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Operating system is the interface between the user and the hardware. It is like a manager which manages everything. For e.g. it Allocates resources to the processes, manages disk, files and devices.
Microsoft Windows is a software company which provides a series of the operating systems and the GUI which are themselves developed by Microsoft. The Microsoft released the first operating system Called Microsoft window which was an extension to MsDOS and it was released in November, 1985. It had a good graphical user interface. Microsoft came after the Mac OS to overtake the computer market. Windows has 91% of the market shares of the client OS which uses the internet. The most recent version of the Microsoft windows is windows 7, the most recent version of server is windows server 2008 R2 and the most recent mobile OS version is windows phone 7.
Features of different versions of windows
1. Windows XP features: the Microsoft windows XP is and upgrade version of the windows 98 and windows 2000. It was released on October 25, 2001. The windows XP comes with two editions: windows XP home edition and XP professional.
1. It is a more stable version of the windows and provided a better UI than windows 2000. It provided smooth, good fonts to the OS. It has the ability to allow a user to log in without requiring other user to log out because it supports wifi.
2. Windows XP Professional has extra features like remote desktop connection and the system recovery tools. It is mainly for business users.
3. XP has two editions of simple and professional version to run on 64-Bit Edition.
2. Windows 7 features:
1. Retrieving device details:
Microsoft provides device details for hardware devices and displays it in control panel
2. Device manager is improved
The windows device manager is for installing the drivers for the hardware devices. These can be easily updated and trouble-shooter.
3. Better Driver Protection:
The windows 7 provide the facility to stop loading the drivers which are not stable. It is stored in a list of driver protection. This list is updated through Microsoft windows update feature. Driver Protection helps prevent the operating system from starting drivers that are known.
4. Windows 7 has features of Installation Improvement Program:
By becoming member of this program the information about your computer is sent to the Microsoft. They use this information to improve the installation and remove installation problems.
5. Printing via internet
With this feature you can print through anywhere in the world while the printer must be attached to another computer at any other place and with the help of internet you can print your files.
6. Bit locker program: it encrypts the logical hard drives and sets a password of user choice.
Fig 1. Start menu of windows 7
UNIX is an OS which was developed by AT&T. it's a well renowned company which deals with all the software related technologies. The engineers like Dennis Ritchie and his partners developed it at bell labs in 1969. Now the UNIX has been divided into different parts which are developed time to time by AT&T itself and other organizations.
Fig 2. UNIX
The UNIX is a registered trademark which is owned by the Open Group. This trademark is given to only those systems that are fully compliant with and follow each and every UNIX specification. Other systems are called UNIX system like or UNIX like but not UNIX. The UNIX is that operating system which is closely related to the trademarked system
The UNIX operating systems are very useful and that's why they are mostly used in the servers, workstations and also in the mobile devices like laptops etc. UNIX OS and the client server model developed the important parts of internet and allowed to connect computers in a network rather than standalone.
The C language and UNIX are developed by AT&T. these both are given to the academic institutes and the government. It is all around that's why the UNIX is also caller the open systems.
UNIX is very portable. It is a multiuser environment and multitasking also. It consists of the various concepts:
1. To store data it uses text in planar form.
2. it's a hierarchical file system
3. provides interposes communication for the sharing of files between processes
4. Provides a large variety of the softwares which provide different-different functionality.
Features of UNIX:
1. It is multi-user environment: in it there can be more than one user which uses the single machine connected in a network.
2. It is a multitasking environment: there can be more than one program running at a time.
3. It provides a hierarchical directory structure: to maintain the organisation of files.
4. It is portable: the UNIX is portable the kernel is built by less than 10% assembler tools
The UNIX Operating System is found on the computer system which has a large range of computation power. It ranges from microcomputers to mainframe systems and also other systems. No other operating system can make this claim. There are many reasons of popularity of UNIX and its unbeatable success:
1. It provides portability:
The UNIX system is developed by high level languages like C. so it is very easy to make changes, to understand, read. On a new machine the changed code can be compiled. Customers have the options to choose from a wide range of hardware systems.
2. UNIX is machine independent:
The UNIX system is able to hide the actual architecture of machine from the user, so it is easy to build application which can run on microcomputers and mainframe systems.
3. Multi-User environment:
UNIX provides the facility of multi user environment. More than one user can be working on the same system. They can share the power supplies, the peripherals and it is all secure, no user can corrupt data of another user.
4. Hierarchical File System:
It provides a hierarchical file system in which the information can be stored. It provides the maximum flexibility so that we can arrange data in our own way as it should be or according to the system. It is easy to maintain and easy to use.
5. UNIX has a shell
UNIX shell provides the different services as required by the user by providing a simple interface. The user doesn't need to know the hardware details.
6. Piping and filtering:
It provides the pipes and filter so as to allow the user to develop complex things from simple ones.
