Traditionally the advancement of internet

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List of Tables

Chapter One

1.1. Introduction

Traditionally the advancement of internet, large scale search engine seem not always efficient in realizing the best possible information that fit in what the user needs, often time web hunters spend too much time searching a large scale search engine over the internet for relevant results. For instance user may intend to search or urgently in need of restaurant and food services being his or her first time in the locality. Recently a web 2.0 technology has achieved excellence in industry that gives web service an advantage over other static web site.

Since the development of internet the web becomes the richest source of information which always not in the form that support end user's requirement though there are tremendous information. There is a trend of enabling users to view diverse data from diverse sources in an integrated manner known as Mix up or Mash up. However the integration is based on the combination of web services and insufficient to the web site that provide the open web service Application Programming Interfaces unfortunately, most existing web site does not provide services as such [5]. The web applications are still the main methods for information distribution, for example KQED Quest [1] offers educator guides, teacher workshops and advance organizers for students. Its content is not only mapped onto satellite image of the bay area but pathways through the content are also suggested. An integrated blog affords users the opportunity to ask questions and give feedbacks. Web applications search for the desired information and extract the partial information to realise the virtual web service functions. All processes of web information searching and extractions are run at client side by end users programming like a real web service for online restaurants search engine.

1.2. Definition of Keywords/ Working Definition

Definition of terms: Web service, mash up, restaurants owner, users, customers.

Restaurant Owner: the restaurant owner in the context of this service is a person who may or work as a manager of a particular restaurant.

Customers: The customer in the context of this service include; visitors, travellers, students and tourists.

Users: The user of this web search engine categorise customers and restaurant owners.

1.3. Statement of Problems

1.4. Aims and Objectives

The purpose of designing a web based application is to provide an impressive ‘one stop' restaurant search engine that comprises many restaurants in the United Kingdom (UK) as a whole; it does not handle the service for only one restaurant or particular restaurant. It automatically displays, search restaurant outlet with names, pictures, location etc. This will enable a community focused platform where you can read about other people's review, rate and share your experiences for all the restaurants you've been to at any point in time within, to ease other restaurant customers requirement.

1.5. Structure / Organisation of Thesis

Thestructures used are separated into primary and secondary evidences.

The Primary evidence are derived from published materials (peer review, journals, conference paper etc) reviewed to provide detailed literature.

The secondary evidence was derived from questionnaire as a user requirement gathering technique with analysis.

The organisations of thesis are as follows:

Chapter one: Provides a concise theory based on background and talk about the aims/objectives of the research, working definitions of terms and organisation of thesis

Chapter two: Provides a lit review of several technological standards and techniques of online restaurant web based service. It is designed enable the readers an overview off the nature of online search engine service for restaurants discussing the idea in which the survey is made and will inform the bases for technological revolution and advancement.

Chapter three: the method of the work carried out is established. The methodology is used to analyze is discussed in detail.

1.6. Contextual Model

Chapter Two

Literature Review

2.1. Background and History

The development of web service for finding food restaurants in United Kingdom is an integration of web service functionalities and new creativity from different web applications. These integration technologies ( mix-up or mash up) has really given the twenty century web service development an age from two successful and greatly accepted web applications such as ‘Youtube' Data and Google Maps Application Programming Interface. However the development is very limited to web site that provide open web services APIs, and currently most web site do not provide web services. Therefore, Web information development methods to generate the virtual web service were proposed.

Over the years Mash-up business models was based on running a few Google advertisement and collecting fees for sending buyers to e-commerce sites, reasons being that most web sites do not allow outsider access to data profit usage, but as the traffic has grown companies now cut deals to site that may spur new market, especially site that are map based mash-ups for instance, might attract multilateral to ultra-local businesses to advertise on the web which enhances the communication of information between individuals and groups. The web developers' uses different kinds of languages (Extensible mark-up language; XML, Extensible Hypertext mark-up language; HTML, Cascading Style Sheet; CSS, etc.) to result at and support web design development, primarily so that people may design, distribute, and consume information in a standardised manner.

The Web 2.0 technologies resolution enhances more creation of some additional technologies such as Really Simple Syndication (RSS), asynchronous Java script and XML (AJAX) and Resource Description Framework (RDF). Therefore web 2.0 application in general and mash-up in particular exist today because these technologies provide the tools necessary for dynamic and flexible data sharing, organisation, [1] display and reuse.

