Third Party Emergency Alert System Computer Science Essay

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Cellular text messaging services are increasingly being relied upon to disseminate critical information during emergencies. As a convenient and low-cost mobile communication technology, short messaging service (SMS) is experiencing very rapid growth. It is reported that 700 million mobile phone users worldwide sent 20 to 30 billion SMS messages every month in 2001. Cellular Text messaging permits individuals to transmit short alpha numeric communications for a wide variety of applications. The existing third party provider deployed in cellular infrastructure, such systems will not be able to deliver a high volume of emergency messages in a short period of time. When transfer a message from third party to a cellular system congestion or traffic problem will be occurred. The existing system security level of data transmission is very low. The proposed system overcomes the above mentioned problem. The proposed system large amount of emergency text messages to mobile devices with help of third party emergency alert system. In the third party, the text messages are sending via virtual private network to particular cellular device with the help of tunneling mechanism. Here we are using cross layer adhoc on demand routing vector protocol for delivering messages without any interruption to the particular user. The proposed work also performs the extensive investigation and mathematical characterization of the limitation of an emergency alert system (EAS) using the delivery time of text messages in normal network and VPN network. Suppose the mobile user is in out of range the proposed system uses a timestamp method for transferring the text messages.

Keywords-Distributed Daniel of service, Base station, mobile station, Paging Channel, Access Grand Channel, Random Access Channel, Home location Register.

INTRODUCTION

Text messaging allows individuals to transmit short, alphanumeric communications for a wide variety of applications. Whether to coordinate meetings catch up on gossip, offer reminders of an event or even vote for a Contestant on a television game show, this discreet form of communication is now the dominant service offered by cellular networks. In fact, in the United States alone, over five billion text messages are delivered each month. While many of the applications of this service can be considered non-critical, the use of text messaging during emergency events has proven to be far more utilitarian. With millions of people attempting to contact friends and family on September 11th 2001, telecommunications providers witnessed tremendous spikes in cellular voice service usage. Verizon Wireless, for example, reported voice traffic rate increases of up to 100 percent above typical levels; Cingular Wireless recorded an increase of up to 1,000 percent on calls destined for the Washington D.C. area. While these networks are engineered to handle elevated amounts of traffic, the sheer number of calls was far greater than capacity for voice communications in the affected areas. However, with voice-based phone services being almost entirely unavailable.

SMS messages were still successfully received in even the most congested regions because the control channels responsible for their delivery remained available. Similar are the stories from the Gulf Coast during Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. With a large number of cellular towers damaged or disabled by the storms, text messaging allowed the lines of communication to remain open for many individuals in need, in spite of their inability to complete voice calls in areas where the equipment was not damaged and power was available. Accordingly, SMS messaging is now viewed by many as a reliable method of communication when all other means appear unavailable. In response to this perception, a number of companies offer SMS-based emergency messaging services. Touted as able to deliver critical information colleges, universities, and even municipalities hoping to coordinate and protect the physical security of the general public have spent tens of millions of dollars to install such systems.

Unfortunately, these products will not work as advertised and provide a false sense of security to their users. In this paper, it explores the limitations of third-party Emergency Alert Systems (EAS). In particular, it is shown because of the currently deployed cellular infrastructure, such systems will not be able to deliver a high volume of emergency messages in a short period of time. This identifies a key failure in a critical security incident response and recovery mechanism and demonstrates its inability to properly function during the security events for which it was ostensibly designed.

Emergency event characterization through modelling and simulation based on real provider deployments, it provides the first public characterization of the impact of an emergency event on a cellular network. This contribution is novel in that it explores a range of realistic emergency scenarios and provides a better understanding of their failure modes.Measure EAS over SMS for multiple emergency scenarios It provide data to debunk the common assertion made by many third-party vendors that large quantities of text messages can be delivered within a short period of time (i.e., seconds to minutes). It evaluates a number of different, realistic emergency scenarios and explains why a number of college campuses have reported "successful "tests of their systems.

