Tourism Location Based Commerce Computer Science Essay


Today, the development of mobile technologies has made a significant impact on services and other related commerce activity more and more reliable. The comprehension of business opportunity behind this technology development, and the increasing market demand towards m-commerce activity create a new phenomenon of business market activity using a mobile commerce technique. According to the European Information Technology Observatory, the number of mobile phone users in reaching 4.4 billions in 2009 and it will still continue increasing from year to year, and there are more than 10.000 business worldwide using m-commerce solution to run their business. The combination of wireless and mobile phone technology has become an ideal platform for realizing any kind of business transaction and activity. People are tending to carry a light weighted mobile phone today rather than hundreds pieces of money inside their wallet.

As the time passed by, a personalised and localised technology for mobile phone is needed to support the current business strategy. Therefore Location Based Service is introduced to solve the current situation by providing a service based on the user or client position. The idea of Location Based Service is to answer where am I? What is around me? Where is it? When individual find themselves in new environment they are not familiar with, their needs and behaviour are easily predicted. People need to find somewhere where to stay, where to eat, the nearest ATM machine, some point of interest and many more. Imagine a tourist just arrived in an airport and doesn't have much preparation about the place they are going, where to find the nearest hotel or restaurant. They might wastes a lot of money and effort to find that information instead of switching on their mobile phones and access the service instantly in seconds. As the tourism sector is heterogeneous, the diversity of information services for mobile users is clearly a usability issue. How can we deliver that information based on their needs? Hereby, by developing the Prototype of Location Based Service for Tourism M-Commerce can be the first step to overcome those problems and opening new door for further exploration about Tourism M-Commerce using Location Based Service.


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There are many information and service provided in Tourism world, but we are rarely to see any of them are personalised to the user. It would take much times for the user to find the suitable information where they are at from millions information out there. What the Tourism user need is an easy one stop service which can provide the matching information based on their location and ignoring the unused information. Thus the project is initialised to design a prototype of a system which can be localised or customized based on the user position called Location Based Service for Tourism M-Commerce.


The primary objective of this Final Year Project is to develop a prototype model of Location Based Service for Tourism M-Commerce. In specific, we try to deliver a clear description of location based service, convert user data into point of interest and information, and deploy it for Tourism M-Commerce activity using a simulator.


This research is going to develop a prototype of Location Based Service for Tourism M-Commerce. For simplicity, this research is implementing a simulation of tourism activity such as finding nearest hotel, receiving mobile flyer, and accessing tourism attraction from their handled device. This research doesn't involve a complex M-Commerce activity instead of a sample which can demonstrate how Location Based Service can beneficial for Tourism M-Commerce area such as bus ticketing. The system developed will be providing an information system to respond user inquiries on real time environment with existing data matching with user location.


In this report will be divided into several chapters covering different subchapter. The Chapter One will be focusing on brief introduction on background, problem statement, project scope and the objective of this research. Chapter Two will explore about the research resources from literature review which is may be taken from the previous research or paper. Chapter Three will mainly will discuss about the environment where the research is being made as well as the proposing solution of current problem happening. Chapter four will come with diagrams explaining the system to be developed. It consists of Use Case Diagram, Context Diagram, DFD Diagram, and ERD Diagram . At the end we will conclude the whole chapter and summarize it on the last chapter of this report.




