passages, they aren't very good at understanding what those words actually mean.
II. TYPES OF CAPTCHAS
CAPTCHAs are classified based on what is distorted and presented as a challenge to the user. They are:
A. Text CAPTCHAs
These are simple to implement. The simplest yet novel approach is to present the user with some questions which only a human user can solve. Examples of such questions are:
What is twenty minus three?
What is the third letter in UNIVERSITY?
What is the capital of India?
If yesterday was a Sunday, what is today?
Such questions are very easy for a human user to solve, but it's very difficult to program a computer to solve them. These are also friendly to people with visual disability such as those with colour blindness.
Other text CAPTCHAs involves text distortions and the user is asked to identify the text hidden. The various implementations are:
Gimpy was originally built for and in collaboration with Yahoo! to keep bots out of their chat rooms, to prevent scripts from obtaining an excessive number of their e-mail addresses, and to prevent computer programs from publishing classified ads . Gimpy is based on the human ability to read extremely distorted text and the inability of computer programs to do the same. Gimpy works by choosing ten words randomly from a dictionary, and displaying them in a distorted and overlapped manner. Gimpy then asks the users to enter a subset of the words in the image. The human user is capable of identifying the words correctly, whereas a computer program cannot.
Fig 2.1 Gimpy CAPTCHA
2. Ez - Gimpy
This is a simplified version of the Gimpy CAPTCHA, adopted by Yahoo in their signup page. Ez - Gimpy randomly picks a single word from a dictionary and applies distortion to the text. The user is then asked to identify the text correctly.
Fig 2.2 Yahoo's Ez - Gimpy CAPTCHA
Scientists at the Palo Alto Research Centre have designed a new breed of CAPTCHA called BaffleText that follows the same approach as GIMPY but distorts the image much more than GIMPY . This doesn't contain dictionary words, but it picks up random alphabets to create a nonsense but pronounceable text. Distortions are then added to this text and the user is challenged to guess the right word. This technique overcomes the drawback of Gimpy CAPTCHA because, Gimpy uses dictionary words and hence, clever bots could be designed to check the dictionary for the matching word by brute-force.
Fig 2.3 BaffleText examples
4. MSN Captcha
Microsoft uses a different CAPTCHA for services provided under MSN umbrella are called MSN Passport CAPTCHAs . They use eight characters (upper case) and digits. Foreground is dark blue, and background is grey. Warping is used to distort the characters, to produce a ripple effect, which makes computer recognition very difficult.
Fig 2.4 MSN Passport CAPTCHA
B. Graphic CAPTCHAs
Graphic CAPTCHAs are challenges that involve pictures or objects that have some sort of similarity that the users have to guess. They are visual puzzles, similar to Mensa tests. Computer generates the puzzles and grades the answers, but is itself unable to solve it.
Bongo is a program that asks the user to solve a visual pattern recognition problem . BONGO is named after M.M. Bongard, who published a book of pattern recognition problems in the 1970s. BONGO asks the user to solve a visual pattern recognition problem. It displays two series of blocks, the left and the right. The blocks in the left series differ from those in the right, and the user must find the characteristic that sets them apart. A possible left and right series is shown in Figure 2.5
Fig 2.5 Bongo CAPTCHA
These two sets are different because everything on the left is drawn with thick lines and those on the right are in thin lines. After seeing the two blocks, the user is presented with a set of four single blocks and is asked to determine to which group the each block belongs to. The user passes the test if s/he determines correctly to which set the blocks belong to. We have to be careful to see that the user is not confused by a large number of choices.
PIX is a program that has a large database of labeled images . All of these images are pictures of concrete objects (a horse, a table, a house, a flower). The program picks an object at random, finds six images of that object from its database, presents them to the user and then asks the question "what are these pictures of?" Current computer programs should not be able to answer this question, so PIX should be a CAPTCHA. However, PIX, as stated, is not a CAPTCHA: it is very easy to write a program that can answer the question "what are these pictures of?" Remember that all the code and data of a CAPTCHA should be publicly available; in particular, the image database that PIX uses should be public. Hence, writing a program that can answer the question "what are these pictures of?" is easy: search the database for the images presented and find their label. Fortunately, this can be fixed. One way for PIX to become a CAPTCHA is to randomly distort the images before presenting them to the user, so that computer programs cannot easily search the database for the undistorted image.