2.2. The Web as Operating Systems:

Software companies, everyone online and web site have been foreshadowed by impact of mash-up. The web is smoothly transformed as an operating system (OS) sort of globally, whereby everyone is acquiring knowledge to program web 2.0 with an enormous spirit of the early days of computer.

Web developers are taking little bits, different pieces from a number of companies together in some innovative way, “Amazon Chief Executive Jeffrey P. Bezos noted” People will start seeing the real power of web services [3].

2.3. Web Information Extraction

Usually, in real world a real web service response to the requests of users by returning the data in the server-side database. The web service developers design the query commands by an interactive and programming language such as Structured Query language (SQL) to retrieve data in the table of database [5]. Most in time the web application serves as server while the web pages serves as tables, compared with web service the web application are not suitable for integration because they are designed for browsing by users, not for the parsing by computer program. As shown in Tab. 2, realising the function of CNN news search engine. Web services, web feed and web applications from more than one web sites into a single integrated system.




Web service (SOAP)

Google Maps API

Diagrammatic representation of an area

Web service (REST)

Google Weather API

State of the atmosphere such as heat and rain

Web feed (Country List)

Google data

Country name and ISO code

Web feed (City List)

Google date

Main city names and positions

Web application (Static URL)

BBC Country Profiles

History, politics and economic background of countries

Web application (Dynamic URL)

CNN News Search

CNN Web news article search engine

Table 2.0 [5]. The Target Web Services, Web Feeds and Web Application

2.4. Perspectives on web services (SOAP, WSDL and UDDI) to real world.

The web service makes it possible to connect many different computing platforms. however, a single simple technology is available for very different programming language environments such as Java 2 Enterprise edition (J2EE), Microsoft .Net, C++, SAP ABAP, Lotus Domino, Perl and many more. Different platforms both Hardware and Operating systems that support Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) implementations and XML parser can participate. The following are the technological characteristics of web services [7]:

- Business process orchestration without programming

- Reuse and flexibility

- Interface agreements

- Automation through application clients

- Connectivity for heterogeneous world

- Information and process sharing

- Dynamic discovery of service interface and implementation

However, the perspectives of web services are as follows:

- Business perspective: deals with opportunity identification and analysis.

a. Today any business must be agile that being responsive to market opportunities. Therefore, companies demands more optimized and efficient development cycle and want to easily integrate application from multiple vendors, possibly running on different platforms.

b. The ability to reuse and reconfigure an existing business component is the key to being agile.

- Training Perspective: provides technical base education.

2.4.1. Understanding SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) [7].

  • From a web service point of view, the XML instance carrying information turns into the SOAP message. It then transfers service invocation requests and responses.
  • SOAP is an XML-based protocol for exchanging structured and typed data between applications.
  • The web service consumer code calls the client side SOAP API, while the SOAP server must execute service provider code upon arrival of a SOAP message.
  • The SOAP document style is very well suited for non-RPC style communication, such as a document upload scenario. The SOAP runtime does not restrict the structure of the document style SOAP message body in any way. It rather loosely related to the service, because the peer application owns full responsibility for message body processing and service execution [7].

2.4.2. Understanding Web Service Description Language (WSDL) [7].

  • Web Service Description Language provides the information entities comprising the interface and the implementation part through XML elements.
  • Web Service Description Language document is an XML instance composed of elements that are declared in a Web Service Description Language schema definition with target namespace
  • The ordering of elements in a Simple Object Access Protocol message body for an operation must be identical to the ordering of the parts in a Web Service Description Language document message describing the message body.

2.4.3. Understanding Universal Description Discovery and Integration (UDDI)

  • The Universal Description Discovery and Integration service registry provides a web service directory platform. It is, so to speak, a centralized web service search engine helping web service consumer applications to find adequate service offerings.
  • A consumer needs to certainly select a service based on technical criteria, because if the consumer cannot agree to the service interface contract offered by the service provider, it cannot call the service at all.
  • Dynamic web service consumers querying a Universal Description Discovery and Integration registry will always find up-to-date web service information if service providers keep their published data accurate.
  • Linking Web Service Description Language documents to a Universal Description Discovery and Integration registry is made possible when a web service consumer navigating through Universal Description Discovery Integration business entities and business service and finding eventually an appropriate service must discover the service network address and must be delegated to an associated Web Service Description Language document describing the technical condition for calling this service.