UNIX provides more than 210 different application programs and system programs. We can easily built new programs using existing ones.
8. Software Development Tools:
UNIX provides a wide variety of the software development tools to do editing and maintenance of the software.
The UNIX Operating System Consists of
1. The kernel: it schedules all the tasks to be done like to manage the files and security features and to provide the hardware access.
2. Shell: the users inputs commands in the shell and the shell executes the user commands and it is customisable according to user.
3. Utilities: UNIX provides
a) File management (commands like cat, ls, mkdir)
b) Management of user (password, chmod)
c) Management of processes (kill, ps)
d) printing (lpr)
Advantages of Unix:
1. UNIX provides more flexibility as it can be installed on different time of computer systems which can range from micro computers , mainframe computers and the supercomputers.
2. Unix provides much more stability and it does not go down like windows so it needs less administration and the maintenance.
3. it provides a greater security and permissions to different users than windows.
4. Unix is used in web servers. It is a leader. 90% of the internet is working on Unix operating systems like apache which is widely used web server.
5.. it has more processing power than windows
6. the Unix provides the software upgrades for free while in windows you have to purchase new software.
7. the operating systems like Linux and BSD are free and open source. They provide full flexibility and control and they provide attractive computer wizards. The smarter programmer uses this operating system for developing new softwares because it is free of charge and it is open source.
8. UNIX provides the different and good approach to design the softwares. It provides the facilities like interconnection of the simple tools instead of developing large application softwares.
UNIX vs. Windows Hosting
When talking about the web site hosting then there are two types of platforms on which the websites can be hosted : UNIX and Windows. Both of them provide unique features and also have pros and cons.
It is very difficult to say which is better among the two but according to your needs you can make your choice. The language in which you have built your website also helps to determine which is better among the UNIX and Windows.
The operating systems which are used on the desktop computers (mostly use the different version of Windows) are not related to the operating system that we need to host our website. Many of the personal sited are created using the software MS front page. Even they are built using the Microsoft software but they can work perfectly on the UNIX web server. We have to just install the MS front page extensions.
The different factors which help to choose one out of UNIX or Windows web server:
While there is some debate about which operating system performs better, in our experience both perform comparably in low-stress conditions however UNIX servers under high load (which is what is important) are superior to Windows.
System based on UNIX i.e. they are Linux based but they are identical are the better in this category. There are many reasons on the basis of which we can say that the UNIX is better than windows web servers in term of stability. One factor is during the high load on the server, UNIX handles it better than windows. UNIX system rarely requires rebooting but the windows systems have to be rebooted to provide proper functioning. The UNIX servers provide high reliability
Web sites which are programmed and designed on the UNIX web server are easily compatible to be hosted on the windows server. But the websites programmed under a windows web server are not compatible with Unix web server. So in this case Unix is better choice.
Web sites are changing time to time. At the starting they are small and provide limited functionality but as the time goes on according to the needs of the person or users they have to put the new features to the websites. Both windows and Unix can easily adapt the changes. The windows based websites are much more easily compatible with languages like PHP or MYSQL which are Unix based. But the software based on the Unix is not always fully compatible with the Microsoft .net and VB technologies. So in this case we can choose windows web hosting.
To host your own website you need to install operating system to host the website on the server. So you need licenses of the operating system to be used and the softwares. Windows server 2003 and the other application like the SQL servers are paid services. You have to spend a lot of money to buy these softwares. On the other hand, the Linux operating system is free and easily to install and operate. So Linux is better in this case.
At the end we can say that the UNIX based web hosting provides more stability, it is very fast and it provides more compatibility.
If the website is built under .NET OR VB platform than only the windows platform must be preferred
There are various factors on which we can judge the best out of three:
1. According to ease of usage:
Windows is the best operating system out of Windows, Linux and UNIX
2. On the basis of security
Linux and Unix Are best because they are virus free.
3. On the basis of development
Linux and UNIX are the best available development platforms. They are open system software for which the code is easily available and the developer can easily modify the desktop environment and features and applications by knowing the language fundamentals and deep study and understanding of core of UNIX system.
LINUX is the most popular operating system as it's is open source. The Linux operating system can be installed on different hardware platforms like PowerPC, x86, x64, ARM etc. Linux operating system is based on the design principles which are a part of the UNIX OS and therefore it is also called UNIX like or UNIX variant. Linux is mostly used as a server operating system and also as an embedded operating system. Linux is running on almost all of the servers on the internet and is also used in electronic devices and other gadgets. In the desktop system, Linux has almost same popularity like windows but it is going up steadily.
Fig3. Desktop of red hat Linux
Linux provides a multitasking and a multiuser environment which is stable. Linux has been modified by many persons, but it is robust so the kernel is not changed. Only the peripheral software components are changed.
LINUX is licensed by GNU general public license. It is open source. Different versions of Linux are available so different users work on different versions. Linux is provided for free.