Quantify collateral damage. It characterize the presence of the additional traffic generated by third party EAS over SMS and show that such traffic causes increased blocking of normal calls and text message, potentially preventing those in need of help from receiving it. It also discuss a number of ways in which these networks can cause unexpected failures

RELATED WORK AND EXISITNG MODEL

Patrick Traynor "Characterizing the Security Implication of Third Party Emergency Alert System over Cellular Text Messaging Service". In this paper the text messaging permits individuals to transmit short, alphanumeric communications for a wide variety of application. Cellular text messaging services are increasingly being relied upon to disseminate critical information during emergencies. Accordingly, a wide range of organizations including colleges and universities now partner with third-party providers that promise to improve physical security by rapidly delivering such messages. Unfortunately, these products do not work as advertised due to imitations of cellular infrastructure and therefore provide a false sense of security to their users. In this paper, we perform the first extensive investigation and characterization of the limitations of an Emergency Alert System (EAS) using text messages as a security incident response mechanism. We then show that our results are representative of reality by comparing them to a number of documented but not previously understood failures. Finally, analyze a targeted messaging mechanism as a means of efficiently using currently deployed infrastructure and third-party EAS. In so doing, we demonstrate that this increasingly deployed security infrastructure does not achieve its stated requirements for large populations. The existing third party emergency alert system deployed cellular infrastructure, such systems will not be able to deliver a high volume of emergency messages in a short period of time. .When transfer the message from third party to cellular system congestion or traffic problems will be occurred. The existing system security level of data transmission is very low.

Problem in this paper is the Text messaging permits individuals to transmit short, alphanumeric communications for a wide variety of applications. Cellular text messaging services are increasingly being relied upon to disseminate critical information during emergencies. Accordingly, a wide range of organizations including colleges and universities now partner with third-party providers that promise to improve physical security by rapidly delivering such messages. Unfortunately, these products do not work as advertised due to imitations of cellular infrastructure and therefore provide a false sense of security to their users. In this paper, we perform the first extensive investigation and characterization of the limitations of an Emergency Alert System (EAS) using text messages as a security incident response mechanism. Here then show that our results are representative of reality by comparing them to a number of documented but not previously understood failures. Finally, it analyze a targeted messaging mechanism as a means of efficiently using currently deployed infrastructure and third-party EAS. In so doing, it demonstrates that this increasingly deployed security infrastructure does not achieve its stated requirements for large populations. The existing third party emergency alert system deployed cellular infrastructure, such systems will not be able to deliver a high volume of emergency messages in a short period of time. . When transfer the message from third party to cellular system congestion or traffic problems will be occurred. The existing system security level of data transmission is very low.

Implementation of this paper says that a server known as the Home Location Register (HLR) assists in this task. This database acts as the permanent repository for a user's account information (i.e., subscribed services, call forwarding information, etc.). When a request to locate a user is received, the HLR determines whether or not that device is currently turned on. If a mobile device is currently powered off, the HLR instructs the SMSC to store the text message and attempt to deliver it at another time. Oversize, the HLR tells the SMSC the address of the Mobile Switching Center (MSC) currently serving the desired device. Text messages arrive in a provider's network from a wide variety of sources and are processed by the SMSC before being delivered to mobile devices. Having received this location information, the SMSC then forwards the text message on to the appropriate MSC.

In order to determine whether or not the current base station serving this device is known, the MSC queries the Visitor Location Register (VLR), which temporarily stores information about clients while they are being served by the MSC. In most cases, this information is not known, and so the MSC must begin the extensive and expensive process of locating the mobile device. The MSC completes this task by generating and forwarding paging requests to all of its associated base stations, which may number in the hundreds. This process is identical to locating a mobile device for delivery of a voice call.