- Architecture perspective: lays the conceptual foundation for solutions

- Development perspective: is a hands-on chapter implementing web service and client invoking them.

- Operational perspective: investigates the physical view on web services solutions; it features both conceptual and hands-on sections

- Engagement perspective: takes a rear view on web services projects

- Future perspective: gives an outlook to emerging technology.

2.5. The Future of mash-ups:

According to a mash up community known as Programmable Web [14] the total number of listed mashup applications is more than Four thousand five hundred and twelve (4512), and total of listed Application Programming Interface API is more than One thousand five hundred and twenty three (1523) and on average there are more than three (3) new systems generated everyday in December 2009. Although many users would like to build mash-up applications, existing web services are not adequate for user's needs and many famous and popular web sites do not provide web service. However it does not appear to be easy to realize the interaction between different web applications, extracting typed data from multiple web pages is more suitable to generate Mash-ups applications. Marmite [15], implemented as a Firefox plug-in using JavaScript and XML user interface mark-up language developed by theMozilla project (XUL) uses a basic screen-scraping operator to extract the content from web pages and integrated it with other data sources [4].

Some approaches are proposed to develop web services based on the web application to obtain the integration. Pollock [15][5] can create a virtual web service from form based query interface of web site. This generate wrappers using XWrap, and WSDL file using web site related information, then proceeds to publishes the details of the virtual web service into UDDI, but this user needs to parse the Hyper Text Mark-up Language (HTML) documents of the form based web pages.

As shown in Fig. 2, [5] all the processes of searching extraction and integration are run at client-side by end users. The end users can explore the different personal web services to support all their needs without depending on the proxy server (server end).

- Extracting typed data from web pages and the extracted result is structured data.

- Extracting all kinds of information including text, links, images and object from different layout such as list and tables.

- Supporting the information extracted from the static web pages and the dynamically generated web pages such as the result pages from based query.

- The end users can realise the continuous information searching and extract over multiple web pages by end-user programming.

Mash-ups are inexpensive for one thing being that, the web company giants like Amazon and other are embracing the mash-up growth movement by allowing developers with easy access to their data and services, contributing it's enhancement so that more competent services like maps onscreen display, can be done on user's computer instead of their own great distance configured (far-flung) servers, thereby speeding up user's experience. Example; it makes it easier for outsiders to add their pinch of adjustment.

Remarkably , Business week (2005) noted a popularly use scenario that, combines two services (a Chicago Police Dept. Crime web site and Google Map) and lets you type in an address to see recent crimes nearby. The site alone invited 1.2 million people in just the first two weeks after it begun in May. Adrian Holoyaty Creator, a full time developer from journal-world's online unit, thinks of mash-up as great business in future to venture upon.

2.6. Design Patterns and business Models:

O'Reilly, T. (2005) has noted some advancement in characteristic properties between web 1.0 and web 2.0 just to mention but a few below.


Web 1.0

Web 2.0



Google AdSense


Britannica Online



Personal website



Domain name specification

Search engine optimization





Content management system





Tab 1.0 [2]: formulated sense of Web 2.0 during a conference session between O'Reilly and Medialive international.

2.7. Challenges of using Mash-ups in Education.

Mash-up technology is still very much at its beginning stage, rendering its educational potential less known and its strength ill defined. Some issues that educators may confront in using mash-ups in the classroom.

- Service stability, Data accuracy and Content appropriateness may play significant roles in how mash-ups are used in education. Most mash-ups are dynamic, user generated, utilize editable, issues of content unpredictability emerge. Herein I will mention an example [1].

  • The Ficlets mash-up support the creative writing process in ways language arts educators may value, its use of the Flickr API that creates the small but very small real possibility that students may be exposed to materials deemed inappropriate for some K-12 classrooms.
  • Lack of mashup development expertise and or resources within educational circles may hinder widespread mashup use and adoption.
  • The creation of mashup requires a ready supply of raw data, technical know-how, a spark of creativity [16].