C. Audio CAPTCHAs
The final example we offer is based on sound. The program picks a word or a sequence of numbers at random, renders the word or the numbers into a sound clip and distorts the sound clip; it then presents the distorted sound clip to the user and asks users to enter its contents. This CAPTCHA is based on the difference in ability between humans and computers in recognizing spoken language. Nancy Chan of the City University in Hong Kong was the first to implement a sound-based system of this type. The idea is that a human is able to efficiently disregard the distortion and interpret the characters being read out while software would struggle with the distortion being applied, and need to be effective at speech to text translation in order to be successful. This is a crude way to filter humans and it is not so popular because the user has to understand the language and the accent in which the sound clip is recorded.
reCAPTCHA is a free CAPTCHA service that helps to digitize books, newspapers and old time radio shows . To counter various drawbacks of the existing implementations, researchers at CMU developed a redesigned CAPTCHA aptly called the reCAPTCHA. About 200 million CAPTCHAs are solved by humans around the world every day. In each case, roughly ten seconds of human time are being spent. Individually, that's not a lot of time, but in aggregate these little puzzles consume more than 150,000 hours of work each day. What if we could make positive use of this human effort? reCAPTCHA does exactly that by channelling the effort spent solving CAPTCHAs online into "reading" books.
To archive human knowledge and to make information more accessible to the world, multiple projects are currently digitizing physical books that were written before the computer age. The book pages are being photographically scanned, and then transformed into text using "Optical Character Recognition" (OCR). The transformation into text is useful because scanning a book produces images, which are difficult to store on small devices, expensive to download, and cannot be searched. The problem is that OCR is not perfect.
reCAPTCHA improves the process of digitizing books by sending words that cannot be read by computers to the Web in the form of CAPTCHAs for humans to decipher. More specifically, each word that cannot be read correctly by OCR is placed on an image and used as a CAPTCHA. This is possible because most OCR programs alert you when a word cannot be read correctly.
But if a computer can't read such a CAPTCHA, how does the system know the correct answer to the puzzle? Here's how: Each new word that cannot be read correctly by OCR is given to a user in conjunction with another word for which the answer is already known. The user is then asked to read both words. If they solve the one for which the answer is known, the system assumes their answer is correct for the new one. The system then gives the new image to a number of other people to determine, with higher confidence, whether the original answer was correct.
III. APPLICATIONS OF CAPTCHA
CAPTCHAs are used in various Web applications to identify human users and to restrict access to them. Some of them are:
Online Polls: As mentioned before, bots can wreak havoc to any unprotected online poll. They might create a large number of votes which would then falsely represent the poll winner in spotlight. This also results in decreased faith in these polls. CAPTCHAs can be used in websites that have embedded polls to protect them from being accessed by bots, and hence bring up the reliability of the polls.
Protecting Web Registration: Several companies offer free email and other services. Until recently, these service providers suffered from a serious problem - bots. These bots would take advantage of the service and would sign up for a large number of accounts. This often created problems in account management and also increased the burden on their servers. CAPTCHAs can effectively be used to filter out the bots and ensure that only human users are allowed to create accounts.
Preventing comment spam: Most bloggers are familiar with programs that submit large number of automated posts that are done with the intention of increasing the search engine ranks of that site. CAPTCHAs can be used before a post is submitted to ensure that only human users can create posts. A CAPTCHA won't stop someone who is determined to post a rude message or harass an administrator, but it will help prevent bots from posting messages automatically.
Search engine bots: It is sometimes desirable to keep web pages unindexed to prevent others from finding them easily. There is an html tag to prevent search engine bots from reading web pages. The tag, however, doesn't guarantee that bots won't read a web page; it only serves to say "no bots, please." Search engine bots, since they usually belong to large companies, respect web pages that don't want to allow them in. However, in order to truly guarantee that bots won't enter a web site, CAPTCHAs are needed.
E-Ticketing: Ticket brokers like Ticket Master also use CAPTCHA applications. These applications help prevent ticket scalpers from bombarding the service with massive ticket purchases for big events. Without some sort of filter, it's possible for a scalper to use a bot to place hundreds or thousands of ticket orders in a matter of seconds. Legitimate customers become victims as events sell out minutes after tickets become available. Scalpers then try to sell the tickets above face value. While CAPTCHA applications don't prevent scalping; they do make it more difficult to scalp tickets on a large scale.