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Mobile Commerce or well know as M-Commerce is a mobile commerce verses real-world commerce mobile network. It includes retail shopping, banking, stocks, booking, rentals, and many more. Back to its history, the M-Commerce itself is initialled begins with the use of Wireless Point of Sale (POS) swipe terminals since then made its way into Personal Data Assistant and Mobile Phone. The first M-Commerce technologies was ptesented through Wireless Application Protocol or WAP and i-mode mobile Internet Service. WAP builds on digital phone technology and emerged on 2.5 G technology which allowed users to browse internet from their handled device. This development emphasize the needs of advance technology whereas the 3G Phone is introduced to fully support the M-Commerce. The mobile technology has emerged as a on of the major worldwide service to support business transaction where people day to day prefer doing business activity which take less time, and more flexibility. M-Commerce has several adavantages over the traditional commerce activity because its specific characteristic such as personalisation, ubiquitu, flexibillity, greater efficiency and high maarket potrential. Thus it is not a surprise if Mobile Commerce is emerging much fater than others. There are many kinds of m-commerce actively happening everyday, but whatever form it takes, an mobile presence and the opportunity to do business using the technology is increasingly important especially as business goes global. It's not just personal computer or PC that serves as the medium through which business can trade. The development of mobile devices such as PDA, and Mobile Phone also provide ability for business to be involved wherever and whenever they are.

Figure 1

According to the statistic projection published by, July 2005 about the unit shipments of mobile terminals shows the positive increasing behaviour which ends on 1 billions units in 2009. As the more people using the mobile device, it will directly proportional with number of M-Commerce activity in the whole world.

The terms Tourism is illustrating how m-commerce can change the structure of an industry, especially in the process of creating new business opportunities. In his Mobile Commerce Tourism Industry, Arigis Tsamakos said that Tourism Industry is one of the top three industries worldwide in terms of volume and economic significance. As the data retrieved from the World Trade Organisation (WTO), the industry has generated revenues of $4, 3 trillion and accounted for approximately 10% of the world's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 1999. Tourism m-commerce itself refers to a mobile based business system including tourism and its distribution system carried out by electronics, based on tourism information. With the rising of Mobile Technology, the tourist sector would by no means be left behind. Tourism institutions and Internet companies are working together to score in this market. Even though going electronic is not a cheap development, on the positive side m-tourism provides cost effective communications. Customer can purchase the product or service easier, faster and more reliable. People do not need to go to Tourism agency to search any information related to any point of interested as well as the reservation. They can just check it via their mobile device and find the complete information just in seconds. Providing a mobile application for tourism industry is becoming a compulsion to increase customer satisfaction in accessing and consuming information. It can be assumed that Tourism sector will be enhanced by services, accessible via mobile device anywhere and anytime. Latest software technology will allow mobile services to be personalised and context-aware to improve customer experience which commonly known as Location Based Service. Context-aware mobile services will make a difference as the service provide adapting the current environment or personal interest which will be discussed in advance on the next subchapter Location Based Service Technology.

In case of Tourism, tourist generally needs information providing location when they don't know itMID very well. Therefore the Tourism Location Based Application is designed to provide location awareness and provide answer to their individual interest. In short, the advent of Mobile Development and wireless technology provides a solution for the efficient distribution of tourism information and services.


According to Virrantaus at al.2001, location based service is information service accessible with mobile device through the mobile network and utilizing the ability to make use of the location of the mobile device. In research, Location Based Service is considered to be a special subset called context aware services where it can automatically adapt the user location to be matched with the database and deliver useful information into the user. We could find Location Based Service application easily in our surrounding such as car, navigation system, electric flier, tracking system, and many more. There are many examples of Location Based Service we could find today ranging from Infromation and Directory Services into E-Commerce Location Based Service. The table below will present the examples of Lcoation Based Service Technology and its application.

Location Based Services

Client Application

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Information and Directory Services

Dynamically yellow pages which automatically informs user/client of location the nearest facilitiest, and venue such as restaurant, hotel, etc.

Tracking Services

Tracking friends in geographic area, location of active taxi within a particular city.

Emergency and Safety related Services

Basic Rescue Directions, Emergency medical-ambulance response, Police and Fire response.


Dynamic Routing for car, traffic augmented directions.

Location Based Billing

Mobile Subscriber rate based on customer location

Location Based Commerce

Wireless Coupon, electronic promotion, Store identification, Online Shop

Table 1

In general there are two different approaches to implement Location Based Service considering if information is delivered on user interaction or not.