O'Reilly, T (2005) discuses user contributed information in web 2.0 as a form of collective intelligence. “Mash-ups acknowledges the role of user by providing ways for user data to be repurposed, combined and reorganized as in (added or edited) features: wikis, blogs, and media repositories such as ( Flickr and YouTube) are excellent sources of users data for use in mash-up applications. Users-generated tagging strategies, known as folksonomy, are found in web 2.0 application such as (the social bookmarking site) and improve the ways in which mash-up developers sort, access, and filter information by providing human-readable ways of describing data [2]”.

The characteristics of mash-up is that a specific mashup is made possibly available to external programmers through API (Application Integrated Interface) these APIs include pieces of programmable computer codes that gives web application permission to query and retrieve data and displays it on their own web application. Many web applications for example Orbit Travel update uses two APIs (a). Yahoo! Web services API to retrieve data from Yahoo, while (b). Google map API from Google, these means that ‘A' places information into ‘B' and retrieve it. While these APIs are on the web it's makes it possibly useful to display and even combine both data in ways that are more meaningful to Orbit Travel Update and it's targeted users.

Restaurant market has steadily increased its share of the United Kingdom catering market. For some consumers with busy lifestyles, and possibly a business expense account, eating out is not considered a luxury.However, the industry remains a highly competitive one and consumer loyalties for the major brands can be low.In some sectors, particularly the mid-market restaurant range, the restaurants market is becoming saturated and a number of operators in this sector have recently issued profits warnings.

the restaurants market increased by 4% in 2001, to reach $13.7bn.Growth in the market slowed in 2001, as branded chains focused on price discounting to boost customer numbers, consumers became more discerning and there was a fall in both domestic and overseas tourist numbers.However, the restaurants sector was forecast to increase by 15% at current prices, producing a market valued at $15.45bn by 2006. According to a London property agent, Christie & Co., London's restaurant market remains "robust and vibrant' and demand for sites is outstripping the supply. The British restaurant publication "Harden's" showed a record number of openings in the last 12 months, at 135 an increase of 10% on the previous year.


The proposed online restaurant mashup Titled: “THE DEVELOPMENT OF WEB SERVICE (MASHUP) FOR FINDING FAST FOOD RESTAURANTS IN UNITED KINGDOM”, which will enable users such as (travellers, tourist, families, student, visitors etc) to locate food restaurant easily. Traditionally, when people were looking for a new restaurant, they would pick up a copy of food guide. The similarities of this project with many of such mash-ups have already been developed, indeed all of them are owned outside the United Kingdom (UK) with different styles and concepts below;

United States of America (USA)

1. is based on mapping out the Chinese restaurant locations for Chinese immigrants. This mash-up site provides user access to review, menus, locations and other local information. [13]

  • Creator Brain Hui first created this site only in Chinese and focusing on Los Angeles and San Francisco Bay Chinese food establishment.
  • However the site has grown nationwide to metro like Houston, Seattle and Atlanta and an English version inevitably popped ups as well.

2. Menu request is based on mapping which features more than 5,000 links in New York, San Diego, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, Napa Valley, Philadelphia, San Francisco and Washington DC.

  • Creator Joshua Lurie - Terrel of Sacramento.
  • Users can visit the restaurant's web site, read reviews, get driving directions and make online reservations through this amazing map.

3. Boorah Restaurant Search is a service targeting restaurant owners to provide report/feedback of positive and negative trend reviews of food and service at their restaurants. For that the service monitors negative and positive trends across hundreds of online review sites. As it grows, restaurant owners can subscribe to receive a PDF of their monthly report for an introductory price charge of $15 and a regular charge of $25 per month.

  • The report may enable those restaurant owners to react and improve their service in the specific field.
  • Service covers twenty (20) top metropolitan areas across United State (east, mid, west) geographical locations.
  • The service helps consumers achieve their ideal dining experience by allowing them to search thousand of restaurant to meet their individual requirements [12].

4. stands behind a restaurant database the feeds and the most comprehensive restaurant data. “Dinning Info” provides unique wine friendly ratings, illuminate composite ratings, corkage, days open and maps, plus links to restaurant websites and reviews.


5. Restocan is a complete and efficient guide of restaurants in Canada; you can search restaurant address or category, [1]by selecting a category while starting to use restaurant locator [8].