Email spam: CAPTCHAs also present a plausible solution to the problem of spam emails. All we have to do is to use a CAPTCHA challenge to verify that a indeed a human has sent the email.
Preventing Dictionary Attacks: Â CAPTCHAs can also be used to prevent dictionary attacks in password systems. The idea is simple: prevent a computer from being able to iterate through the entire space of passwords by requiring it to solve a CAPTCHA after a certain number of unsuccessful logins. This is better than the classic approach of locking an account after a sequence of unsuccessful logins, since doing so allows an attacker to lock accounts at will.
As a tool to verify digitized books: This is a way of increasing the value of CAPTCHA as an application. An application called reCAPTCHA harnesses users responses in CAPTCHA fields to verify the contents of a scanned piece of paper. Because computers aren't always able to identify words from a digital scan, humans have to verify what a printed page says. Then it's possible for search engines to search and index the contents of a scanned document. This is how it works: The application already recognizes one of the words. If the visitor types that word into a field correctly, the application assumes the second word the user types is also correct. That second word goes into a pool of words that the application will present to other users. As each user types in a word, the application compares the word to the original answer. Eventually, the application receives enough responses to verify the word with a high degree of certainty. That word can then go into the verified pool.
IV. IMPLEMENTATION OF CAPTCHAS
The first step to create a CAPTCHA is to look at different ways humans and machines process information. Machines follow sets of instructions. If something falls outside the realm of those instructions, the machines aren't able to compensate. A CAPTCHA designer has to take this into account when creating a test. For example, it's easy to build a program that looks at metadata - the information on the Web that's invisible to humans but machines can read. If you create a visual CAPTCHA and the images' metadata includes the solution, your CAPTCHA will be broken in no time. Similarly, it's unwise to build a CAPTCHA that doesn't distort letters and numbers in some way. An undistorted series of characters isn't very secure. Many computer programs can scan an image and recognize simple shapes like letters and numbers.
One way to create a CAPTCHA is to pre-determine the images and solutions it will use. This approach requires a database that includes all the CAPTCHA solutions, which can compromise the reliability of the test. If a spammer managed to find a list of all CAPTCHA solutions, he or she could create an application that bombards the CAPTCHA with every possible answer in a brute-force attack. The database would need more than 10,000 possible CAPTCHAs to meet the qualifications of a good CAPTCHA .
Other CAPTCHA applications create random strings of letters and numbers. You aren't likely to ever get the same series twice. Using randomization eliminates the possibility of a brute-force attack, the odds of a bot entering the correct series of random letters are very low. The longer the string of characters, the less likely a bot will get lucky.
The CAPTCHAs can be implemented using following methods:
The easiest implementation of a CAPTCHA to a Website would be to insert a few lines of CAPTCHA code into the Website's HTML code, from an open source CAPTCHA builder, which will provide the authentication services remotely. Most such services are free. Popular among them is the service provided by www.captcha.net 's reCAPTCHA project.
These are less popular because of the extra work needed to create a secure implementation. Anyway, these are popular among researchers who verify existing CAPTCHAs and suggest alternative implementations. There are advantages in building custom CAPTCHAs:
A custom CAPTCHA can fit exactly into the design and theme of your site. It will not look like some alien element that does not belong there.
We want to take away the perception of a CAPTCHA as an annoyance, and make it convenient for the user.
Because a custom CAPTCHA, unlike the major CAPTCHA mechanisms, obscure you as a target for spammers. Spammers have little interest in cracking a niche implementation.
Because we want to learn how they work, so it is best to build one ourselves.
The CAPTCHA image (or question) is generated. There are different ways to do this. The classic approach is to generate some random text, apply some random effects to it and convert it into an image.
Step 2 is not really sequential. During step 1, the original text (pre-altered) is persisted somewhere, as this is the correct answer to the question. There are different ways to persist the answer, as a server-side session variable, cookie, file, or database entry.
The generated CAPTCHA is presented to the user, who is prompted to answer it.
The back-end script checks the answer supplied by the user by comparing it with the persisted (correct) answer. If the value is empty or incorrect, we go back to step 1:Â a new CAPTCHA is generated. Users should never get a second shot at answering the same CAPTCHA.
If the answer supplied by the user is correct, the form post is successful and processing can continue. If applicable, the generated CAPTCHA image is deleted.