Pull Services deliver the information directly requested from user. So it requires user interaction before we can retrieve any information. It is similar like if we want to make any call to other phones, we have to specify the number to be dialled on otherwise there will be no call made. For pull service a further it can be divided into functional services and informational services. Functional service is like ordering food or booking a hotel by pressing button on the device. The second one is informational services, like searching details of event happening in specific tourism city.

Push Services is the technique of delivering information or service which does not need any specific request or interaction from the user. This kind of technology is triggered while we are entering a specific area providing the service. This service could be an advertisement message, electronic flyer, or warning message where weather condition changed. So anytime there is user entering within the area, automatically the message or information is delivered to the user.

Both techniques will be easily as long as the user position is detectable by the server. Once it detected, the user data is sent to the server to be matched into the suitable information such as point of interest, advertisement, then it sent back to the user to be used in advance. Location Based Service technology is served in between some major technology. It is intersection between three technologies. It is created from New Information and Communication Technologies (NICT) such as mobile telecommunication system and hand held devices, from Internet and from Geographic Information System (GIS) with spatial database.

LBS as an intersection of Technologies (Brimicombe 2001).

Figure 2

Based on the diagram above, it clearly defined that LBS technology can't be separated from another technology once for all. It is not stand as independent component but a complete framework involving other technologies to be deployed.

The Tourism Location Based Service M-Commerce is a derived technology from Location Based Service. It specifies the mobile involvement to run the commerce activity. It needs a GIS technology to detect and calculate user position, and it might coincide with Internet technology as a channel. The Location Based Service for tourism m-commerce basically has four basic components arranged the whole system. They are Mobile Devices, Communication Framework, Positioning Component, and Service Provider.

Mobile Devices

A component the user used to request or received the information or service. The content can be a text, pictures, video, and so on. Mobile Device is a pocket sized computing device, which having a display screen with input or output control. There are hundreds of mobile devices appears today such as Mobile Phone, Personal Digital Assistant, Pager, Personal Navigation Device, Digital Video Camera, and many more. They are brought by the developers with different applications and functionallity to increase efficienty of human activity. Mobile Phone is might be the most suitable device to be used as LBS implementation due to its comfortable and capability for supporting the reuirements. Mobile phone comes in a wide variety of types and models with a different feature inside. The latest modern mobil ephone or cell phone carries wide variety pf customer tastes and lifestyles. Today phones are completed with fashion accessoris and applciation withtheir stylish shape to interest customer more, morover there provide some business and leisure services to the user. There are phones specialled in game such as Nokia N-gage, business activity like Nokia Communicator, Blackberry, and fashionist phone such as Iphone. The latest phone generation implemented in mobile phone, the 3G Generation mobil eohone allows user of 3G services to view video content inclusing music video and some real time streaming. To develop a location based service we need a mobile phone which supports Java MIDP 2.0 and JSR 179 at least. The MIDP or Mobile Information Device Profile allows us to write applications and services related to network connetable devices. The MIDP 2.0 is a revision version from the MIDP 1.0 specification, and includes some new features such as an enhanced user interface, multimedia game functionallity, greater connectivity, over the air (OTA) provisioning and bette rend to end security.

The JSR 179 or more commonly knon as Location API is an optional Package to the Java Me Libraries. It provides a necessary functions to access geographical location of device, thus facilitate the location based-application development. Theoritically JSR 179 is able to obtain location data from a number of different tehnologies, such as cell triangulation, WIFI-triangulation or GPS signals. If a device have a JSR 179 API in its specifications doesnt always mean that it has GPS built in instead of providing a javax.microedition.location package which basicly need to support LBS technology to work properly. The JSR 179 Location API is available to Java applications on some BlackBerry and Windows Mobile devices, recent Motorola and Sony Ericsson devices, and all Nokia Series 60 3rd Edition devices. More complete list can be viewed at the end of this paper.

