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Cloud Computing and the services that cloud computing provides offer efficiency and are highly scalable as they are able to fulfill the current needs of the world. The advantage of using only a portion of the cloud for non-intensive tasks and the remaining portion for the cloud can be used for various other purposes or one can pay only for the power used. The same thing can be applied for storage. These possibilities are giving a new scope and is very intriguing when robotics is paired with cloud computing. The researchers and as well as companies are looking forward for new possibilities with cloud robotics, tasks that are usually required to run on robot is now performed using cloud services.
CLOUD ROBOTICS - ISSUE
The cloud enables us to use small onboard computers in robots to perform heavy tasks, which are used only when performing real time tasks. At university of Tokyo in 1996, it was explored that by separating the high level reasoning and low level control it is possible to create a remote brain . The cloud robot also enables us to use small devices such as smartphones to perform simple operations. James Kuffner said that the usage of cloud computing in robotics will make the robots cheaper, lighter and smarter . He suggested creating a global knowledge database which stores the actions, objects and environments for robots. the robots is able to identify the object even if it sees for the first time and plan a route in the environment which is previously mapped by another robot just by downloading the usage manual and object description of the object from the database in the cloud. The main disadvantage of using the cloud is the dependence on cloud services even for basic operations and in such case the robot will be unable to anything is the connection is lost, so the problem lies with the connection speed . Architecture is proposed for the cloud robotics system and it consists of 2 tiers - Machine to Machine level (M2M) enables the robots to create a collaborative group to exchange information, to keep the robots within the cloud access point and to share resources and the Machine to Cloud (M2C) level enables the robots to get resources from the cloud if the task performed requires to use outside their shared resources. This particular system can be categorized into 2 sub-systems - Communication framework, the network latency can be avoided by using cloud infrastructure as a super node for communication network between machines and the cloud and Elastic Computing architecture, and in this architecture 3 models were proposed depending on the application requirement, network conditions and resource availability. They are Peer, Proxy and Clone based models. This system creates a remote brain besides having the shared memory from the cloud.
ROBO EARTH - SOLUTION
REALabs proposed an approach for using cloud computing for networking in robotics. In order to overcome the latency in the network, the application using the robot is operated from the server which provides direct contact with the resources. This paper describes the concept of RoboEarth project which allows the robot to share knowledge with plug-in architecture by using ontology-based language . The cloud holds 3 databases which have information about objects, actions and environment and the information is stored in Ontology language. Robot Operating System (ROS) connects the cloud to the robot . Recognition / Labeling are the key component of this architecture. It basically translates the definitions from the databases to the language understood by the robot and it performs the translations vice-versa when the robot contributes to the database. This paper mentions about DAvinCi framework to provide scalability and parallelism for service robots in huge environments . DAvinCi uses Platform as a service model where the robots communicates with the server and runs the ROS nodes even without having the capacity to run ROS. A cluster called Hadoop Distributed Files System is located above the server for executing robotic algorithms. The cluster is the master node and the central communication point for the framework.
Although cloud computing is a new technology, several projects are proposed utilizing the methods for Artificial Intelligence, image processing, grasping and neural networks. The man intension of this paper is to bring an overview idea of the proposed projects. The main goal is to move the existing standalone solution into the cloud and to provide algorithms to human operator or robot when required to utilize them when performing complex tasks. This type of system should be able to communicate with any robot or device with the needed interface.
The integration of cloud computing within robotics will bring a major difference to our daily routine. The cloud robotics will make our life much easier. With the help of cloud robots acting as cognitive entities, are able to perform the tasks within no time when compared to the present outdated systems. The cloud robot is able to explore the surrounding environment, synchronize their actions with other physical and logical objects, sense, react to instances they might face anywhere and move around even in the new environment. As the affective computing advances, it will make the communications more effective and human like and the environment will be able to capture and process the sensitive parameters such as stress, psychology, mood of the user, etc. Improving the technology enhances the interaction between robots, cloud systems and humans and we can expect the interactions to be much more intelligent in the near future. This opens new possibilities in developing applications like the people in the physical world assist and takes services from robots from the virtual world and work together like companions. Robots and people from far distant places work cooperatively to help satisfy human needs and assist people in their day to day routine. The virtual autonomic security guards will be able to help people and protect them from danger and carefully monitor their safety and protect them from indoor and outdoor danger. The new dimension of this technology would be to provide remote health in hospitals and health centers. The robots will be able to download the description and actions from the cloud and delivers the services without needing much training such as delivering a water bottle to a patient when needed. The cloud robo will be able to access all the information of the patient from the cloud and asks the patient to take the tablet on time according given by the doctor. The cloud robotics is definitely going to be a part of our everyday life's whether we like it or not. There will be a time in future where we are going to work collaboratively with the robots. The only problem is with the data repository existing in the cloud. It basically contains all the objects and item descriptions and every possible action pertaining to our life. But it is impossible to capture each and everything in this universe such as a cup can be any shapes and sizes and many models. The idea here is to construct a robotic help center which is constantly guiding the robots at different places, if the robot is unable to identify a particular thing he scans the item and sends it to the help center and the help center identifies the item sends the description and the robot will be able to perform task according. This description is saves in the cloud for other robots to download. We can expect a major development in automobile field where the vehicles can interact with each other and avoid accidents. The sensors in the vehicle provide important information to the user such as traffic updates, road construction, etc. and the vehicle's sensor communicates with other vehicle's sensor and avoids collision when they are within 100 feet.