Upon receiving a paging request from the MSC, a base station attempts to determine whether or not the targeted device is nearby. To achieve this, the base station attempts to use a series of Control Channels to establish a connection with the user. First, the base station broadcasts a paging request over the Paging Channel (PCH) and then waits for a response. If the device is nearby and hears this request, it responds to the base station via the Random Access Channel RACH) to alert the network of its readiness to receive information. When this response is received, the network uses the Access Grant Channel (AGCH) to tell the device to listen to a specific Standalone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) for further exchanges. Using this SDCCH, the network is able to authenticate the client, perform a number of maintenance routines and deliver the text message. By limiting the operations necessary to deliver a text message to the control channels used for call setup, such messages can be delivered when all call circuits, known as Traffic Channels (TCHs) are busy.

When the attempt to deliver the message between the targeted device and the base station is complete, the device either confirms the success or failure of delivery. This status information is carried back through the network to the SMSC. If the message was successfully delivered, the SMSC.

Angelos Stavrou Debra L. Cook William G. Morein Angelos D. Keromytis Vishal Misra Dan Rubenstein. In this paper it has present WebSOS, a novel overlay-based architecture that provides guaranteed access web server that is targeted by a denial of service (DoS) attack. Our approach exploits two key characteristics of the web environment: its design around a human-centric interface, and the extensibility inherent in many browsers through downloadable "applets." We guarantee access to a web server for a large number of previously unknown users, without requiring pre-existing trust relationships between users and the system, by using Reverse Graphic Turing Tests. Furthermore, our system makes it easy for service providers to charge users, providing incentives to a commercial offering of the service.

Users can dynamically decide whether to use the WebSOS overlay, based on the prevailing network conditions. Our prototype requires no modifications to either servers or browsers, and makes use of graphical Turing tests, web proxies, and client authentication using the SSL/TLS protocol, all readily supported by modern browsers Then extend this system with a credential based micro payment scheme that combines access control and payment authorization in one operation. Turing Tests ensure that malicious code, such as a worm, cannot abuse a user's micro payment wallet. We use the WebSOS prototype to conduct a performance evaluation over the Internet using Planet Lab, a tested for experimentation with network overlays. It determine the end-to-end latency using both a Chord-based approach and our shortcut extension. Our evaluation shows the latency increase by a factor of 7 and 2 respectively, confirming our simulation results

WebSOS, a novel overlay-based architecture that provides guaranteed access to a web server that is targeted by a denial of service (DoS) attack. Our approach exploits two key characteristics of the web environment: its design around a human-centric interface, and the extensibility inherent in many browsers through downloadable "applets." It guarantee access to a web server for a large number of previously unknown users, without requiring pre-existing trust relationships between users and the system, by using Reverse Graphic Turing Tests. Furthermore, our system makes it easy for service providers to charge users, providing incentives to a commercial offering of the service. Users can dynamically decide whether to use the WebSOS overlay, based on the prevailing network conditions.

This prototype requires no modifications to either servers or browsers, and makes use of graphical Turing tests, web proxies, and client authentication using the SSL/TLS protocol, all readily supported by modern browsers. Here then extend this system with a credential based micropayment scheme that combines access control and payment authorization in one operation. Turing Tests ensure that malicious code, such as a worm, cannot abuse a user's micropayment wallet. It uses the WebSOS prototype to conduct a performance evaluation over the Internet using Plane Lab, a testbed for experimentation with network overlays. It determines the end-to-end latency using both a Chord-based approach and our shortcut extension. In this paper, server cannot provide efficient access to multiple users.