Communication network

This component is the mobile network which facilitates the data transfer between the Mobile Device to the Service Provider. In Location Based Service application, the communication network generally represents the wireless mobile network that serves two way communcatio. It collects the data sent by the client from their mobile device, trasnfer it to the service provider and sent back to the client with the particular result based on user information. The existing mobile network are classified into several categories on the basis of purpose, range, and limitaion of its waves.

Wireless Wide Area Network (WWAN) is a wireless connectivity which covers until 35 km and user requires license for user. It uses mobile telecommuncation cellular netwrok technologies such as WIMAX, UMTS, GPRS, EDGE, CDMA2000, GSM, CDPD, Mobitex, HSDPA, HSUPA or 3G to transfer data. WWAN connectivity allows user to access the internet from anywhere within the regional boundaries of cellular services therefore we can possibly check emails, browse the web and access other online information while we are away from computer. GMS and GPRS can carry data within range 12 to 115 kbps respectively while UMTS can carries up tp 2 MBPS.

Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is communication networks that provide wireless connectivity within a limited geographic area. The most well known WLAN technology is the WIFI or IEEE 802.11 technology. The WAN is a part of third generation (3G) mobile technologies that are being offered. It adapt the advances in development og mobile infrastructure to deliver high quality and high speed internet access. A WLAN usuaslly extends a wired local area network that is built by attaching an Access Point (AP) to the edge of the network. User communcate with the Access Point using wireless network adapter. WLAN is completed with a security technology that prevent any unauthorized user to access the network such as WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy).

Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) is a short range wireless connectivity covering an area of around 10 m and doesnt require license. This sort of network is generally ised for connecting devices like printer, cellphones, PDA, computer and some home appliances. The main WPAN technology can be used in Location Based Technology is Bluetooth. It was launched by Ericsson in 1994 which provide a maximum throughput of 1 Mbps over a 30 meters range. It is energy efficient which makes it particullary suited to use in a small room areas.

Positioning Technology

To be able to receive particular service or information, the user position should be determined first. To distinguishing the Location Based Service with traditional wire line applications it is necessary to undersatand the basic principle of wireless network. The basic fucntion of any positioning methode is the measurement of observables object such as angles, velocity, ranges. There are major positioning methodes to discover mobile phone location. The Satellite Positioning or Global Positioning System , and the Network Based Positioning.

Global Positinong System(GPS) is a positioning methode usign 24 satellites and 5 monitoring stations all around the globe. It uses a satellite based methodology which is maintained by the US Departement of Defence which primary purpose us to provide global positioning and navigation for land based, swa-based, and air based, but it also been made available for commercial use (Jagoe02). The major benefits using the satellite or GPS based positioning is the accuracy compared to the mobile network positioning. Despite of its hig accuray GPS has a weak satellite signals because satellites are in high orbit, and braodcasting over a large area coverage, This system wont suitable for indoors usage or within area doesnt have good signals or in the area where there are bouncing signals off reflecting objects such as tall buildings in the metropolitan area.

Mobile Network Based Positioning is used for devices for devices that doesnt have integrated GPS chips instead of using Location API to acquire location in terms of longitude and latitude. The advantage of network based positiong over satellite methode is the stronger signals and available in indoor location. Where it wont be affected by the less coverage effect. There are foour main mobile network system that are used in the globe, GSM, WCDMA, CDMA, and TDMA. Mobile phone system is a network organised in cell around the Base Station (BTS). The Base Station connected each other using high-speed channel, and the to phone system and internet.

The summary of basic attributes of each positioning methodes, including strengths and weaknsess are presented in the table below.

