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File systems are a procedure of storing and organizing computer files and their data. Basically, it organising these files into a database for the storages, to organize, manipulation, and recovery by the computer's OS (operating system). File system is use on data storage space in device such as hard disks or CD-disks to support the substantial location of the files. In more, they capacity make available to data on a file server by performing as clients for a network protocol, or they might be important and be present only as an access process for necessary data. It is well-known for a directory services and registry.
Most file systems make use of a primary data storage device that offers access to an array of fixed size physical sectors. The file system is dependable for organizing these sectors in to files and directories, and maintaining track of which sectors belong to which file or which directories and which are not being used. A file system can be used to organize and correspond to access any data, whether it is stored or dynamically generated.
A database is collection of data that you can search through in a logical way to preserve and get back information. A database can be idea of as a set of logically related files organized to make easy access by one or more application programs and to reduce data redundancy. A database is a collection of data for one or more multiple uses. One way to classifying database involves the type of content, for e.g.: bibliographic, full-text, numeric, and image. A centrally held group of data that allows access and manoeuvring by one or more users.
Components of Database Environment
The important components of database environment are as follow:
"Repository is collection of all data definitions, data relationships, output styles and reports formats etc. All this information is the metadata that is important to manage database.
An application program is a program that is used to send commands to the database management system to control database. These commands are sending to the DBMS through graphical user interface. The user interacts with the application program and the application program further interacts with the database management system.
The user interface is a visual environment that is used by the user to communicate with the computer. It consists of menus, buttons and other components. All windows base software use graphical user interface, means menus are a lists of commands of performing different operations so the user can use them easily for manipulating the database."( http://www.info-village.info, dated 25/10/2010).
Database administrators are the persons who are responsible of the entire information system. They authorize access to the database as well as organize and watch the use of database. End users are those persons who relate the application directly. They are responsible to insert, delete and update in the database. They get information from the system as and when required.
Roles of different users in DBMS
There are many different types of users that play different roles in database environment like database administrators, application programmers, and end users.
Database Administrators: is the person who is responsible for administration the entire database system. They designs, creates and maintains the database. Database administrators manages the users who can access this database, and controls reliability issues. They also monitor the presentation of the system and make changes in the system as and when necessary.
Application Programmers: is the person who is responsible for implementing the required functionally database for the end users. Application programmers works according to the specification provided by the system analyst.
End users: are those people who interact with the application directly. They are responsible to insert, delete and update in the database. They get information from the system as and when required.
Advantages of DBMS
Centralized control of data by Database administrators avoid redundant repetition of data and incompetently reduces the total amount of necessary data storage. It also eliminates the additional processing vital to copy the required data in a large group of data. A database allows the sharing of data its control by any number of application program or users. Centralized control can also make sure that sufficient checks are included in the DBMS to provide data consistency. Data is of very importance to an organization and may be confidential. Unauthorized persons must not access such confidential data. Different levels of security could be implemented for different types of data and operations.
Database Administrator chooses the best file configuration and access method to get possible performance for the response vital applications, while permitting less important applications to continue to use die database, although with a relatively slower response. Data independence is usually considered from two points of view: physical data independence and logical data independence.
Importance of DBMS in Commercial and Non-commercial Environment
"A DBMS is a system software package that helps the use of included collection of data records and file known as database. It allows different user application programs to simply access the same database. DBMSs may use any of a range of database models, such as the network model or relational model. In large system, a DBMS allows users and other software to store and recover data in a structured way".( http://www.4compuelectron.com, dated 26/10/2010)
Instead of having to write a computer programs to extract information, user can ask simple questions in query language. DBMS provides facilities for controlling data access, enforcing data reliability, managing concurrency controlled. The advantages are the ease with which data can be extracted, this may help any organization. With the help of DBMS to specify which customers or staff would be permitted to any schemes like bonus scheme and cost could be calculated. It's also allows tracking on customers, products and purchases, building a knowledge of who has bought what and when, it could be get information about which product is sell faster and which one is slower.