It has presented WebSOS, an architecture that allows legitimate users to access a web server in the presence of a denial of service attack. The architecture uses a combination of Graphic Turing tests, cryptographic protocols for data origin authentication, packet filtering, overlay networks, and consistent hashing to provide service to casual web-browsing users. Furthermore, our architecture is the first pay-friendly DoS protection mechanisms, furnishing ISPs with a better value proposition for deploying anti-DoS systems: a way to turn DoS protection into a commodity. It discusses prototype implementation, which uses standard web praying and authentication mechanisms built in all browsers. This architecture requires no changes to web servers, browsers, or existing protocols. It conducted a performance evaluation of WebSOS over both a local area network and over the Internet using PlanetLab, a tested for experimentation with network overlays and similar technologies. Our experiments show that, in a realistic but worst-case deployment scenario, the end-to-end communication latency between browser and server increases on the average by a factor of 7, with a worst case of 10.It also implemented and evaluated a shortcut optimization, which reduced the latency to a factor of 2. These results are consistent with our simulations. It also discussed other optimizations.

However, we believe that even at its current level, the overhead imposed is acceptable for many critical environments and applications. Future work plans include completion and long-term deployment of the WebSOS prototype on PlanetLab, development of the IPsec-enabled prototype that allows for transparent proxying and asymmetric traffic routing for improved performance, and more comprehensive performance measurements, over a longer period of time and for a wider set of users WebSOS protects the portion of the network immediately surrounding attack targets(i.e., the web servers) by high-performance routers that aggressively filter and block all incoming connections from hosts The identities of the approved nodes is kept secret so that attackers cannot impersonate them to pass through the filter. These nodes (which can be as few as 2 or 3) are picked from a set of nodes that are distributed throughout the wide area network.

This superset forms a secure overlay: any transmissions that wish to traverse the overlay must first be validated at any of the entry points of the overlay using either a cryptographic authentication mechanism ,or a Graphic Turing test to distinguish humans from attack scripts Once inside the overlay, the traffic is tunnelled securely to one of the approved (and secret from attackers) nodes, which can then forward the validated traffic through the filtering routers to the target. Thus, there are two main principles behind our design. The first is the elimination of communication pinch-points, which constitute attractive DoS targets, via a combination of filtering and overlay routing to obscure the identities of the sites whose traffic is permitted to pass through the filter. The second is the ability to recover from random or induced failures within the forwarding infrastructure or the secure overlay nodes..

SYSTEM DESIGN

The Text messaging permits individuals to transmit short, alphanumeric communications for a wide variety of applications. Cellular text messaging services are increasingly being relied upon to disseminate critical information during emergencies. Accordingly, a wide range of organizations including colleges and universities now partner with third-party providers that promise to improve physical security by rapidly delivering such messages. Unfortunately, these products do not work as advertised due to imitations of cellular infrastructure and therefore provide a false sense of security to their users. In this paper, it performs the first extensive investigation and characterization of the limitations of an Emergency Alert System (EAS) using text messages as a security incident response mechanism.

This paper shows that the results are representative of reality by comparing them to a number of documented but not previously understood failures. Finally, it analyze a targeted messaging mechanism arenas of efficiently using currently deployed infrastructure and third-party EAS. In so doing, it demonstrates that this increasingly deployed security infrastructure does not achieve its stated requirements for large populations. The existing third party emergency alert system deployed cellular infrastructure, such systems will not be able to deliver a high volume of emergency messages in a short period of time. When transfer the message from third party to cellular system congestion or traffic problems will be occurred. The existing system security level of data transmission is very low.

A server known as the Home Location Register (HLR) assists in this task. This database acts as the permanent repository for a user's account information (i.e., subscribe services, call forwarding information, etc.). When a request to locate a user is received, the HLR determines whether or not that device is currently turned on. If a mobile device is currently powered off, the HLR instructs the SMSC to store the text message and attempt to deliver it at another time.