Basic Positioning Apprroach



Handset Based


Triangulation method using timing signas from 4 satellites out of a sytsm of 34 satellites

Highly Accurate

No noew network infrastructure required

enhanced privacy for user

No indoor service, poor coverage in urban area

New handset required

Power Requirements

Bulk size of receivers

Delay in Calculating

Forward Link Trilateration

The Mobile unit times the arrival of signals from multiple base stations, but sends the time differences to a location processor to determine location through triangulation

Reduced complexity, and cist for handset

Some modification to handset

Network investment required

Observed Time Difference and Enhanced Observed Timed Difference

Timing signals are sent from multiple base stations dan software in the handset performs triangulation calculations to determine location

Enhanced privacy for user

Some modification to handset

Some network investment

Cellular Network-Based

Cell ID (Cell of Origin)

Use the location of the abse station currently handling a call to represent the subscribers location. Accuracy can be increased bu sectorizing (using directinal antenas)

Available now

No handset modifications

Low cost

Lower Accuracy, especially in large rural cells

Loss of privacy for user

Time of Arrival(TOA) and Time Difference of Arriva (TDOA)

Triangulates the Location of the subscriber using timing of signals sent from the mobile unit to at least three different cell sites. TDOA requires synchronization among base stations and uses differences in arrival time.

Greater accuracy than Cell ID

Can determine velocity and heading in addition to position

TOA does not require any handset modifications

Inferior accuracy for TDOA in analog and narrowband digital system

New equipment needed at base stations

TDOA requires modification to handset

Loss of privacy for user

Multipath Analysis

Determine location by comparing pattern of reception from subscriber with previous reception patterns stored in a database

No handset modicitaions

New receiving equipment needed at abse stations

Development and updating of database

Loss of privacy for user

Hybrid Approaches

Assisted GPS

GPS receivers are embedded in the cellular network which assist a partial GPS receiver in the handset, reducing the calculation burder

Eliminates many of cost imposed by GPS on handsets

Reduces the delay in calculating location

Offers some control to user

New handsets required

Other combintaions, TDOA/AOA

Use multiple techniques to extend coverage and improve accuracy

Increased accuracy

More robust

Cost of network infrastructure needed

Loss of privacy user

Service Provider

This element is the one who offers number of services to the user. Such services offer the searching of nearby point of interest, electronic advertisement, reservation with respect to position of the user located.

Content Provider

Service provider usually store and maintain all the data and information which can be accessed by the user. It might be points of interest spot, banks database, and etc. This more likes a party who provide the database to the user.


There are many ways how the user can access and interact with server with. Some well known services are via SMS, MMS, WAP, or I-mode. But among those services, we are going to be focussed on WAP due to its easiness to use, possibility of having personal services, fast, secure, convenient, and efficient access to services. The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is architecture for offering Internet-like information services in cellular networks. It has specifically been designed to cope with the limitations of wireless data transmission like reduced bandwidth and increased error rates, as well as with the reduced capabilities of mobile devices like low computational resources, small displays, and numerical keypads. (Axel Kupper, Location Based Service). WAP or Wireless Application Protocol has added new dimension to Mobility. With any mobile phone or portable devices that support WAP we can reserve hotel, book tickets, order food, checking bank account at any time easily

WAP is using IEEE standard which developed by a group named WAP Forum. Its protocol is based on some Internet Standard like XML, TCP/IP, and HTML. WAP can operate on many wireless networks such as GSM, CDMA, and TDMA, even 3G. As information WAP is designed in a layer to make it more flexible, extensible, and scalable. There are five layers construct the whole WAP protocol stack.

Figure 3

Application Layer: Wireless Application Environment (WAE). This layer is where content developer is interested to since it contains, among other things, devices specification, and the content development language, WML and WMLScript.

Session Layer: Wireless Session Protocol (WSP). WSP is designed to provide faster connection suspension and reconnection than HTTP.

Transaction Layer: Wireless Transaction Layer (WTP). The WTP layer is intended to bring Internet Access to mobile phones. It provides three different kinds of transaction services, namely, unreliable one-way, reliable one-way, reliable two-way transactions. (Javin Network Security and Management).

Security Layer: Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS). WTLS layer provide security features based on established Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol standard. The services provided are privacy, data integrity checks, service denial, and authentication service. A security transmission is need for certain application such as WAP-banking or e-commerce.

