Ultra High Speed Wireless Communication Computer Science Essay

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Due to high demand for digital Multimedia content to be available and be on demand to users has created a new problem under wireless communication .Current commercial product can provide limited wireless transmission under standard applications .Wireless docking and display as well as network access need advanced standard rather than current Wi-Fi technology because they require much high data transmission .This has given rise to new Wireless Gigibit communication under WiGig alliance which has established a unified specification for wireless communication which is designed to drive a new ecosystem for interoperable products .In this paper we address the specification put forward by WiGig in accordance to new 802.11ad standard as it superseded 802.11n standard currently in use today . Then in next section we investigate the challenges faced during the implementation in Wireless personal area network using 60 GHz band in Wireless gigabit network and provide a solution where wireless personal area network can be implemented by reducing channel blockage ,Doppler spread and sever multipath environment problem

Wireless Ethernet supports transmission speeds up to 7 Gbps which is 10 times more the 802.11n operating upon unlicensed 60GHZ frequency band which is multi-channel spectrum typically 7GHZ compared to 83.5 GHZ in 2.5GHz band in Wifi as it has much more spectrum available channels are much wider to enable multigigabit data rates .These wider channels in WiGig enable it to support application that require extremely fast transmission rates such as for uncompressed video transmission .WiGig is designed ground up for low power devices such as smartphones .High performance computer which supports WiGig has advanced power management system to minimise power loss. As it is based on IEEE 802.11 specification ,so it transparently switches for native Wifi band frequency operating on 802.11 networks .WiGig specification is as same as IEEE 802.11 a/b/g/n of MAC and PHY layer but having added features to improve performance over 60GHZ band .One new aspect in WiGig specification is that of beamformaing protocol in which devices with directional antennas discover each other to establish connection and once connection is made refinements to antenna setting are made to maximise transmission and receiving gains to data rates .To maximise performance as the channel change adjustments to antenna setting are made so enable high speed data rates even when there is the case of timesaving as with mobile devices. WiGig alliance Multi Gigabit wireless structure is triband having MAC and PHY layers implemented in hardware so that IP networking is achieved over 60 GHZ band .The devices are simpler and less expensive to produce so that they can communicate over all three bands 2.5GHZ ,5GHz,and 60GHZ.Protocol adaption layer is yet another layer in which support for audio/visual and input /Output is defined. Connectivity options such as HDMI,display port as well as USB /PCIe are supported.[1][White paper ,WiGig alliance,july 2011]

If we look at the PHY layer, it has unlinsened 60GHZ band which has much more spectrum available because the spectrum is divided in multiple channels with wider channels enabling high data rates .Modulation and coding schemes include Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) so that signals travel over long distances and have greater delay spreads. Due to this they are flexible in handling ostabtales thus achieving transmission speed upto 7 GBps .Single carrier mode in WiGig support 4.5GB/s speeds so that low power devices are supported. To promote introperiablility OFDM and SC modes share a common preamble and channel coding to reduced implementation complexity .[1][White paper ,WiGig alliance,july 2011]

MAC layers also define Beamformaing which another feature in which to reduce interference in which concentrated beam from directional antenna is focused between two devices .These antenna fine tune there setting so that maximum performance is reached to enable robust multi gigabit communication over 10 metres. From security point of view WiGig incules advanced encryption standard in galious counter mode requiring fewer computation per block as that of AES in 802.11 .For efficient data transfer rates packet aggregation and block acknolagemnet is provided in the specification .[1][White paper ,WiGig alliance,july 2011]

Integration of Gigabit technology in Personal area network is one interesting area to looked upon. Investigating and implementation of Wireless personal area network with 60 GHz band has highlight few challenges in wireless infrastructure .60GHz unlicensed spectrum solution is a very new approach to short range multi gigabit wireless networking due to fact that at least 3.5 GHZ of transmissible spectrum is avaible worldwide .Europe already has 59-66GHz of mobile broadband whereas USA and Japan are behind with 56-64GHz ,59-66GHz of unlicensed application .The attenuation in 60GHZ signal with concreate wall and other material shas been examined .Small room and conference halls are well suited for 60GHz transmission.Localizaintion of signal proves to a positive impact on security. All due to beam width in this case is narrow because of presence of directive antenna operating at these frequencies. The required equipment for interfering with these is very expensive and not readily available. To make spectrum much more attractive, exploitation of attuetation in 60GHz signal for frequency reuse by isolation of nearby transmitters can form a excellent base for wireless communication

Bruce Bosco et all (2005) in [2] has put forward that Wireless personal area networks are long haul backbone networks used as extension for wired or fibre networks operating point to point using large antenna as Operational ranges from 60GHz signal exceeds 1km of area with speeds upto 1.25Gbps.Author also ascertains that the motivation of these systems is purely financial highlighting interstate city networks is one example for wireless networks where collage and campuses are also implementing these solution .Wireless area networks are thus short in range not exceeding 10m,cheaper to setup and also portable and flexible targeted towards enterprise application can also be used for high end performance devices .Bruce Bosco et all (2005) in [2] also looks at challenges when wireless personal area network is integrated with Gigabit network ,Problem of transmission power to that of square of wavelength due to path loss is much more severe as Fiirs equation to compute this effect is studied .60 GHz signal suffers from a loss of power much more as compared to 2.5GHz and 5GHz band all because of short wavelength but can be compensated for increasing antenna gains .Solution to this problem is given in paper that if we use small antenna loss in transmission power is much more feasible as at 60GHz for the given antenna gain scales inversely with square of wavelength. Doppler spread due to motion of wireless system ,channel blockage present due to Non line of sight ,Multi path fading environment and last but not least Network infrastructure because of need to generate and handle large amount of traffic are some of concerns in wireless personal area networks are examined as well in [2]

Usage models o WPAN includes Sync-n-go wireless display and docking capability .Sync n go is the transfer of HD content on a kiosk to any hand held device .It operates on on LOS( line of sight ) channel as well as NLOS(Non line of sight ) .Wireless display is yet another feature to 60GHZ wireless gigabit transmission as to replace standard video cable such as HDMI or display port to consumer electronics such as TV o wireless projectors .High definition content requires transfer speeds up to a gigabit performance whether it is uncompressed or compered with minimal loss of quality .Non line o sight is important to consider as LOS service is no feasible. Wireless docking is the replacement o cable connectors from wired connectors .Laptops or Mobile internet devices may be connector wireless to the docking station via wireless link .Keyboards ,mices and other peripheral devices may require docking so here wireless gigabit technology may come in usage.

We have shown the specification currently in place for Wireless Gigabit communication with regard to IEEE’s new standard being developed in collaboration with Wireless gigabit alliance . They are leveraging the state of art millimetre technology so that widespread use of 60 GHz band is put in place in near future .Wireless docking, wireless display as well as Sync on go are some of important milestones in terms of applications are to be accomplished .Development of MAC and PHY layers adds up to high data rates achieved by Wireless gigabit communication.