Features of Linux:
Linux has been developed to provide the following features which provide the proper security and the networking
1. Multiuser: there can be more than one user at the same system. So there is no need to have the different license for each operating system.
2. Multiplatform: Linux runs on different hardwares. For e.g. it can be installed on computer which uses multiple processors.
3. Multithreading: it has the support for creating multiple threads of a single process. The threads use the parent process memory space.
4. No Crashes: Linux provides the memory protection between the different processes. one program cannot crash the whole system.
5. executes demanded parts: it only rolls in only those parts of a program which are currently being used.
6. shared memory to processes and copy on write: the multiple processes are able to use the same memory to run. When one process tries to access that memory then other process page is saved on the disk on some other location. It provides two advantages: speed is increased and memory use is decreased.
7. it has the virtual memory so it provides the paging facility so there is no need to swap processes. It swaps the pages to disk to another secondary storage device or to a different partition. The swapping area can be increased on runtime. There can be 16 swapping areas of 128 MB kernel memory each. These can be used at the same time for a 2 GB of swapping space. The space can be easily increased by changing the source code a little bit.
8. Linux provides a memory space known as pool to execute the user programs. It is also used for the disk cache. All the free memory can be used as a cache memory. It can be reduced when the large programs are executing.
9. Linux provides the facility to use a debugger on a program when it is run and also when it crashes.
10. Linux at the source level is compatible with POSIX and BSD
11. Linux also has a CD-ROM file system which is compatible with all formats of CD-ROMS.
12. it provides networking through TCP/IP. Also provide ftp, NFS etc.
13. Linux in client server model is user friendly.
14. Linux can also be run as a LAN manager for Windows servers.
15. Multitasking: Several programs can run at the same time.
A comparison of Linux and Windows:
All version of Linux are freely available or they have low expense as one have to do on Microsoft windows.
Each copy of Microsoft Windows costs around $70-$150 or more for each license
For the new computer users windows is much easier to learn. Although Linux is easy to use but windows is more easy to use.
There are many changes and the new modifications in the Microsoft windows so as to make it easy to use. Windows is not the easiest operating system but is easier in comparison to Linux.
Most of the versions of the Linux are very reliable and they can run without rebooting for months and years.
Microsoft has also made the improvements to increase the reliability of the windows but its reliability is still less than Linux.
Windows has a wide variety of available softwares that can be installed on it. Linux also provides large amount of application softwares, games but still it is less than the application softwares available for windows.
The users of the Microsoft windows are in a very large amount therefore the application builders mostly prefer the windows as the platform for softwares and games.
5. Software Cost:
Most of the application programs, softwares, games and other utilities are provided free of cost on Linux. The softwares like open office and star office are available for free or at a much lower price.
Windows also provides many types of software and the games for free but most of the actual efficient working programs cost from $10-$250 per copy.
A large support has been provided for Linux by the different Linux organisations and the other hardware manufacturers. Linux support almost all the hardware devices. But still the application builders do not provide driver support for the Linux for the new hardware.
Windows provides support for all hardware devices because all companies provide drivers on the basis of the windows platform as it is famous and more users prefer windows
Linux is very secure. It provides the proper security. Yes the Linux can also be cracked but it is more secure than windows which is easy to crack.
Microsoft has tried well to make the improvement with the security of their operating system but still it is more attacked by the viruses and other hackers.
8. Open Source:
Most of the versions of Linux and many other application softwares and programs are open source. So the code can be easily modified by the user according to his need.
Most of the windows programs are not open source so they cannot be modified.
There are many version of Linux so there are very less users who know how to use all the versions of Linux. So a lot of documentation and help is available on internet to learn how to operate Linux.
Instead of this Microsoft Windows provides own help in every application program and also the online help and documents to properly understand the use of different versions of windows.
Linux vs. Unix
UNIX has different version which have different cost.
Linux is provided for free. It is provided free with a lot of magazines and books. Yes they are also priced but very cheaper than windows.
No of viruses in Linux are around 60-100 but in UNIX it is 85-120 in case of Unix.\
3. Application areas:
Linux is for developers and it's a free OS.
UNIX is used in almost all the universities and companies.
4. Development and Distribution: Open source development has developed Linux and the different versions of Linux are Red hat , open SUSE, UBUNTU etc.
UNIX has been developed by AT&T and other organisations.
5. Threat detection: Linux detects the threats very fast and very easily. The threats are removed by the community of the Linux. If one user tells a type of threat then all the developers help to remove it.
In UNIX , user has to wait till its threat is fixed.
6. GUI: GUI of Linux are KDE and Gnome. GUI of Unix is X windows
LINUX is best out of LINUX, WINDOWS and UNIX.
Linux is best option for web hosting.
It is more secure than windows and UNIX.
Linux provides more reliability than windows.
All the explanation and comparisons given above led us to believe that Linux is best option.