Transport Layer: Wireless Datagram Protocol (WDP). WTP is the interface of the network to all above layers; it represents the transfer of the transmission. The WAP protocol works across different wireless network environment and makes web pages visible on low-resolution and low-bandwidth devices such as PDA and Mobile Phone. This motivates an architecture where functionality may be moved to different locations within the network. (WAP-210-WAPArch-20010712).


Java 2 Micro Edition (J2ME) is Sun's version of Java aimed at machines with limited hardware resources such as PDAs, Cell Phones, and other consumer electronic and embedded devices. (Danel A. Tauber). It was announced in June 1999 at the Java One Developer Conference, J2ME was introduced to bring the cross-platform functionality of Java language to smaller device, allowing mobile wireless devices to share applications. J2ME uses configuration and profiles to customize the Java Runtime Environment (JRE), where the JRE itself is a place where java classes are run. There are some key factors why developer are choosing J2ME compare to others programming language for handled device such as its portability which cam run on any platform, its riches of API's, and huge number of possible users.

To balance portability with performance and feasibility J2ME contains several components known as configuration, profiles, and optional packages (Micheal Juantao yuan. Enterprise J2ME). A valid combination of a configuration and profile targets a specific kind of device. While the configurations provide the most basic and generic language functionalities, the profiles sit on top of configurations and support more advanced APIs, such as graphical user interface, persistent storage, and network connectivity. The optional package can be bundled with standard profiles to support specific needs of the system. There are two most important J2ME configurations described below:

CLDC (Connected Limited Devices Configuration)

The CLDC was the first configuration to be defined as it is bound to the main target of small toys or gadgets, which always are carried around by the user such as PDA, mobile phones. The market consists of personal mobile, coonected information devices is served by CLDC. It is used for the smaller wireless device with 160 KB or more memory and slow 16/32 bit processor.

CDC (Connected Device Configuration)

The CDC serves the market which consists of shared, fixed, connected information devices. It is used for more capable devices with at least 2 MB of memory and 32 bit processors. The CDC supports as a fully featured Java 2VM and therefore can take advantage of most J2SE libraries.

Beside configuration, profiles also one of the core components arranging the J2ME concept. Profiles add domain-specific class to a configuration to fill in missing functionality and to support specific uses of a device (Eric Gigure). The J2ME profile addresses the specific demands of certain market segment such as banking or payment applications and device category. That is why profiles include libraries that are more device category specific that provided in configuration. Profiles are placed on top of configuration where it addressed for a specific configuration. As we know both profiles and configuration define set of Java API classes which can be used by applications. For better understanding we might look into J2ME stack to understand differences between each component.

Figure 4

From the figure above it clearly seen that J2ME can be divided into three main parts, Configuration, Profile, and Optional Package. A configuration provide the JVM (Java Virtual Machine) and some class libraries, the profile builds on top of it by providing useful set of API's, where the Optional Packages is an optional set of APIs that we may use when developing an application. There are some well known profiles in J2ME such as Mobile Information Device Profile (MIDP), PDA Profile (PDAP), Foundation Profile, Personal Profiles, RMI Profiles, and Game Profiles. In this section we only will discuss about Mobile Information Devices Profile due to its relation with the project. Mobile Information Devices Profile usually uses to add networking, user interface component, and local storage to CLSD. The primary aim of this profile is at the limited display and storage facilities of mobile phones, providing simple user interface and basic networking on HTTP 1.1. So far, MIDP is the best J2ME profiles since it is the absis of Wireless Java and is currently the only profile available to serve PalmOS based devices. According to the Sun Developer Network, CLDC and MIDP provide ether core application functionality required by Mobile Applications in terms of standardized Java runtime environment and a rich set of Java APIs. Developer using MIDP can write the application, the deploy it to a wide variety of mobile information devices. It has been widely recognized and adopted as the choice for developing mobile applications.