Otherwise, the HLR tells the SMSC the address of the Mobile Switching Center (MSC) currently serving the desired device having received this location information, the SMSC then forwards the text message on appropriate mobile users even the MSC may not know more information about a targeted device's location. In order to determine whether or not the current base station serving this device is known, the MSC queries the Visitor Location Register (VLR), which temporarily stores information about clients while they are being served by the MSC. In most cases, this information is not known, and so the MSC must begin the extensive and expensive process of locating the mobile device. The MSC completes this task by generating and forwarding paging requests to all of its associated base stations, which may number in the hundreds. This process is identical to locating a mobile device for delivery of a voice call

Upon receiving a paging request from the MSC, a base station attempts to determine whether or not the targeted device is nearby. To achieve this, the base station attempts to use a series of Control Channels to establish a connection with the user. First, the base station broadcasts a paging request over the Paging Channel (PCH) and then waits for a response. If the device is nearby and hears this request, it responds to the base station via the Random Access Channel RACH) to alert the network of its readiness to receive information. When this response is received, the network uses the Access Grant Channel (AGCH) to tell the device to listen to a specific Standalone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) for further exchanges. Using this SDCCH, the network is able to authenticate the client, perform a number of maintenance routines and deliver the text message. By limiting the operations necessary to deliver a text message to the control channels used for call setup, such messages can be delivered when all call circuits, known as Traffic Channels (TCHs) are busy.

When the attempt to deliver the message between the targeted device and the base station is complete, the device either confirms the success or failure of delivery. This status information is carried back through the network to the SMSC.

If the message was successfully delivered, the SMSC

undergoes the following limitations of existing system of the system are Huge quantity of message could not deliver in short period time , Congestion s increased due to many number of nodes, Duplicate Message may occur since many user my send the same message repeatedly, Delay response.

The Proposed System is Text messaging permits individuals to transmit short, alphanumeric communications for a wide variety of applications. In this paper, we perform the first extensive investigation and characterization of the limitations of an Emergency Alert System (EAS) using text messages as a security incident response mechanism. . It then shows that our results are representative of reality by comparing them to a number of documented but not previously understood failures. Finally, we analyze a targeted messaging mechanism as a means of efficiently using currently deployed infrastructure and third-party EAS. In doing so demonstrate that this increasingly deployed security infrastructure does not achieve its stated requirements for large populations.

The proposed system send large amount of emergency text messages to mobile devices with help of third party emergency alert system. In the third party, the original messages are shrinking with help of Short Message using ZIP Technique. The text messages are sending via Virtual Private Network to particular cellular device. Suppose the mobile user in out of range the proposed system uses a time stamp method for transferring the text message.

Virtual Private Path (VPP) is to create a virtual path from sender to receiver (mobile user) node and it is used to send the emergency alert message to mobile user within a short period time.

Cross Layer on Demand Vector Routing: Here enhance a simple technique based on cross layer design to handle route discovery process in networks. This technique automatically rejects unidirectional links in the Page Request broadcast stage itself and discoveries a bidirectional route in the first Page Reply broadcast attempt itself, if it exists. So, it reduces route discovery delay and other overheads.

Emergency Message Forwarding in SMSC using Virtual Private Network :In this module, Server sends the emergency message to third party system. Next, Third party Emergency Alerting System sends Message to SMSC. SMSC is Check if it is a Spam Message or not based on the content of the message. Then, SMSC is check if the mobile user is present in the HLR. The mobile user is present in the HLR means above discussed module process is done by the SMSC. Once, the SMSC is received the response message from Mobile user; SMSC Create Virtual Data channel with end to end communication between them. After, the message is forward to the mobile user. Suppose, the mobile user does not present in the HLR, SMSC forward the message to Mobile Switching Center.

Message Forwarding in MSC using Virtual Private Network: Mobile Switching Center is receiving the message from SMSC, it check the VLR; If the mobile user is present or not. The mobile user is present in VLR means in second module hand shaking process is done. When, MSC sends the Page Request packet to the Base Station. The Base station broadcast the request packets. The mobile user is receive this request and sends response to Base station with received capacity information of mobile user. Next, The Response is transferred to MSC. After, the mobile user route is discovered. Then, Create Virtual End to End Data Communication channel to the user. Then, Forward message to base station and Base station broadcast the data packets. The data packets are received by mobile user. Suppose, the mobile user is not present in VLR, MSC wait some periodic time and again recheck the VLR and forward the message to mobile user.