6. is the first Google map mash-up developed for an Australian dining website with rich interactive functions implemented. Searching restaurant directly on map is intuitive and easy to use.

  • Ador enable users to book restaurant online in real-time booking.
  • When a reservation is processed online it instantly records in an electronic reservation system [10].

Chapter Three


3.1. Methodology

A mixed research methodology combining statistical techniques and quantitative research methodology were adopted in carrying out this survey. The questionnaire was designed to obtain information from a group of participants, this is very much in line with their preferred approach to research methodology where the underlining theory is validated and generated by the field word itself. Descriptive statistical method was used to analyze the result produced by the questionnaire.

3.2. Questionnaire Development

The instrument used to carry out this research as primary survey is questionnaire, these was completed with a follow up strategy to provide clarification for some questions. A questionnaire containing 17 question were sent out to each participant, the questionnaire was structured into three sections (general, overall interest in restaurant and interest in online design pattern). Closed - ended questions were adopted in the questionnaire and unanticipated response. Section one covered some details about each participant, section two was structured to cover a set of eleven statement or questions classified into six dimensions in customer's quality, accessibility, and service quality as an added functionality for web application search engine website (see Appendix 1 for the questionnaire). Generally a four - to five point scale will adequately present all the possibly that the typical participant will require (Likert, 1932). The participants were asked to indicate on five point Likert scales the extent to which they agree or disagree with the different. Question or statement relating to the different attributes, with 1 denoting ‘no interest' to the relevant proposition and 5 denoting ‘A great deal of interest' as total agreement of the of the statement which a neutral scale of 3 denotes some interest.

3.2.1. Pre - Testing of Questionnaire.

A pre-test of the questionnaire was conducted to access the validity of content for measurement scales, validity of content can be carried out by a group of 3 judges. The reviews were done individually by two local professionals and one non professional after some part of the questionnaire were restructured, added and deleted.

3.2.2. Access

To ensure the free conscience of the participants, a covering letter explaining the rationale for the survey was forwarded along with each questionnaire. To provide further comfort to the participants, a statement of consent was written that responses will be treated with total confidentiality as all of the questionnaires are anonymous.


A total of eighty questionnaires were printed out and sent out, but only thirty seven were received back. The questionnaire was designed and analyzed by three sections.

Section 1: Demographic details

Section 2: Overall Interest in Restaurant

Section 3: Interest in online design pattern.

3.3.1. Section 1: The Demographic Details Analysis (Age / Gender)

i. Age Range Analysis - Description using Bar Chart below:

The chart above depict that most of the Tourist participant were of age ranging between 31 - 40yrs, none of them are above this age range and only few of them are below it.

Secondly as expected according to the graph, most of the participants which are between the ages of 17 - 21yrs and 22 - 30yrs were Students.

Thirdly, most of the participants which are Visitor are between the ages of 22 - 30yrs.

Lastly, The most of the Business proprietor participating in the survey are of age range between 31 - 40yrs.

ii. Participant Gender Analysis - Description using bar chart below:

According to the chart among the entire participant surveyed the Student category has the highest male and female population. This is closely followed by the Visitor and Tourist category except that in the Visitor's category there is more number of male participants than the tourist.

3.3.2. Section 2: Overall Interest in Restaurant Analysis


- Description by Bar and Pie chart below:

The scale between 1 - 6 means:

- 1 = No interest

- 2 = Very little interest

- 3 = Some interest

- 4 = Fair amount of interest

- 5 = A great deal of interest

Also describe using Pie Chart:

- The two charts above shows that most participants in all categories (Visitor, Tourist, Student and Business prop.) prefer to search online for a restaurant outlet. It is also worthy of note to point out that visitors has the greatest preference for searching for a restaurant outlet online.


- Description using Bar and Pie Chart below:

The scale between 1 - 5 means:

- 1 = Not preferred

- 2 = Less preferred

- 3 = Preferred

- 4 = Fair amount of preference

- 5 = A great deal of preference




The both charts above indicate that 28% participants in all categories prefer other people review or feedback to visit or re-visit a restaurant, while the Business proprietor and Visitor category are slightly higher than the rest.