Location Based Service has paid much attention to Network and Mobile Developers in recent years due to its wide opportunity in Market needs nowaday. It has a potential to connect marketers to key customers more efficient than other conventioanl methode. There are many possibilities will make mobile devices more effective and convenient whenever the users are. Therefore with Location Based Service we are moving away from closed location system where location is just another piece of data to thr technology where location can enhance application to provide richer, more productive, and more rewarding user experiences. There exist various Location Based Service has been developed to the Customer shown in the figures below.

Despite of its populcarization of the technology, it is not being efficiency utilized especially for Commerce in Tourism Industry. Theoritically Tourism M-Connerce can intrisically benefit from the use of mobile technology which provide services to travellers on the move since tourism is always identical with location. The primary functions of LBS for Tourism M-Commerce is regarded with commercial activity based on localized object, services, mobile coupon, and point of interest such as restaurant booking, or bus ticketing.

Refer to the existing system developed, The Location Based Mobile Tour Guide Services Towards Digital Dunhuang, LBS Application implemented for Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes a world cultural heritage by the Chinese Academy Sciences of Beijing China. The system is deployed for a specific urban area which have the same characteristic with the system we are developing for the Melaka urban area. Meanwhile, the Digital Dunhuang LBS was more focussing on Mobile Tour Guide (MTG) such as routing from one place to another and Personal Journey Tips, whereas Tourism Melaka Location Based Service is more on commerce activity such as mobile coupon and ticket reservation. Both system similarity happens in the system architecture for using J2ME technology as multithreading mechanism, MIDP network programming, and friendly user interface.

Another Location Based Service application which most of people used nowaday is the Foursquare, a Location Based Social Networking Services where users chek in at venues using mobile device or specific applications. It becomes the most popular check in platform adding 15.000 people per day and approaching 2 Millions user on June 2010. Foursquare is a new edge of Location Based Service to interest a customer by providing awards to them based on the times the customer check-into specific places such as coffeshop or restaurant. It integrates with some other well know social networking site such as Facebook and Twitter. In addition Foursquare provide the Foursqaure API that enables developers to build applications interact with its platform. The more customer check-into the venues the more point they achieved to be calculated to win the awards.

Hence the Existing Location Based has been developed and implemented in various Industry activities. Yet there is a need to integrate those services into one complete system which can supports those requirements such as Toursim M-Commerce. It implements the combination of Commerce Activity into a Tourism World utilizing Location Based Service or Location Awareness Technology to relieve traveller activity in Tourism M-Commerce.



This chapter describes the research methods used for Project development. Research methodology is a set of procedures or methods used to conduct research. There are some well known research methodologies but we are going to use the Prototyping Model as a method in this research since Location Based Application isn't suitable enough to be addressed using conventional software method.


In software development method, the main concern of prototyping method is to jump starting design and flushing out the user requirements. The aimed of prototyping is to build a light version of the completed project in short time development and to serve as a proof concept for the client. While in the end it will help customers and developers understand the requirements for the system (Ian Sommerville, 1995).

Stages of Prototyping

Figure 5

3.1.2 Gather Requirement

The initial phase of prototyping is gathering all the requirements needed, identifying the later problem in order to build the system. This is the fundamental stage where all the customers need is identified and learned to be fulfil by this project objectives. This stage will reflect where the project is going to be delivered for. This stage will be done during July - August 2010. In this project, the gathering requirements means

3.1.3 Quick Design

In this stage where all requirements are already collected and problems are identified, the development stage is focusing on designing the system overview. Scratching how the system will look like and its behaviour reacting from any stimulus. We're creating the system ability and function in order to achieve the objectives mentioned. This phase will be predicted to be done during August - September 2010.

3.1.4 Build Prototype

When the system overview is done, now its time to move on the creating the system itself or coding. In this stage we are using programming language to create the application and its components arranged. We are in particular using the Java Micro Edition programming language to design the Location Based Service application for handled device. This phase will be conducted during October -December 2010.