Guidelines for CAPTCHA implementation:
If your website needs protection from abuse, it is recommended that you use a CAPTCHA. There are many CAPTCHA implementations, some better than others. The following guidelines are strongly recommended for any CAPTCHA code :
Accessibility:Â CAPTCHAs must be accessible. CAPTCHAs based solely on reading text or other visual-perception tasks prevent visually impaired users from accessing the protected resource. Such CAPTCHAs may make a site incompatible with disability access rules in most countries. Any implementation of a CAPTCHA should allow blind users to get around the barrier, for example, by permitting users to opt for an audio or sound CAPTCHA.
Image Security:Â CAPTCHA images of text should be distorted randomly before being presented to the user. Many implementations of CAPTCHAs use undistorted text, or text with only minor distortions. These implementations are vulnerable to simple automated attacks.
Script Security:Â Building a secure CAPTCHA code is not easy. In addition to making the images unreadable by computers, the system should ensure that there are no easy ways around it at the script level. Common examples of insecurities in this respect include:
Systems that pass the answer to the CAPTCHA in plain text as part of the web form.
Systems where a solution to the same CAPTCHA can be used multiple times (this makes the CAPTCHA vulnerable to so-called "replay attacks").
Most CAPTCHA scripts found freely on the Web are vulnerable to these types of attacks.
V. BREAKING CAPTCHAS
The challenge in breaking a CAPTCHA isn't figuring out what a message says - after all, humans should have at least an 80 percent success rate. The really hard task is teaching aÂ computerÂ how to process information in a way similar to how humans think. In many cases, people who break CAPTCHAs concentrate not on making computers smarter, but reducing the complexity of the problem posed by the CAPTCHA.
Let's assume you've protected an online form using a CAPTCHA that displays English words. The application warps the font slightly, stretching and bending the letters in unpredictable ways. In addition, the CAPTCHA includes a randomly generated background behind the word.
A programmer wishing to break this CAPTCHA could approach the problem in phases. He or she would need to write anÂ algorithmÂ - a set of instructions that directs a machine to follow a certain series of steps. In this scenario, one step might be to convert the image in greyscale. That means the application removes all the colour from the image, taking away one of the levels of obfuscation the CAPTCHA employs.
Next, the algorithm might tell the computer to detect patterns in the black and white image. The program compares each pattern to a normal letter, looking for matches. If the program can only match a few of the letters, it might cross reference those letters with a database of English words. Then it would plug in likely candidates into the submit field. This approach can be surprisingly effective. It might not work 100 percent of the time, but it can work often enough to be worthwhile to spammers.
A. Breaking CAPTCHAs without OCR:
Most CAPTCHAs don't destroy the session when the correct phrase is entered. So by reusing the session id of a known CAPTCHA image, it is possible to automate requests to a CAPTCHA-protected page.Â
Connect to CAPTCHA page
Record session ID and CAPTCHA plaintext
Resend session ID and CAPTCHA plaintext any number of times, changing the user data. The other user data can change on each request. We can then automate hundreds, if not thousands of requests, until the session expires, at which point we just repeat the manual steps and then reconnect with a new session ID and CAPTCHA text.
Traditional CAPTCA-breaking software involves using image recognition routines to decode CAPTCHA images. This approach bypasses the need to do any of that, making it easy to hack CAPTCHA images.
B. Breaking a visual CAPTCHA:
Greg Mori and Jitendra Malik of University of California at Berkeley's Computer Vision Group evaluate image based CAPTCHAs for reliability. They test whether the CAPTCHA can withstand bots who masquerade as humans.
Approach: The fundamental ideas behind our approach to solving Gimpy are the same as those we are using to solve generic object recognition problems. Our solution to the Gimpy CAPTCHA is just an application of a general framework that we have used to compare images of everyday objects and even find and track people in video sequences. The essences of these problems are similar. Finding the letters "T", "A", "M", "E" in an image and connecting them to read the word "TAME" is akin to finding hands, feet, elbows, and faces and connecting them up to find a human. Real images of people and objects contain large amounts of clutter. Learning to deal with the adversarial clutter present in Gimpy has helped us in understanding generic object recognition problems.Â
C. Breaking an EZ-Gimpy CAPTCHA:
Our algorithm for breaking EZ-Gimpy consists of 3 main steps:
Fig 5.1 Breaking CAPTCHAs
Locate possible (candidate) letters at various locations: The first step is to hypothesize a set of candidate letters in the image. This is done using our shape matching techniques. The method essentially looks at a bunch of points in the image at random, and compares these points to points on each of the 26 letters. The comparison is done in a way that is very robust to background clutter and deformation of the letters. The process usually results in 3-5 candidate letters per actual letter in the image. In the example shown in Fig 5.1, the "p" of profit matches well to both an "o" or a "p", the border between the "p" and the "r" look a bit like a "u", and so forth. At this stage we keep many candidates, to be sure we don't miss anything for later steps.