Advantages of Proposed System of the System are Less time for data transmission: Message should be delivers powerful, Congestion is avoided, Traffic is reduced, Within short time the message is send to cellular system, It does not change meaning of the message, Securable data transmission.

SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE AND DESCRIPTION

T SMSC- Short Message Service Center: Text messages are sent to the Short Messaging Service Center (SMSC). SMSCs compress the text messages and it will store the copy of those messages and finally forward them to the mobile users. HLR-Home Location Register: This database acts as the permanent repository for a mobile user's account information (i.e., subscribed services, call forwarding information, etc.).HLR may contain static information's.

VLR- Visitor Location Register: It temporally stores the information about the mobile users .IA visitor location register (VLR) is a database that contains information about the subscribers roaming within a mobile switching center's (MSC) location area. The primary role of the VLR is to minimize the number of queries that MSCs have to make to the home location register (HLR), which holds permanent data regarding the cellular network's subscribers.MSC- Mobile Switching Center: It is used to transfer the text messages to appropriate base station. SMSC forwards message to MSC If the mobile user does present in area mentioned in HLR, and then SMSC forward the text messages to MSC. Now the MSC checks the VLR register to find whether the mobile user is associated with any one of the Base Stations or not. If the mobile user is associated with any one of the Base stations, then MSC send the Message to mobile user via that base station. If the mobile user is not associated at the time of message deliver attempt then the MSC will send a failure message deliver attempt to the SMSC.

MODULES AND DESCRIPTIONS

1. CELLULAR NETWORK ENVIRONMENT

First, Users i.e. Server and third party -EAS Server are created. Then, Plot Cellular Network elements such as Short Message Sending Sender, Home Location Register, Mobile Switching Center, Visitor Location Register, Base stations, Base Station Controller and Mobile user.There are a number of ways in which text messages can be injected into a GSM or CDMA network. While most users are only familiar with sending a text message from their phone, known as Mobile Originated SMS (MO-SMS), service providers offer an expanding set of interfaces through which messages can be sent. From the Internet, for instance, it is possible to send text messages to mobile devices through a number of WebPages, e-mail, and even instant messaging software.

Third parties can also access the network using so-called SMS Aggregators. These servers, which can be connected directly to the phone network or communicate via the Internet, are typically used to send bulk" or large quantities of text messages. Aggregators typically inject messages on behalf of other companies and charge their clients for the service. Finally, most providers have established relationships between each other to allow for messages sent from one network to be delivered to the other . After entering a provider's network, messages are sent to the Short Messaging Service Center (SMSC). SMSCs perform operations similar to e-mail handling servers in the Internet and store and forward messages to their appropriate destinations. Because messages can be injected into then network from so many external sources, SMSCs typically performs aggressive spam filtering on all incoming messages.. All messages passing this filtering are then converted and copied .the necessary SMS message format and encoding and then placed into a queue to be forwarded to their final destination.

2. LOCATION DISCOVERY

In this module, when SMSC received the emergency message from the third party; it sends the Page Request packet to the Base Station. The Base station broadcast the request packets. The mobile user will receive this request and sends response to SMSC; received capacity information of mobile user. Then mobile user route is discovered. MSC may not know more information about a targeted device's location. In order to determine whether or not the current base station serving this device is known, the MSC queries the Visitor Locatio Register (VLR), which temporarily stores information about clients while they are being served by the MSC. In most cases, this information is not known, and so the MSC must begin the extensive and expensive process of locating the mobile device.