3.1.5 Evaluate

Once the application is designed, the next stage of the development phase is to evaluate the existing prototype. The process involved are testing the application into various conditions, checking some errors, and matching it with the design overview. This stage will be performed during December - January 2010.

3.1.6 Refine Prototype

This stage is the modified prototype based on the previous evolution, once it completed and suit the requirements needed, the system can be released into a final product. Otherwise it goes into a re-design overview to be changed or added with several components where it goes back into the same cycle until it satisfied the requirements. This final stage will be conducted during January - February 2010.

The table below is the Gantt Chart represents Prototyping Methodology on Developing Location Based Service for Tourism M-Commerce.

Table 2



The Java Wireless Toolkit or formerly known as J2ME Wireless Toolkit is a complete set of tool for creating Java Application that run on decice compliant with tha Java Technology for The Wireless Industry (JTWI, JSR 185) specification and the Mobile Service Architecture (MSA, JSR 248) specification. It basicly consists of build tools, device emulator, and utilities. In this research we are using Java Wireless Toolkit since it can emulate cell phones and other mobile devices through the Mobile Interface Device Profiles (MIDP) standard. As a complete simulator WTK ships with complete documentation describing the MIDP specifications as well how to create the MIDP application itself. Somehow we also can find some demo applications and tutorials which show simple input and output of MIDP programming. The J2ME Wireless Toolkit us a comprehensive tools for developing MIDP applications. It can be used to create standalone applications or incorporated into many integrated development environments. The Java Wireless Toolkit includes some tools that support MIDP features like enhanced security architecture which include permission-based security and secure HTPPS networking. The ability of MIDlets to receive incoming network connection using push registry. To run the Java Wireless Toolkit program there are some System Requirements fulfilled by the host machine both on Software Requirements and hardware Requirements.

System Requirements:

Microsoft Windows XP and Linux-x86 (English version tested with Ubuntu 6.x)

The following libraries should be present on the system running Ubuntu v6.x:

ibXpm (libxpm-dev)

libXt (libxt-dev)

libX11 (libx11-dev)

libICE (libice-dev)

libSM (libsm-dev)

libpthread (libc6-dev)

libm (libc6-dev)

libnsl (libc6-dev)


Hardware Requirements

The minumum hardware specification:

100 MB hard disk space

128 MB system RAM

800 MHz Pentium III CPU

The Java Wireless Toolkit is a complete set of tools which possible to create an application for mobile phones or some other wireless devices. It included many optional packages which makes it widely capable development toolkit. The Java Wireless Toolkit can be installed on a system running on Windows and Linux Operating System by far where all users with its account can access the toolkit singly or simultaneously. From the first installation of the software we may find some available demos to illustrate how the mechanism of the created software will look like at the end. Once we open the project we should build the code to be an executed application using the existing menu on the application toolbar.

To create a new project we should specify the Clear Project name to identify them as well as the MIDlet Class name. As we finished naming the project it will direct into the setting windows where the entire absic configuration is declared first before the whole project created. We should specify the Profiles, Configurations, and Some Optional package we might include on in case of usage in later development. For the profile it self the Java Wireless Toolkit CLDC 2.5 provides MIDP 1.0, MIDP 2.0, and the latest MIDP 2.1, while the configuration possible be chosen between CLDC 1.0, or CLDC 1.1. For the Optional Package there are some options such as Mobile Media API (JSR 135), Location API for J2ME (JSR 179), SIP API and many more depending the needs of the applications.

Now we are ready to start coding for the application itself. We create a new java source file with .java extension defining that this is a java source code with any editor and place it in the src subfolder where the newly project is created on host folder. To launch the code we made, we should build them in the Java Wireless Toolkit windows then hut the Launch key on the phone emulator showed on the phone.



Use Case Diagram

Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD)

Data Flow Diagram Level 0

Data Flow Diagram Level 1

Process 2.0

Process 3.0

Process 4.0




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