Construct graph of consistent letters: Next, we analyze pairs of letters to see whether or not they are "consistent", or can be used consecutively to form a word.
Look for plausible words in the graph: There are many possible paths through the graph of letters constructed in the previous step. However, most of them do not form real words.Â We select out the real words in the graph, and assign scores to them based on how well their individual letters match the image.
Similar algorithms are also devised by Mori and Malik to evaluate other image based CAPTCHAs like Gimpy, etc.
D. Breaking an audio CAPTCHA:
Recent research is suggesting that Google's audio capture is the latest in a string of CAPTCHA's to have been defeated by software. t has been theorized that one cost-effective means of breaking audio captures and image captures that have not yet had automated systems developed is to use a mechanical turk and pay low rates for per-CAPTCHA reading by humans, or provide another form of motivation such as access to popular sites for reading the CAPTCHA. However, it always required a significant level of resources to achieve. The development of software to automatically interpret CAPTCHAs brings up a number of problems for site operators. The problem, as discovered by Wintercore Labs and published at the start of March is that there are repeatable patterns evident in the audio file and by applying a set of complex but straight forward processes, a library can be built of the basic signal for each possible character that can appear in the CAPTCHA. Wintercore point to other audio CAPTCHAs that could be easily reversed using this technique, including the one for Facebook. The wider impact of this work might take some time to appear, but it provides an interesting proof of breaking audio CAPTCHAs. At the least, it shows that both of Google's CAPTCHA tools have now been defeated by software and it should only be a matter of time until the same can be said for Microsoft and Yahoo!'s offerings. Even with an effectiveness of only 90%, any failed CAPTCHA can easily be reloaded for a second try.
E. Social Engineering used to break CAPTCHAs:
Spammers often use social engineering to outwit gullible Web users to serve their purpose. Security firm, Trend Micro warns of a Trojan called TROJ_CAPTCHAR, which masquerades as a strip tease game. At each stage of the game, the user is asked to solve a CAPTCHA. The result is relayed to a remote server where a malicious user is waiting for them. The strip-tease game is a ploy by spammers to identify and match solutions for ambiguous CAPTCHAs from legitimate sites, using the unsuspecting user as the decoder of the said images.
F. CAPTCHA cracking as a business:
NoÂ CAPTCHA can surviveÂ a human that's receiving financial incentives for solving it. CAPTCHA are cracked by firms posing as Data Processing firms. They usually charge $2 for 1000 CAPTCHAs successfully solved. They advertise their business as "Using the advertisement in blogs, social networks, etc significantly increases the efficiency of the business. Many services use pictures called CAPTCHAs in order to prevent automated use of these services. Solve CAPTCHAs with the help of this portal; increase your business efficiency.
AÂ CAPTCHAÂ is a type ofÂ challenge-responseÂ test used in computingÂ as an attempt to ensure that the response is generated by aÂ human being. The process usually involves a computer asking a user to complete a simple test which the computer is able to grade. These tests are designed to be easy for a computer to generate but difficult for a computer to solve. If a correct solution is received, it can be presumed to have been entered by a human. A common type of CAPTCHA requires the user to type letters and/or digits from a distorted image that appears on the screen. Such tests are commonly used to prevent unwantedÂ internet botsÂ from accessing websites. The CAPTCHAs are used because of the fact that it is difficult for the computers to extract the text from such a distorted image, whereas it is relatively easy for a human to understand the text hidden behind the distortions. A freeÂ e-mailÂ service might find itself bombarded by account requests from an automated program. That automated program could be part of a larger attempt to send outÂ spamÂ mail to millions of people. The CAPTCHA test helps identify which users are real human beings and which ones are computer programs. Spammers are constantly trying to build algorithms that read the distorted text correctly. So strong CAPTCHAs have to be designed and built so that the efforts of the spammers shall be defeated.