The MSC completes this task by generating and forwarding paging requests to all of its associated base stations, which may number in the hundreds. This process is identical to locating a mobile device for delivery of a voice call. Upon receiving a paging request from the MSC, a base station attempts to determine whether or not the targeted device is nearby. To achieve this, the base station attempts to use a series of Control Channels to establish a connection with the user. First, the base station broadcasts a paging request over the Paging Channel (PCH) and then waits for a response. If the device is nearby and hears this request, it responds to the base station via the Random Access Channel (RACH) to alert the network of its readiness to receive information. When this response is received, the network uses the Access Grant Channel (AGCH) to tell the device to listen to a specific Standalone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) for further exchanges. Using this SDCCH, the network is able to authenticate the client, perform a number of maintenance routines and deliver the text message.

By limiting the operations necessary to deliver a text message to the control channels used for call setup, such messages can be delivered when all call circuits, known as Traffic Channels (TCHs) are busy. When the attempt to deliver the message between the targeted device and the base station is complete, the device either confirms the success or failure of delivery. This status information is carried back through the network to the SMSC. If the message was successfully delivered, the SMSC deletes it. Otherwise, the SMSC stores the message until a later period, at which time the network reattempts delivery.

3. DEVELOPING A ROUTING ALGORITHM IN VPN TECHNOLOGY

Virtual Private Path (VPP) is to create a virtual path from sender to receiver (mobile user) node and it is used to send the emergency alert message to mobile user within a short period time. Cross Layer on Demand Vector Routing enhances a simple technique based on cross layer design to handle route discovery process in networks. This technique automatically rejects unidirectional links in the Page Request broadcast stage itself and discoveries a bidirectional route in the first Page Reply broadcast attempt itself, if it exists. So, it reduces route discovery delay and other overheads.

4. MATHEMATICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF EMERGENCIES

In this module, explain about the data transmission rate between the ordinary cellular Network and Altered Cellular Network. Alter cellular network is a jointed with virtual private network. In ordinary cellular Network, the single message delivery time is 15 minutes. But, our altered cellular Network is take minimum time comparatively existing cellular network the first step in characterizing a cellular network during an emergency is determining delivery time. In particular, it is interested in understanding the minimum time required to deliver emergency messages. If this time is less than the goal of 10 minutes set forth in by the current public EAS policies and the WARN Act then such a system may indeed be possible.

However, if this goal cannot be met, current networks cannot be considered as good candidates for EAS message delivery Given that most sectors have a total of eight SDCCHs, that it takes approximately 4 seconds to deliver a text message in a GSM network and the information above, the GSM network serving the campus of Virginia Tech would require the following amount of time to deliver a single message to 15,000 recipients. When the contents of emergency messages are likely to exceed the 160 character limit of a single text message.

Conclusions

SMS messaging is now viewed by many as a reliable method of communication when all other means appear unavailable. In response to this perception, a number of companies offer SMS-based emergency messaging services. Touted as able to deliver critical information colleges, universities, and even municipalities hoping to coordinate and protect the physical security of the general public have spent tens of millions of dollars to install such systems. Unfortunately, these products will not work as advertised and provide a false sense of security to their users. In this paper, we explore the limitations of third-party Emergency Alert Systems (EAS). In particular, we show that because of the currently deployed cellular infrastructure, such systems will not be able to deliver a high volume of emergency messages in a short period of time. This identifies a key failure in a critical security incident response and recovery mechanism (the equivalent of finding weaknesses in techniques such as VM snapshots for rootkits and dynamic packet filtering rules for DDoS attacks) and demonstrates its inability to properly function during the security events for which it was ostensibly designed.

The fundamental misunderstanding of the requirements necessary to successfully deploy this piece of security infrastructure is likely to contribute to real-world, Virtual Private Path (VPP) is to create a virtual path from sender to receiver (mobile user) node and it is used to send the emergency alert message to mobile user within a short period time. Cross Layer on Demand Vector Routing enhance a simple technique based on cross layer design to handle route discovery process in networks. This technique automatically rejects unidirectional links in the Page Request broadcast stage itself and discoveries a bidirectional route in the first Page Reply broadcast attempt itself, if it exists. So, it reduces route discovery delay and other overheads.

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