Also 18% participants evaluated in all categories prefer the assessment of their own self report to visit or re-visit a restaurant while the Student category a bit higher than the rest.

Furthermore, a quick view on the chart indicates that participants in all categories (Tourist, Visitor, Student and Business Prop.) especially Visitor category have the least preference of 7% getting driving direction to visit or re-visit a restaurant.


- Description using Bar chart below:


The chart shows that almost all participants in all categories found it convenient for using credit or debit card for ordering meal, with Student category predominantly higher than the rest. Only two categories (student and Visitor) found it not convenient using credit or debit card to order meal.


- Description using Pie Chart below:

- In this category, 76% of all the restaurant owners participating on the survey want the service to enable viewing feedback of prospective customers so as to improve customer service where only 24% prefers the application to enable printing out report.


- Description of the total no of people in percentage using Pie Chart:

According to the evidence on the Chart 68% participants would prefer the application to have a good user friendly look and feel that enable searching by category option (e.g. type of meal served etc.), while only 32% prefer searching by address.

Chapter Four

4.1. Artefact Blue-print

4.2. Conclusion

According to the literature review, the provision of the right amount of relevant updated information is thus a key element of web service quality, as internet being a one stop point for businesses to interact with its potential customer []. Companies that take advantage of this interactive function are considered to have good web service quality, as stated in the analysis that visitors has the greatest preferences for searching for restaurants outlet online, this can be attributed to the fact that visitors are probably new in the neighbourhood or city, so restaurant search should provide an in-depth content to attract customers and promote catering industry in United Kingdom.

Therefore, this web application will enable users such as travellers, tourist, families, student, visitors etc to locate food restaurant easily with map navigation around the United Kingdom (UK), it can also serve as a moderate effort for customers conducting restaurant search, as evidence in the questionnaire analysis 68% of total participants would prefer the application's graphical user interface (GUI) to have a good look and feel as well as being user friendly and enabling searches by category.

With this vast web application information database, Restaurant owners and businesses as whole will be able to get feedbacks, reviews or reports from other customers that might have visited an outlet. This type of web application has existed in other places as in United State, Canada and Australia.


Textbooks/Journals and Websites:

[1] Liu M., Horton L., Olmanson, J. & Wang, P. Y. (2008) An Exploration of

Mash-ups and their Potential Education Uses. Computers in the schools, Vol.

25(3-5), 2008.

[2] O'Reilly, T. (2005). What is web 2.0? Retrieved December 02, 2009


[3] Hof, R. D. (2005). Mix, Match, and Mutate. Retrieved November 28, 2009,*ocQ34AvyQMA/magazine/content


[4] Dickson K. W, Danny k, Alex K. C. Integrated Legacy Sites into web services

With Webxcript. International Journal of Cooperative Information Systems Vol.

14, No. 1 (2005) 25 - 44. Copyright © World Scientific Publishing Company.

[5] Hao H, Takehiro T. A method For Integration of Web Applications Based on

Information Extraction. Eight International Conference on Web Engineering.

ISBN 0769532615 © 2008 IEEE.

[6] Munindar P. S, Michael N. H, Service Oriented Computing Semantics, Processes,

Agents. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 2005 ISBN 0470091487.

[7] Olaf Z, Mark T, Stefan P. Perspectives On Web Services applying SOAP, WSDL

And UDDI to Real World Projects. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

ISBN 3540009140.

[8] Canada restaurant locator:

[9] Chinese food map (

[9] Boorah restaurant search:

[10]Australia Dinning out search:

[12] Las Vegas, NV City Search:

[13] Mike S, What Are The Available Restaurant Maps Online? Retrieved December 0202009. ttp://


[14] ProgrammableWeb:

[15]Lu Y. H, Hong Y, Varia J, and Lee D, Pollock: Automatic generation of virtual

Web Services from web sites. In the Proceedings of the 2005 ACM symposium

On applied computing, 2005.

[16] FrankW.Z, Practical JavaScriptâ„¢, DOM Scripting, and Ajax Projects

© Apress inc 2007, ISBN 978-1-4302-0197-7 (Online).


Appendix One

- A sample of questions been asked in the questionnaire.

Appendix Two

- Questionnaire Tables for analysis

Appendix Three

- Unified Modelling Language (UML) Diagram for the proposed web application.